Triangle crosshair where to aim

Aiming and shooting with optics, sights and reticles

Shooting isn't just about pulling the trigger, it's also about aiming properly - and hitting. In this post you will learn how you can best achieve this with the help of different sights.

Basics

Aiming aids have been around since firearms were around. Because if you can't aim a gun, you won't hit either - at least not at the usual distance and without a good dose of luck. Fortunately, in Arma we have a large number of aiming aids available, from classic rear sights and front sights through reflex sights and sniper optics to laser aiming aids. A distinction can be made between different techniques:

  • Laser pointer mark the target with a point that is clearly visible at a shorter distance. They enable precise shooting at close range and in virtually any weapon position, including from the hip.
  • Open sights are integrated on almost every firearm or can be attached modularly via rails. Usually it is Rear sight and front sight.
  • Reflex sights consist of a disc onto which a point of light or a similar aiming aid is projected, which always points in the target direction from every angle.
  • Target optics are mostly tubular lens systems that optically enlarge the target image. They are usually equipped with a reticle. Reticle or graticules reticle), also obsolete crosshairs, are markings in optics that offer various methods of aiming aid. These can be designed in different ways:
    • Reticle with MIL dots contain markings which can be used to calculate the target distance by converting the image size and which are also used for hit correction.
    • Reticle with Help to determine the distance have markings that can be used to determine the distance to the target based on predetermined height or latitude markings. They also contain markings for certain distances that must be placed over the target in order to hit it.

As Reticle is a mark in the telescope image that is used for aiming. In the case of military visors, these usually go beyond a mere “crosshair”.

A further distinction can be made according to the intended use:

  • Close Combat Optics (CCOs) are intended for use over short distances (approx. 100m) with shorter weapons.
  • Rifle Combat Optics (RCOs) are intended for use over medium distances (approx. 100–400m) with assault rifles.
  • Machine Gun Optics (MGOs) are used on machine guns and automatic rifles.
  • Marksman Scopes are optimized for the use of group snipers who need to be able to shoot with precision relatively quickly at medium distances (approx. 300–500m).
  • Sniper sights are intended for use with precision rifles at long distances (from approx. 500m), where the shooter has enough time to calculate the distance and the corresponding adjustments.
  • Optics on Rocket launchers are, who would have thought, there for rocket launchers.

Some target optics have for the Emergency or hand-to-hand combat In addition, a reflex sight or rear sight and front sight, as it can be problematic, especially at higher magnifications, to aim quickly at shorter distances while maintaining an overview. With the sights for Russian weapons of the Mod RHS it is also usually possible to continue to use the open sights of the weapon. If such possibilities exist, they are in the tables below in the column Backup listed.

The following are examples of aiming aids available in Arma 3 and through mods.

Open sights

The Rear sight is a half-open or closed round or angular "peephole" through which one can look. The grain is attached to the front of the barrel and must be aligned with the rear sight to hit a target behind the front sight.

In the case of long guns, the height the rear sight to adjustso that the correct flight path correction is made for different target distances. This possibility is usually not given with pistols, since they have a small effective range anyway.

The disadvantage is that the grain already has the Cover the target so far can make precise aiming extremely difficult. It is therefore advisable to set a higher distance and aim lower for it. This means that the target remains visible - and also the impacts of your own ammunition.

Reflex sights

At Reflex sights (also known as a collimator sight), a point or an image is projected onto a disk in such a way that it is always above the target even when the viewing angle is oblique. This helps when aiming in that the head does not have to be kept exactly behind the rear sight (which of course plays a subordinate role in Arma). However, it also offers other advantages:

  • The target point is always illuminatedso that it is easier to use at night or at dusk (whereas bright sunlight is annoying)
  • You can do it See the target behind the visor (different than when it is covered by a grain).
  • In some cases, similar to a reticle, there is multiple target points for different distances.
  • In other cases, the angle can be increased as with the rear sight different distances set (especially with the vanilla underflow grenade launchers).

Target optics with reticle for distance measurement

Means for distance measurement help either on the basis of width or height an object in the image of the rifle scope to estimate its distance. Common aiming aids are the following:

  • Horizontal lines or gaps in it that the Shoulder width correspond at a certain distance, or Triangleswhose base (lower side) corresponds to the shoulder width. They usually have a distance, which is usually given in steps of one hundred. To hit the target, the marker must be placed approximately over the middle of the target's body.
  • Scalesthat a given height (e.g. of a person) assign a certain distance at different distances. If the distance is known, a separate marker is used to target.
  • Circlesthat must be placed over the target in such a way that this fits in. The center of the circle is used for aiming.

Rifle Combat Optics

Type, modDataType of reticleBackupReticle (click enlarged)
RCO
(Vanilla)
Enlargement: 2x
Caliber: 6.5mm
Zero distance: 300m
Max. 1000m
Shoulder width (horizontal line),
Height (between the upper line and the 300m marker for 300m).
Reflex sight
ARCO
(Vanilla)
Enlargement: 2x
Caliber: 6.5mm
Zero distance: 300m
Max. 1000m
Shoulder width (horizontal line)
Triangle (base: 300m, tip: 100m),
Height (between the upper line and the 300m marker for 300m).
Reflex sight
MRCO
(Vanilla)
Enlargement: 1x, 2x
Caliber: 5.56mm
Zero distance: 300m
Max. 1000m
The reticle is identical to that of the ARCO except for the color.unavailable
ERCO
(Apex)
Enlargement: 2x
Caliber: 5.56mm
Zero distance: 300m
Max. 1000m
Shoulder width (horizontal line),
Horseshoe: shoulder width 100m in opening.
Reflex sight
M150 RCO, AN / PVQ-31A
(RHS, CUP)
Enlargement: 4x
Caliber: 5.56mm
Zero distance: 300m
Max. 800m
Shoulder width (horizontal line)
Triangle (base: 300m, tip: 100m)
look over it or reflex sight
SU-230 / PVS
(RHS)
Enlargement: 1x, 4x
Caliber: 5.56mm
Zero distance: 100m
Max. 1000m
Shoulder width (horizontal line up to 600m).Rear sight / front sight
SU-230A / PVS
(RHS)
Enlargement: 1x, 4x
Caliber: 7.62x51mm
Zero distance: 100m
Max. 1000m
Shoulder width (horizontal line up to 600m).Rear sight / front sight
G36 ZF
(HLC, BWA3)
Magnification: 3.5x
Caliber: 5.56mm
Zero distance: 200m
Max. 800m
Circle (1.75m at 400m),
Crosses for 400m, 600m, 800m.
Rear sight / front sight or reflex sight
AUGA1 ZF
(HLC)
Magnification: 1.5x
Caliber: 5.56mm
Zero distance: 300m
Max. 300m
Circle (height at 300m)Rear sight / front sight
1P78
(RHS)
Magnification: 2.8x
Caliber: 5.45mm
Zero distance: 400m
Max 700m
Shoulder width, unmarked (triangle 400m, 600m, 700m),
Height scale, unmarked (vertical lines, 400m - 700m).
Rear sight / front sight of the weapon

Marksman Scopes

Type, modDataType of reticleBackupReticle (click enlarged)
DMS
(Vanilla)
Enlargement: 2x, 4x
Caliber: 7.62x54mm
Zero distance: 400m
Max. 1000m
Height scale.Reflex sight
NVS
(Vanilla)
Magnification: 5x
Caliber: ??
Zero distance: 300m
Max. 600m
Night vision
Shoulder width (horizontal line: 400m, 600m)unavailable
1PN93-1
(RHS)
Magnification: 3.7x
Caliber: 7.62x54mm (SVD)
Zero distance: 400m
Max 700m
Night vision
Reticle same as 1P78.Rear sight / front sight of the weapon
PSO-1M2
(RHS)
Enlargement: 4x
Caliber: 7.62x54mm (SVD)
Zero distance: 400m
Max. 700m
Height scale,
Triangles for 400m, 500m, 600m, 700m.
Rear sight / front sight of the weapon
PSO-1M2-1
(RHS)
Magnification: 3.7x
Caliber: 9x39mm (AS VAL, VSS Vintorez)
Zero distance: 125m
Max. 400m
Night vision
Height scale,
Zeroing must be adjusted (25m steps).
Rear sight / front sight of the weapon

Machine Gun Optics

Type, modDataType of reticleBackupReticle (click enlarged)
M145 MGO
(RHS)
Enlargement: 4x
Caliber: 7.62x51mm
Zero distance: 100m
Max. 1000m
Gap for height of 1.5m,
Total height approx. 100m.
Look over it
SU-260P MDO
(RHS)
Magnification: 6x
Caliber: 7.62x51 (M240)
Zero distance: 100m
Max. 1200m
Shoulder width (black points: 100m, horseshoe opening: 200m, horizontal bars 400m, 500m)Reflex sight

Aiming aids for rocket launchers

Most missile launch aids are assumed to be average Length or height of an armored vehicle. With multiple projectors there are sometimes several scales for different ones Types of ammunition available. It should also be noted that the Sink rate a missile does not behave like that of a ballistic projectile, but is highest at the beginning while the missile is still slow, and then sinks when it accelerates.

Type, modDataType of reticleViewing modesReticle (click enlarged)
RPG-32 Barkas
(Vanilla)
50m to 500mGap for approx. Chassis length of a main battle tank.Normal, night vision
Panzerfaust 3
(BWA3)
50m to 400mGap for approx. Height / length of an IFV.Normal. With NSA 80 also night vision.
RGW 90
(BWA3)
50m to 400mGap for approx. Height / length of an IFV, height scale.Normal.
PGO7V, PGO7V2, PGO7V3 or 1PN93-2 for RPG-7V2
(RHS)
50m to 200m, 300m, 350m or 500m, depending on the grenade type.Height scale, height markings for different types of grenades.PGO7V, V2, V3: Normal.
1PN93-2: dessert.

Aiming optics with MIL sights

Mildot visors have dots or lines that are one mil apart. MIL stands for milliradians, i.e. the thousandth of a radiant, more precisely:. This unit is well suited for calculating distances because it can be calculated quickly. All you have to do is know how big the target is (in meters) and how big it appears in the image of the optics (in MIL). The following formula can then be used to calculate the distance:

For a person with an average height of 1.8 m, this corresponds to the simpler formula:

Sample calculation: A soldier appears to be 3 MIL in sight. We know that it must be about 1.8 m tall. So we calculate:

Mildot sights, however, usually do not have any aiming aid, but have to use a range spider (Range table) must be adjusted to the correct distance.

binoculars

The standard binoculars have a reticle with short lines (5 MIL) and long lines (10 MIL).

Marksman and sniper optics

Type, modenlargementReticleBackup
AMS
(Vanilla)
3x or 10xHalf line: ½ MIL. Whole line: 1 MIL.Reflex sight
Khalia
(Vanilla)
5x or 11xWhole line: 1 MIL.Rear sight / front sight (except "Khalia Old")
LRPS
(Vanilla)
6x or 25xPoint: 1 mil.unavailable
M8541
(RHS)
3x-12xPoint: 1 mil. Narrow line: 0.5 MIL. Long line: 5 MIL.unavailable
M8541A
(RHS)
3x-25xLike M8541. Also as a night version.unavailable
Mk4 ER / T M3
(RHS)
3.5x-10xPoint: 1 mil.unavailable
Mk4 ER / T M5
(RHS)
6.5x or 20xMIL marked with numbers, intermediate steps of 0.5 and 0.2 MIL.unavailable

Rocket launcher sights

Some missile launcher visors have a mildot visor, such as the SMAW. Because the combat distances are lower here, the sights usually only have a mark for every 5 or 10 mils. Most main battle tanks and armored personnel carriers are around 2.5 meters high. If you measure the height of the vehicle, the formula is:

The correct angle of fire is not estimated on the basis of the sight, but rather set on the thrower.