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Paulus Handbuch 9783161526657, 9783161500831, 9783161500824

Table of contents:
A. Orientation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
I. Aids (Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1. Paul representations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Commentaries on Paul's letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Monographs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
II. The Corpus Paulinum (Peter Arzt-Grabner). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6th
1. The textual historical finding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6th
2. The collection of the Corpus Paulinum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
III. Pauline research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Ferdinand Christian Baur (Christof Landmesser). . . . . . . . . 16
2. The School of Religious History (Reinhard von Bendemann). 19th
3. Rudolf Bultmann and his students (Reinhard von Bendemann) 24
4. "The New Perspective on Paul" and "The New View of Paul"
(Michael Bachmann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30th
5. Impulses from social history and the history of religion
(Manfred Lang). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
B. Person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
I. Problems of a biography of Paul (Udo Schnelle). . . . . . . . . . . 44
II. The pre-Christian Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1. Paul, a Diaspora Jew from Tarsus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.1. Name, origin, family (Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . . . . 49
1.2. Tarsian and Roman citizenship (Heike Omerzu). . . 55
1.3. The religious imprint: wisdom, apocalyptic,
Scripture interpretation (Jörg Frey). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
1.4. The cultural imprint: language, upbringing, education
(Tor Vegge). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2. Pharisees in Jerusalem (Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . . . . . . . . . 72
3. Persecutors of the Christian community (Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . 75
III. The calling and conversion to the Gentile missionary
(Bernd Kollmann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
1. Historical circumstances of the turning point at Damascus. . . . . . . . . 80
2. The theological significance of the turning point in Paul's life
before Damascus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3. Models of interpretation of the Damascus events. . . . . . . . . . . . 88
IV. Paul as a missionary to the Gentiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
1. Between Damascus and Antioch (Wolfgang Kraus). . . . . 91
2. The first missionary journey (Cilliers Breytenbach). . . . . . . . . . . 98
3. The Apostles' Convention and the Antiochene Conflict
(Christfried Böttrich). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4. The second and third missionary journeys (Joseph Verheyden). . . . . . 109
5. The collection for the Jerusalem community
(Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
V. The end of Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
1. The Trial of Paul (Heike Omerzu). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
2. Conviction or release and renewed mission
(Jens Herzer). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
VI. The person of Paul (Eve-Marie Becker). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
C. Plant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
I. The letters of Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
1. Epistolographic basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
1.1. Paul as a letter writer. From the sender to the recipient
(Stefan Schreiber). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
1.2. Form and genre of the Pauline letters
(Eve-Marie Becker). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
1.3. Rhetoric and argumentation (Peter Lampe). . . . . . . . . 149
1.4. The chronology of the Pauline letters (Stefan Schreiber). 158
2. The authentic letters of Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
2.1. First Thessalonians (Christof Landmesser). . . . . . 165
2.2. First letter to the Corinthians (Peter Lampe). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
2.3. Second letter to the Corinthians (Thomas Schmeller). . . . . . . . . 185
2.4. Galatian Letter (Dieter Singer). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
2.5. Philippians letter (Hermut Löhr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
2.6. Philemon letter (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
2.7. Letter to the Romans (Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
II. Mission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
1. The beginnings of the mission and the self-image
of Paul as the apostle of the Gentiles (Wolfgang Kraus). . . . . . . 227
2. House churches and urban Christianity (Christian Strecker). 238
3. Staff members of Paul (Markus Öhler). . 243
4. Opponent of the Pauline mission (Wilhelm Pratscher). . . . . . 257
5. The logistics of the Pauline mission (Christian Strecker). . . . 266
5.1. Mission in the Roman Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
5.2. Mission journeys - mission paths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
5.3. Mission modalities and strategies. . . . . . . . . . . 270
5.4. Work, maintenance, accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
III. Theological issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
1. Methodological problems of the (re) construction of theology
from the letters received (Udo Schnelle). . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
2. Jesus Christ as the center of thought. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
2.1. The relationship to the earthly Jesus and to
Jesus tradition (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
2.2. Passion and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Jens Herzer). . . . 285
2.3. Christological Highness Title (David du Toit). . . . . . . . . 294
2.4. The Parousia of Kyrios (Bernhard Heininger). . . . . . . . . 299
2.5. Christ community - Christ mysticism
(Reinhard von Bendemann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
3. Christological theology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
3.1. Monotheism and Christology (Reinhard Feldmeier). . . 309
3.2. Theology of the Cross (Matthias Konradt). . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
3.3. Interpretations of the death of Christ (Cilliers Breytenbach). . 321
3.4. Baptism as participation in Christ (Udo Schnelle). . . . . . . . 332
3.5. The Gospel (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
3.6. Faith / Faith in Christ (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . 342
3.7. The doctrine of justification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
3.7.1. The mission theological background
(Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
3.7.2. Old Testament Jewish building blocks
(Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
3.7.3. The anthropological universalization
(Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
3.7.4. Law / Works of the Law (Michael Wolter). . . . . 358
3.8. Christ - End of the Law (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . 362
4. Anthropology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
4.1. The sin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
4.1.1. Jews and Gentiles under sin (Rom 1.18-3.20)
(Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
4.1.2. Adam - Christ (Rom 5) (Martin Meiser). . . . . . 369
4.1.3. Man in contradiction (Rom 7)
(Thomas Söding). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
4.1.4. Torah - Sin - Death (Thomas Söding). . . . . . . . . 374
4.2. Corporeality, corporeality, sexuality, man and woman
(Ruben Zimmermann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
4.3. Self-image, worldview, demonology
(Christfried Böttrich). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
4.4. New creation and filiation with God (Ulrich Mell). . . . . 390
4.5. Freedom (Samuel Vollenweider). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
5. The Church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
5.1. Ecclesiological predicates (Wolfgang Kraus). . . . . . . . 400
5.2. Ecclesiological conceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
5.2.1. Offices (Jörg Frey). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
5.2.2. Ecclesiological metaphors in the Pauline ones
Letters (Christine Gerber). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412
5.2.3. The apostolic understanding and the relationship
of apostles and churches to one another
(Christine Gerber). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
5.3. The gift of the Spirit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
5.3.1. Charisms (Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
5.3.2. Pauline Spirituality (Samuel Vollenweider). . . 422
5.4. Last Supper (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
5.5. The ethics of the church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
5.5.1. Norms, justifications, structures,
Argumentation (Ruben Zimmermann). . . . . . . . 433
5.5.2. On the peculiarity of Pauline ethics (Hermut Löhr). . . 440
5.5.3. The relationship to the Torah (Martin Meiser). . . . . . . 444
5.5.4. Love (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
5.6. The relationship of the church to Israel (Dieter Sänger). . . . . 453
6. Hope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
6.1. The resurrection of the dead (Christfried Böttrich). . . . . . 461
6.2. Judgment and grace (Jörg Frey). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
IV. Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
1. Text references in the work of Paul (Florian Wilk). . . . . . . . . 479
2. Hellenistic-Jewish theology (Manuel Vogel). . . . . . . . . 491
3. Building blocks from early Christian theology (Markus Öhler). . . . 497
4. Changes in Pauline thinking (Paul synopsis)
(Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
5. Contingency and Coherence (Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . 512
D. Effect and reception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
I. The Pauline School and Theological Development
in the Deuteropaulin letters (Jens Herzer). . . . . . . . . . . 520
II. Deutero and Tritopaulin letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
1. Pseudepigraphy and pseudepistolography (Jens Herzer). . . . . 523
2. Colossians (Peter Müller). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
3. Letter to the Ephesians (Rudolf Hoppe). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
4. Second Thessalonians (Christof Landmesser). . . . . . . . 535
5. The pastoral letters (Jens Herzer). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538
III. The Paul representation of the Acts of the Apostles (Jens Schröter). . . . . 542
IV. Anti-Paulinism and Paulinism in the New Testament
Literature (Matthias Konradt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
V. Paul in the apocryphal acts of the apostles (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . 557
VI. Markion (Winrich Löhr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
VII. The correspondence between Paulus and Seneca (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . 563
VIII. Pauline apocalypses (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
IX. Archaeological and iconographic evidence
the early veneration of Paul (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Directory of authors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
List of figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
Put . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642
Places . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
Research history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
Stuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644

Citation preview

Paul's manual

Paul's Handbook edited by

Friedrich W. Horn

Mohr Siebeck

The theologian handbooks at Verlag Mohr Siebeck are published by

Albrecht pouch

e-ISBN PDF 978-3-16-152665-7 ISBN 978-3-16-150083-1 (linen) ISBN ISBN 978-3-16-150082-4 (paperback) The German National Library lists this publication in the German National bibliography; detailed bibliographical data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.dnb.de. © 2013 Mohr Siebeck Tübingen. www.mohr.de The work, including all of its parts, is protected by copyright. Any use outside the narrow limits of copyright law without the consent of the publisher is inadmissible and punishable by law. This applies in particular to reproductions, translations, microfilming and storage and processing in electronic systems. The book was set from Minion Pro and Syntax by Gulde-Druck in Tübingen, printed on age-resistant printing paper and bound by the Spinner bookbinder in Ottersweier. Uli Gleis in Tübingen designed the cover using a photo of the Paulus Grotto in Ephesus by N. Gail / ÖAI.

Foreword Paul became the founder of a Christian theology in order to take up a famous vote by Rudolf Bultmann from his theology of the New Testament. It goes without saying that Paul as such belongs in the series of theological handbooks. Today we look back on a moving research history that began with Ferdinand Christian Baur in the middle of the 19th century and we are currently in a relatively open, internationally operated research situation determined with highly divergent approaches. The interest in Paul relates not exclusively and primarily to his theology, but also to the person, the missionary traveling the Imperium Romanum, the Pharisee Jew and the Diaspora Jew, the Roman citizen, the ethicist, the letter writer and rhetorician as well as the position of the Apostle in emerging Christianity and its relationship with other apostles. The great epochs of the last century - the religious history school, the keryg matheology of Rudolf Bultmann and his students, and the ›New Perspective on Paul‹ - are by no means out of date. Research is always committed to your questions and results, even if some theses have meanwhile proven to be untenable. However, a reduction of the retrospective exclusively to these three epochs would be misleading, be it in agreement or in critical continuation. In addition, there have always been individual researchers, approaches and questions that cannot be attributed to these epochs or were even critical of them, but who have contributed essential and in part fundamental to Paul’s research. I am thinking here of Adolf Schlatter and Martin Hengel, for example, but also of a number of theologians in the Anglo-American language area whose works are not always sufficiently known and appreciated. Basic conceptual historical contributions can still be found in the ten-volume Theological Dictionary for the New Testament (ThWNT), which appeared between 1933 and 1978. Of course, reference should also be made to the strengthening of Roman Catholic research on Paul since Vatican II, the fruit of which can mainly be seen in exegetical comments. Part of the approach of current Paul’s exegesis is that, in a three-step process, the life of the apostle, his letters and his theology, i.e. the person and his work, are given equal consideration and that an overall picture emerges from the synopsis of these aspects. In order to clarify this approach, his knowledge of leading interests and a few results in advance, reference is made to the following aspects as an example: With regard to the life of the apostle, recent research has drawn attention to the persistent Jewish underground, which is expressed above all in the use of scriptures. A decisive upheaval occurred within the ›New Perspective on Paul‹: Paul stands

VI

Preface

no longer opposed to Judaism, but practiced theology as a Jew who believes in Christ. Who is this person and how is his personality to be determined? What characterizes the former Pharisee, the Diaspora Jew from Tarsus, the Roman citizen Paul? The realities of his mission are currently attracting increased attention: travel routes, employees, letter forms, maintenance, but also the cultural conditions in the individual cities that he traveled as a missionary. Paul unfolds his theological thinking in conversation and in dealing with his tradition, with his colleagues named in the prescripts of the letters, in conversation with his congregations and in biting polemics against oppressive opponents, but also in the most precise possible perception of religiosity and culture of the cities and landscapes of its communities. Neither the vocation to Damascus nor the letter to the Romans, which is impressive in terms of clarity and theological depth, offer comprehensive access to Paul, to his self-understanding and to his thinking. Often one has to follow Paul's path of thought spanning several letters in order to understand his search for an answer to a question or his position on a subject. Paul's letters seldom fall back on clear theological beliefs. Rather, they are the document of theological work on the way to a Christian theology.Precisely the doctrine of justification, which for a long time dominated research as the so-called center of Paul's theology, can only be adequately understood if one takes its mission-historical starting point, understands it as an interpretation of the gospel, its antithesis to works of the law on the one hand and the testimony of the On the other hand, keeping the Old Testament in view and considering the final anthropological deepening under sin and law and simultaneous reference to the election of Israel. The authentic and the pseudepigraphic letters of Paul are not only to be read in the context of the composition situation, but also against the background of ancient epistolography and rhetoric. Reconstruction work is required, but it is primarily a constructive task for exegesis to draft a theology of Paul on the basis of all presumably authentic letters and taking into account the life of the apostle. At present the idea of ​​a participatory Christology seems to be the guiding principle for this. In this handbook, these aspects, namely life, letters and theology, divided into large sections on person and work, represent the main focus of the handbook. They are framed on the one hand by an introductory orientation about the text and the collection of the Corpus Paulinum and by a representation the research history that began with Ferdinand Christian Baur and extends to the present day. On the other hand, the effect and reception of Paul in the pseudepigraphic writings as well as an outlook on the apocryphal Paul tradition and the immediate history of impact up to Marcion are offered.

Preface

VII

The 28th edition of the Novum Testamentum Graece was only published in September 2012 after the work on the Paulus Handbuch was completed. All contributors have still worked with the 27th edition. Since the Editio Critica Maior is not yet available for the Pauline letters, the text of the 28th edition in the Pauline part corresponds to that of the 27th edition. The selection of permanent witnesses in the critical apparatus has remained essentially the same in both editions. A thorough reading of the manual will introduce the readership to a broad research landscape, perhaps new and unusual for some in its ancient historical, epistolographic, cultural and social-historical issues, but also to a research landscape that is not balanced or consistent in all points. Authors who are identified in the respective research fields and who should freely present their research results at the respective point in the manual were won as contributors. This probably results in different perspectives in individual cases, for example in questions of chronology or the evaluation and weighting of individual text passages. However, this procedure is intentional, as it takes the readership with it into current research and does not pretend to want to present a closed view with this manual. I would like to thank all contributors for their constructive collaboration on this Paulus Handbook. In the past few years, Jutta Nennstiel has done the electronic recording of all articles, the correction work in several correction processes and the editorial work up to the preparation of the print template and has exercised great care and caution in all of this. As the editor, I last spoke of our book together in deep gratitude to her. In any case, without their work, the Paulus Handbuch could not have appeared like this. Mainz, October 2012

Friedrich W. Horn

Table of contents A. Orientation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

I. Aids (Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Representations of Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Commentaries on Paul's letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Monographs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5



II. The Corpus Paulinum (Peter Arzt-Grabner). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. The textual historical findings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. The collection of the Corpus Paulinum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

III. Pauline research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1. 2. 3. 4.

Ferdinand Christian Baur (Christof Landmesser). . . . . . . . . 16 The School of Religious History (Reinhard von Bendemann). 19 Rudolf Bultmann and his students (Reinhard von Bendemann) 24 “The New Perspective on Paul” and “The New View of Paul” (Michael Bachmann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5. Impulses from social history and the history of religion (Manfred Lang). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 B. Person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

I. Problems of a biography of Paul (Udo Schnelle). . . . . . . . . . . 44



II. The pre-Christian Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 1. Paul, a Diaspora Jew from Tarsus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 1.1. Name, origin, family (Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . . . . 49 1.2. Tarsian and Roman citizenship (Heike Omerzu). . . 55 1.3. The religious imprint: wisdom, apocalyptic, scriptural interpretation (Jörg Frey). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 1.4. The cultural imprint: language, upbringing, education (Tor Vegge). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 2nd Pharisee in Jerusalem (Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . . . . . . . . . 72 3. Persecutors of the Christian community (Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . 75

III. The calling and conversion to the Gentile missionary (Bernd Kollmann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 1. Historical circumstances of the change in Damascus. . . . . . . . . 80 2. The theological significance of the turning point in Paul's life before Damascus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

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3. Models of interpretation of the Damascus events. . . . . . . . . . . . 88 IV. Paul as a missionary to the Gentiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 1. Between Damascus and Antioch (Wolfgang Kraus). . . . . 91 2. The first missionary journey (Cilliers Breytenbach). . . . . . . . . . . 98 3. The Apostles' Convention and the Antiochian Conflict (Christfried Böttrich). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4. The second and third missionary journeys (Joseph Verheyden). . . . . . 109 5. The collection for the Jerusalem community (Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

V. The end of Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 1. The Trial of Paul (Heike Omerzu). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 2. Conviction or release and renewed mission (Jens Herzer). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

VI. The person of Paul (Eve-Marie Becker). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 C. Plant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

I. The letters of Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 1. Epistolographic Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 1.1. Paul as a letter writer. From the sender to the addressee (Stefan Schreiber). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 1.2. Form and genre of the Pauline letters (Eve-Marie Becker). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 1.3. Rhetoric and argumentation (Peter Lampe). . . . . . . . . 149 1.4. The chronology of the Pauline letters (Stefan Schreiber). 158 2. The authentic letters of Paul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 2.1. First Thessalonians (Christof Landmesser). . . . . . 165 2.2. First letter to the Corinthians (Peter Lampe). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 2.3. Second letter to the Corinthians (Thomas Schmeller). . . . . . . . . 185 2.4. Galatian Letter (Dieter Singer). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 2.5. Philippians letter (Hermut Löhr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 2.6. Philemon letter (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 2.7. Letter to the Romans (Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213



II. Mission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 1. The beginnings of the mission and the self-image of Paul as apostle of the Gentiles (Wolfgang Kraus). . . . . . . 227 2. House churches and urban Christianity (Christian Strecker). 238 3. Colleagues of Paul (Markus Öhler). . 243 4. Opponent of the Pauline mission (Wilhelm Pratscher). . . . . . 257

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5. The logistics of the Pauline mission (Christian Strecker). . . . 266 5.1. Mission in the Roman Empire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 5.2. Mission journeys - mission paths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 5.3. Mission modalities and strategies. . . . . . . . . . . 270 5.4. Work, maintenance, accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 III. Theological issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 1. Methodological problems of the (re) construction of theology from the received letters (Udo Schnelle). . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 2. Jesus Christ as the center of thought. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 2.1. The relationship to earthly Jesus and to Jesus tradition (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 2.2. Passion and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Jens Herzer). . . . 285 2.3. Christological Highness Title (David du Toit). . . . . . . . . 294 2.4. The Parousia of Kyrios (Bernhard Heininger). . . . . . . . . 299 2.5. Christ community - Christ mysticism (Reinhard von Bendemann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 3. Christological Theology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 3.1. Monotheism and Christology (Reinhard Feldmeier). . . 309 3.2. Theology of the Cross (Matthias Konradt). . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 3.3. Interpretations of the death of Christ (Cilliers Breytenbach). . 321 3.4. Baptism as participation in Christ (Udo Schnelle). . . . . . . . 332 3.5. The Gospel (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 3.6. Faith / Faith in Christ (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . 342 3.7. The doctrine of justification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 3.7.1. The mission theological background (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 3.7.2. Old Testament Jewish building blocks (Karl-Wilhelm Niebuhr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 3.7.3. The anthropological universalization (Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 3.7.4. Law / Works of the Law (Michael Wolter). . . . . 358 3.8. Christ - End of the Law (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . 362 4. Anthropology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 4.1. The sin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 4.1.1. Jews and Gentiles under sin (Rom. 1.18-3.20) (Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 4.1.2. Adam - Christ (Rom 5) (Martin Meiser). . . . . . 369 4.1.3. Man in contradiction (Rom 7) (Thomas Söding). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 4.1.4. Torah - Sin - Death (Thomas Söding). . . . . . . . . 374 4.2. Corporeality, corporeality, sexuality, man and woman (Ruben Zimmermann). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

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4.3. Self-image, worldview, demonology (Christfried Böttrich). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 4.4. New creation and filiation with God (Ulrich Mell). . . . . 390 4.5. Freedom (Samuel Vollenweider). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 5. The Church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 5.1. Ecclesiological predicates (Wolfgang Kraus). . . . . . . . 400 5.2. Ecclesiological conceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 5.2.1. Offices (Jörg Frey). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 5.2.2. Ecclesiological metaphors in the Pauline letters (Christine Gerber). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 5.2.3. The understanding of the apostolate and the relationship between apostles and congregations (Christine Gerber). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 5.3. The gift of the Spirit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 5.3.1. Charisms (Friedrich W. Horn). . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 5.3.2. Pauline Spirituality (Samuel Vollenweider). . . 422 5.4. Last Supper (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 5.5. The ethics of the church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 5.5.1. Norms, justifications, structures, reasoning (Ruben Zimmermann). . . . . . . . 433 5.5.2. On the peculiarity of Pauline ethics (Hermut Löhr). . . 440 5.5.3. The relationship to the Torah (Martin Meiser). . . . . . . 444 5.5.4. Love (Michael Wolter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 5.6. The relationship of the church to Israel (Dieter Sänger). . . . . 453 6. Hope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 6.1. The resurrection of the dead (Christfried Böttrich). . . . . . 461 6.2. Judgment and grace (Jörg Frey). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471 IV. Structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 1st 2nd 3rd 4th

Text references in the work of Paul (Florian Wilk). . . . . . . . . 479 Hellenistic-Jewish theology (Manuel Vogel). . . . . . . . . 491 building blocks from early Christian theology (Markus Öhler). . . . 497 Changes in Pauline thinking (Paul synopsis) (Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 5. Contingency and Coherence (Michael Theobald). . . . . . . . . . 512 D. Effect and reception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 I. The Pauline School and the theological development in the Deuteropaulinic letters (Jens Herzer). . . . . . . . . . . 520

II. Deutero and Tritopaulin letters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 1. Pseudepigraphy and pseudepistolography (Jens Herzer). . . . . 523

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2. Colossians (Peter Müller). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 3rd Letter to the Ephesians (Rudolf Hoppe). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529 4. Second Letter to Thessalonians (Christof Landmesser). . . . . . . . 535 5. The Pastoral Letters (Jens Herzer). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 538 III. The Paul representation of the Acts of the Apostles (Jens Schröter). . . . . 542 IV. Anti-Paulinism and Paulinism in New Testament literature (Matthias Konradt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552

V. Paul in the apocryphal acts of the apostles (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . 557

VI. Markion (Winrich Löhr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560 VII. The correspondence between Paul and Seneca (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . 563 VIII. Pauline Apocalypses (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565 IX. Archaeological and iconographic evidence of the early veneration of Paul (Jens Schröter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568

Directory of authors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 positions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635 names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642 places. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 History of Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644 things. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644

Abbreviations As a rule, the abbreviations are based on the list of abbreviations in RGG4 I, Tübingen 1998, XX – LIV or the UTB volume Abbreviations Theology and Religious Studies according to RGG4, Tübingen 2007. In addition, the following abbreviations are used: Act.Thecl. Acta Pauli et Theclae Act.Ver. Actus Vercellensis Apul.met. Apuleius, Metamorphoses Arist.rhet. Aristotle, rhetorica ad Alexandrum Athen.deipn. Athenaios, Deipnosophistai Augustinus Joh.tract. Augustine, In Ioannis evangelium tractatus Barnabas letter, Subscriptio Barn.subscr. Cass.Dio Cassius Dio Cic.ad Q.fr. Cicero, ad Quintum fratrem Cic.Att. Cicero, ad Atticum Cic.fam. Cicero, epistulae ad familiares Cic.inv. Cicero, de inventione Cic.orat. Cicero, de oratore Cic.part. Cicero, partitiones oratoriae Cic. Phil. Cicero, Philippica Cic.Rab. Cicero, pro Rabirio Cicero, Tusculanae disputationes Cic.Tusc. Cic.Verr. Cicero, in Verrem Corp. Herm. Corpus Hermeticum Demost.or. Demosthenes, orationes Dig. Digest DioChrys. Dio Chrysostom DioChrys.or. Dio Chrysostom, orationes Diod.S. Diodorus Siculus Dion.Halikarn.ant.rom. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, antiquitates romanae DJD Discoveries in the Judaean Desert Epict.diss. Epictetus, dissertationes Epiph.Pan. Epiphanius, panarion Eunap.vit.soph. Eunapius, vitae sophistarum Flav.Jos.Vit. Flavius ​​Josephus, Vita Horaz, de arte poetica Hor.art.poet. Hor.sat. Horace, Satires I. Cod. Corpus Iuris Civilis, Codex Iustinianus Isok.panathen. Isokrates, Panathenaikos IvPergamon Inscriptions from Pergamon Juvenal Sat. Juvenal, Satiren Monumenta Asiae minoris Antiqua MAMA mJod. Mishnah, treatise Jodaim mKel. Mishnah, treatise Kelim Orph.fr. Orphics, fragments

XVI OrSib PapMur. Philo fug. Plato Ion Plato symp. Plin.ep. PLond. Plut.Caes. Plut.Camill. Plut.Demetrius Plut.Otho Plut.Timoleon PMich.Inv. POxy. PSI Ps.Plut.mor. Quint. Inst. Suet.Gal. Tac.ann. Tac.hist. Theon progym. TZrGerim

Abbreviations

Oracula Sibyllina Papyrus Murrabat Philo, de fuga et inventione Platon, Ion Platon, symposion Plinius, epistulae Papyrus London Plutarch, de Caesare Plutarch, Camillus Plutarch, Demetrius Plutarch, Otho Plutarch, Timoleon Papyrus Michigan Inv. Papyri Oxyrhynchos Pubblicazioni della Società Italiana per la ricerca dei papiri greci e latini in Egitto Pseudo-Plutarch, moralia Quintilianus, institutio oratoria Sueton, Galba Tacitus, annales Tacitus, historiae Ailios Theon, progymnasmata Talimmud

A. Orientation

2

A. Orientation

I. Aids Access to Paul opens up through intensive study of the Greek text of the authentic letters that have been received. The apostle's thinking finds its clearest and deepest expression in the letter to the Romans, probably Paul's last letter. However, the theology presented here is not in all parts at the beginning of Paul's new convictions, but is rather the result of many years of thought and missionary work. Therefore, according to a majority view, the study of Paul will start from the 1st Letter to the Thessalonians, proceed via the 1st and 2nd Corinthians, the Galatians, Philippians and Philemon to Romans, although the precise classification and the relationship of the last five letters to one another is thoroughly disputed are. These letters are part of a richer, but no longer fully preserved, correspondence between the apostle and his congregations, which dates back to the last decade of his activity. They only open up a certain segment of Paul's life and theology. In Luke's Acts of the Apostles, the portrayal of Paul, from his activity as a persecutor, through his calling and mission to the trial in Rome, takes up far more than half of the work, and it spans another time with regard to Paul Frame than the letters do. The accompanying reading of the Acts of the Apostles is an indispensable task, regardless of whether one sees in the author of this work at least a companion of Paul or whether one allows him to be based entirely on traditions and reports about Paul.The Deuteropaulin letters have a very difficult relationship with Paul. As pseudepigraphic writings, they already open up the broad field of Paul’s reception, which is continued in other apocryphal texts. Nonetheless, all of the last-mentioned text groups (Acts of the Apostles, Deuteropaulinic letters, Apocrypha) also offer essential building blocks for the historical image of Paul and for the theology of the Apostle. The resources for studying Paul can be divided into different groups in terms of scientific literature. 1. Paul representations 1.1. Pauline Books

Monographs on Paul usually look at the life, letters, and theology of the apostle. In almost every epoch in the recent history of theology, such works were written from a specific perspective, some of which are essential here in chronological order:

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Clemen, Carl: Paul. His life and work (2 vols.), Gießen 1904. Weinel, Heinrich: Paulus. Man and his work. The beginnings of Christianity, the church and dogma, Tübingen 1904. Wrede, William: Paulus (RV I, 5/6), Tübingen 1904. 21907. Deissmann, Adolf: Paulus. A study of the history of culture and religion, Tübingen 1911. 2 1925. Dobschütz, Ernst von: The Apostle Paulus, Halle 1926. Feine, Paul: The Apostle Paulus (BFChTh II / 12), Gütersloh 1927. Dibelius, Martin / Kümmel, Werner Georg : Paulus, Berlin 1951. 41970. Bornkamm, Günther: Paulus, Stuttgart 1969. 72008. Ben-Chorin, Schalom: Paulus. The apostle of the peoples in a Jewish perspective, Munich 1970. Kuss, Otto: Paulus, Regensburg 1971. 21976. Becker, Jürgen: Paulus. The Apostle of the Nations, Tübingen 1989. 31998. Sanders, Ed P .: Paulus. An introduction. Translated from English by E. Schöller, Stuttgart 1995. Gnilka, Joachim: Paulus von Tarsus (HThK.S VI), Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 1996/1999. Lohse, Eduard: Paulus. Eine Biographie, Munich 1996. 22009. Dunn, James DG: The Theology of Paul the Apostle, Grand Rapids / Cambridge 1998. Lüdemann, Gerd: Paulus, the founder of Christianity, Lüneburg 2001. Berger, Klaus: Paulus, Munich 2002. 22005 Schnell, Udo: Paulus. Living and thinking, Berlin / New York 2003. Reinmuth, Eckart: Paulus. Rethinking God (Biblische Gestalten 9), Leipzig 2004. Wolter, Michael: Paulus: Ein Grundriss seine Theologie, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2011. 1.2. Lexicon article on Paul

Zahn, Theodor: Art. Paulus, der Apostel, RE3 15, 1904, 61–88. Bousset, Wilhelm: Art. Paulus, Apostel, RGG1 IV, 1913, 1276–1309. Bultmann, Rudolf: Art. Paulus, RGG2 IV, 1930, 1019-1045. Bornkamm, Günther: Art. Paulus, RGG3 V, 1961, 166–190. Schnackenburg, Rudolf: Art. Paulus, LThK2 8, 1963, 216–228. Roloff, Jürgen: Art. Paulus, EKL3 3, 1992, 1008-1097. Betz, Hans Dieter: Art. Paul, ABD 5, 1992, 1088-1097. Hübner, Hans: Art. Paulus I, TRE 26, 1996, 133–153. Merklein, Helmut: Art. Paulus, LThK3 7, 1998, 1494–1505. Räisänen, Heikki: Art. Paul, DBI II, 1999, 247-253. Stegemann, Ekkehard: Art. Paulus, DNP 9, 2000, 432-439. Limbeck, Meinrad: Art. Paulus, NBL III, 2001, 87-104. Betz, Otto / Merk, Otto: Art. Paulus, CB 2, 2003, 1016-1029. Vollenweider, Samuel: Art. Paulus I, RGG4 VI, 2003, 1035-1054. Horn, Friedrich W .: Art. Paulus, TRT5 3, 2008, 911–916.

2. Comments on the letters of Paul The establishment of different series of comments with continuous commentary on all New Testament writings is a characteristic of the im

4

A. Orientation

Historical-critical exegesis beginning in the 19th century. While the commentaries originally focused on the text-critical and literary-critical development of the letters of Paul, depending on the direction of the commentary series, questions related to the history of religion and theological were added. After the opening of the Catholic Church to critical biblical studies after Vatican II and the increasing ecumenical orientation of exegetical work, questions of the history of interpretation and reception became important and integrated into the commentaries. In recent research, various rhetorical and socio-historical questions were added. Only individual comments on Paul's letters, the results of which were fundamental for research, are to be addressed here. Several classics from the KEK were reprinted in the 1970s. They lead back to the heyday of historical-critical exegesis, in which philological erudition, literary criticism and comparison of the history of religion dominated. These are the commentary on the 1st Corinthians by Johannes Weiß (Weiss 1910; 1st reprint 1970; 2nd reprint 1977), the commentary on the 2nd Corinthians by Hans Windisch (Windisch 1924; reprint 1970) and the commentary on the Letters to Thessalonica from Ernst von Dobschütz (von Dobschütz 1909; reprint 1974). In the HNT, Hans Lietzmann had submitted the comments on the Letter to the Romans, the Letter to the Corinthians and the Letter to the Galatians, as well as Martin Dibelius on the Letter to the Thessalonians, the Letter to the Philippians and the Letter to Philemon. In new editions, these comments were also always adapted to the ongoing discussion and, after the death of the authors, were partially supplemented and continued. The first delivery of the commentary on Romans by Hans Lietzmann appeared in 1906, a 5th edition again in 1971, as well as a 5th edition on the Corinthians in 1969. These comments from the CEC and the HNT made the Pauline exegesis a brilliant one scientific level and were therefore consistently decisive in the 20th century. In addition to these leading Protestant commentary series, an ecumenical commentary with editors and editors from the Catholic and Protestant denominations has appeared with the EKK since 1975, the orientation of which was determined in a working group in 1968 on the following principles: The commentary should be the result of a technical discussion. The importance of the Old Testament for the New Testament should be given special consideration, and the commentary should, without prejudice to its historical-critical approach, be oriented towards the congregation and the proclamation. Among the comments on the letters of Paul, the three or four-volume versions of the letter to the Romans by Ulrich Wilckens (Wilckens 1978–1982) and the first letter to the Corinthians by Wolfgang Schrage (Schrage 1991–2001) should be mentioned in particular. Both commentaries are characterized by a comprehensive processing of the exegetical questions, and they also give the theological history of both letters considerable space.

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Galatian's commentary by Hans Dieter Betz, published in 1979 in the Hermeneia series, opened and established the rhetorical interpretation of New Testament letter literature. The commentary on the Letter to the Romans by Robert Jewett, published in the same series in 2007, follows this tradition and is also committed to rhetorical criticism, sociological analysis and cultural-anthropological criticism. Each of the leading commentary series (AncB, EKK, HNT, HThK, ICC, KEK, ÖTK, ThHK, WBC) offers extensive and excellent commentary on Paul's letters, even if not all series can look back on an up-to-date commentary on every letter. 3. Monographs The following new introductions to the theology, life and work of Paul should be mentioned in addition to the Paulus books already mentioned: Schelkle, Karl Hermann: Paulus. Life - Letters - Theology (EdF 152), Darmstadt 1981. Dunn, James DG (ed.): The Cambridge Companion to St. Paul, Cambridge 2003. Dettwiler, Andreas / Kaestli, Jean-Daniel / Marguerat, Daniel (direction): Paul, une théologie en construction, Genève 2004. Wischmeyer, Oda (ed.): Paulus. Life - Environment - Work - Letters, Tübingen, 2006. 22012.

There are sections in the theologies of the New Testament that deal comprehensively with the theology and work of Paul. Particular reference should be made to: Stuhlmacher, Peter: Biblical Theology of the New Testament. Volume I, Göttingen 1992, 221– 392. Conzelmann, Hans: Outline of the Theology of the New Testament, Munich 1967; since the 4th edition edited by Andreas Lindemann, Tübingen 51992, 163-320. Hübner, Hans: Biblical Theology of the New Testament. Volume 2, Göttingen 1993. Berger, Klaus: Theologiegeschichte des Urchristentums. Theology of the New Testament, Tübingen and Basel 1994, 434-510. 21995, 472-556. Gnilka, Joachim: Theology of the New Testament (HThK.S V), Freiburg 1994, 16–132. Strecker, Georg: Theology of the New Testament. Edit., Add. And ed. by Friedrich W. Horn, Berlin / New York 1996, 11–229. Hahn, Ferdinand: Theology of the New Testament I, Tübingen 2002, 179–329. Wilckens, Ulrich: Theology of the New Testament I: History of early Christian theology; 3: The letters of early Christianity: Paul and his students, theologians from the field of Jewish Christian heathen missions, Neukirchen-Vluyn 2005. Schnelle, Udo: Theologie des Neuen Testament, Göttingen 2007, 181–334.

With regard to the life of Paul, the following should be mentioned: Lüdemann, Gerd: Paulus, the Heidenapostel I: Studies on Chronology (FRLANT 123), Göttingen 1980. Hengel, Martin: Der vorchristliche Paulus, in: Ders./Heckel, Ulrich (Hg .): Paulus and ancient Judaism (WUNT 58), Tübingen 1991, 177–291.

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A. Orientation

Riesner, Rainer: The early days of the apostle Paul. Studies on chronology, mission strategy and theology (WUNT 71), Tübingen 1994. Haacker, Klaus: Paulus. The career of an apostle (SBS 171), Stuttgart 1997. Hengel, Martin / Schwemer, Anna Maria: Paulus between Damascus and Antioch. The unknown year of the apostle. With a contribution by Ernst Axel Knauf (WUNT 108), Tübingen 1998. Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm (ed.): Das Ende des Paulus. Historical, theological and literary-historical aspects (BZNW 106), Berlin / New York 2001. Omerzu, Heike: The process of Paulus. An exegetical and legal historical study of the Acts of the Apostles (BZNW 115), Berlin / New York 2002. Murphy-O’Connor, Jerome: Paul. His Story, Oxford 2004.

Present the current introductory scientific status for the individual letters: Schnelle, Udo: Introduction to the New Testament, Göttingen 72011, 31–172. Ebner, Martin / Schreiber, Stefan (ed.): Introduction to the New Testament (KStTh 6), Stuttgart 2008, 250–407. Broer, Ingo, in connection with Hans-Ulrich Weidemann: Introduction to the New Testament, Würzburg 32010, 263-593.

Research reports Schweitzer, Albert: History of Pauline Research, Tübingen 1911. 21933. Feine, Paul: The Apostle Paulus (BFChTh II / 12), Gütersloh 1927. Hübner, Hans: Paulusforschung since 1945. A critical literature report, in: ANRW 25.4 , Berlin and others 1987, 2649-2840. Merk, Otto: Paulus Research 1936–1985, ThR 53, 1988, 1–81. Friedrich W. Horn

II. The Corpus Paulinum 1. The textual historical findings 1.1. Greek as the language of the Pauline letters

Paul wrote his letters in the Greek language of his time, Hellenistic Greek, the so-called Koine. This corresponds not only to his origin (Acts 22: 3 indicates the thoroughly Hellenistic metropolis of Tarsus in Cilicia), but also to the language situation in the Roman Empire of the 1st century AD, where Greek - BC. a. in the eastern provinces - continued to be used as the language of communication, trade and administration. In the case of those letters that were written to congregations in the eastern provinces and thus in previously Greek or Hellenistic territory (Corinth, Thessalonica, Philippi, Galatia - one also includes the Deuteropaulinic writings, also Ephesus and Colossae), this is Greek drafting of the Epistles of Paul

II. The Corpus Paulinum

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thus immediately understandable. But the Greek version also makes sense for Rome and the letter to the Romans addressed to the communities there, since Greek was also the language of the educated in the capital (Emperor Claudius, a contemporary of Paul, is said to have written Greek and Latin histories). The text history of Paul's letters begins with Greek, and the Greek manuscripts (papyri and parchments) are therefore more relevant than Syrian, Coptic, Latin and other translations. 1.2. Papyri

As with all texts of the New Testament, papyri are among the oldest testimonies in the case of Paul's letters. Papyrus, the most widespread writing material of Greco-Roman antiquity, was made from the plant of the same name in Egypt and exported from there to almost all provinces of the empire. All papyri that contain parts of the New Testament are described in the usual way at the time, namely in capital letters and in so-called scriptio continua, i.e. continuous writing without spacing between words. First of all, the "Chester Beatty Biblical Papyrus II" should be mentioned, which is listed as P46 in Kurt Aland's Concise List of Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament (1994). Together with P.Mich. inv. 6238 thus the majority of a codex has been preserved, which originally comprised 208 pages, of which 172 have survived (56 sheets are now kept in the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, 30 sheets at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor). The codex was made around AD 200. written and is thus the oldest text witness of the Corpus Paulinum to date. Which letters it originally contained is controversial; Parts of Röm, Hebr, 1.2Kor, Eph, Gal, Phil, Kol, 1Thess are preserved (see also  A.II.2.). The oldest papyri with parts of the Corpus Paulinum also include P32 (with excerpts from Tit 1–2), which was also written around 200 AD. as well as papyri from the 3rd century: P15 (1Cor 7,18–8,4), P27 (excerpts from Rom 8–9), P30 (excerpts from 1Thess 4–5; 2Thess 1,1–2) , P40 (excerpts from Rom 1–4; 6; 9), P65 (1Thess 1,3–2,1.6–13), P87 (Phlm 13–15.24–25), P113 (Rom 2.12–13.29), P114 (Heb 1: 7-12). P12 (Heb 1,1) and P49 (excerpts from Eph 4–5) probably date from the end of the 3rd century. A total of 35 papyri for the Corpus Paulinum have been identified so far. The most recently edited of these is P127, which is dated to the 5th century and contains several fragments from the Acts of the Apostles (namely Acts 10.32–35.40–45; 11.2–5; 11.30–12.3.5.7–9 ; 15.29-30.34-41; 16.1-4.13-40; 17.1-10). The codex sheet is v. a. interesting because it perhaps offers an indirect indication that and in what way a kind of textual criticism was already carried out in this early period. The text of Heb 13:12 contains the variant only attested here that Jesus suffered "outside the gate of the camp", while in the other

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ren manuscripts either "outside the gate" or "outside the camp" The editor of the papyrus, G. Bastianini (2008), suspects (on PSI XV 1497) that "of the camp" was listed between the lines as a variant of "the gate" in the original and that it was erroneously inserted into the text of the copy that was preserved (see Clivaz 2010). 1.3. Parchment manuscripts

The oldest Bible manuscript that contains the complete Corpus Paulinum is the so-called Codex Sinaiticus (denoted by a Hebrew Aleph א or 01), a parchment manuscript that was written in the middle of the 4th century and continued until the middle of the 19th century was kept in St. Catherine's Monastery on Sinai (hence the name), but is now divided into four libraries: the British Library, where the main holdings with the entire New Testament are kept, Leipzig University Library, the Russian National Library of St. Petersburg and St. Catherine's Monastery. As a result of a large-scale project in which all four institutions participate, the entire codex can now be viewed online at http://codexsinaiticus.org/. Only in the case of the Epistle to the Hebrews does the order of the writings in the Corpus Paulinum differ from the canonized and familiar order of today - it stands between the 2nd Epistle of Thessalonians and the 1st Timothy. The Sinaiticus belongs to the so-called majuscules, i.e. H. Parchment manuscripts, which - like papyri - were written in capital letters and scriptio continua, but on parchment, which only replaced papyrus as writing material over the course of centuries. In terms of textual value, Sinaiticus is followed by the majuscule manuscripts Codex Vaticanus (B or 03) from the 4th century, which has survived up to and including Heb 9:14, and Codex Alexandrinus (A or 02) from the 5th century, in which only three leaves of the Corpus Paulinum are missing (section 2Cor 4,13-12,7). The majuscule manuscript 0220 would be significant in terms of age if it can actually be dated to the 2nd half of the 3rd century (see Limongi 2005, 66; but note Parker 2008, 259); the leaf contains Rom. 4,23-5,3.8-13. The so-called minuscule manuscripts are to be distinguished from the uppercase manuscripts, which were also written on parchment, but in lowercase, i.e. lowercase letters. They are younger than the capitals manuscripts. The most important minuscules include the manuscripts 33 (9th century, today Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris) and 1739 (11th century, Megisti Lavra monastery, Mount Athos). The latter is also interesting because of a concluding remark which emphasizes that "the 14 letters of the apostle were copied from a very old copy". In fact, the great value of this manuscript has been shown in an examination of the text and the marginal notes also contained in the codex; 1739 can therefore be regarded as clear evidence that more recent manuscripts can sometimes have preserved the text from very old models.

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1.4. Translations

Within the Latin tradition, there is a basic distinction between the old Latin translations (Vetus Latina), which have been used since the 2nd century.and the so-called Vulgate from the 4th / 5th centuries. Century, which is associated with the name of Jerome. However, there is no evidence that Jerome revised any other New Testament writings besides the Gospels. Latin translations of the Corpus Paulinum are in any case not only preserved in Latin codices, but also in so-called bilingual manuscripts, in this case Greco-Latin manuscripts, of which the Codex Claromontanus is the oldest (majuscule manuscript 06 from the 5th century). . The Greek text on the left is juxtaposed with the Latin text on the right. The text is structured according to meaning lines. Both Sahid and Bohairian manuscripts from the 4th century exist for the Coptic tradition. Also worth mentioning is a Coptic papyrus codex from Oxyrhynchos / Middle Egypt (= P.Mil.Vogl. V 1; 1st half of the 5th century), which - similar to P46 - contains the remains of ten Paul’s letters, in the following order: Rom , 1.2Kor, Hebr, Gal, Phil, Eph, 1.2Thess, Kol. As far as the Syrian translation of the New Testament is concerned, the oldest surviving text documents can be attributed to the so-called Peschitta (approx. 4th / 5th centuries); the oldest surviving manuscript, which contains the Corpus Paulinum, dates from the 5th or 6th century and is kept in the British Library in London. There is no evidence of an ancient Syriac tradition (Vetus Syra) from the 3rd or 4th century that has survived for the Corpus Paulinum, but there is evidence of the so-called Harklensis, a Syrian translation by Thomas von Harkel from the year 616. 1.5 . Comments from the Church Fathers

Starting with Origen, several church fathers have dealt with the Pauline letters and commented on them. The quotations from the Pauline text itself sometimes provide information about which text was available to the commentator, but are of subordinate importance in terms of textual criticism. Of the commentaries written in Greek, that of Origen is the oldest (written before 244), but for the most part only the Latin translation provided by Rufinus has survived. The homilies of John Chrysostom offer interpretations of all 14 letters and were written between 381 and 398. Comments on twelve letters come from Theodoret von Cyrus (approx. 393 - approx. 460). The oldest Latin commentary on the Epistles of Paul was written in Rome between 366 and 378 by an unknown author, known as Ambrosiaster because of his proximity to Ambrose of Milan.

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1.6. Text-critical questions and examples

The fact that the Pauline letters were subjected to an editorial revision in the course of collecting and publishing ( A.II.2.) Does not require any further explanation. The extent to which this took place is controversial. I limit myself to the following questions and examples: the original end of the letter to the Romans, the addressing of the letter to the Ephesians, the originality of 1Cor 14.34-35 and the interpretation of the accusative ΙΟΥΝΙΑΝ in Rom 16.7. Although all manuscripts contain the text of chapter 16 as part of the letter to the Romans, there is much to suggest that three different versions of this letter of Paul were in circulation in the earliest times. The starting point is the different location of Romans 16: 25-27, the so-called doxology, the originality of which is generally disputed. It is undoubtedly a suitable ending to the text, which is why manuscripts containing this passage after 14.23 indicate that the letter to the Romans was originally 14 chapters long. This finding is supported by chapter references in some Vulgate manuscripts, which end with references to Rom 14 or Rom 14 + Doxology. The fact that Romans 15:33 makes sense as the end of the letter and P46 contains the doxology after this verse could speak for a 15-chapter version. The 16-chapter version is the text attested by the manuscripts. This finding is interpreted as follows: Paul first wrote a general letter that corresponds to the 14 chapters. The fact that Rome was added as an address afterwards should be considered from a few manuscripts in which "in Rome" is actually missing in Rom 1, 7. Only in a second stage did Paul specifically address this letter to the congregations in Rome and the text of chap. 15 added. A copy of this 15-chapter letter had been expanded to include the text of Rom. 16 and sent to Ephesus, which is justified by the fact that many of the names mentioned fit better with Ephesus than with Rome. Conversely, it can of course be argued that the shorter versions were created later. As far as the address of the letter to the Ephesians is concerned, "in Ephesus" in Eph 1,1 is missing in such important textual witnesses as P46, the Codex Sinaiticus, the Vaticanus or the minuscule manuscript 1739. In P46 the subscriptio "to the Ephesians" is also missing at the end of the whole Text, but it is contained in the other manuscripts, which suggests that the scribes were familiar with this assignment. That the early tradition obviously had problems with this is also shown by the fact that Marcion viewed the letter to the Ephesians as a letter to the church in Laodicea. 1 Corinthians 14: 34–35, the infamous statement that "the women in the congregations should be silent" is contained in all manuscripts, but the classification in the text is different. Some Greek and Latin manuscripts as well as the Syrian Peshitta only offer the passage after v. 40. Different places in the text can (as in the case of Rom 16: 25-27)

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also be an indication of a later insertion, a so-called interpolation. In the Codex Vaticanus there are two horizontal dots at the edge of the corresponding place, which here - as in numerous other places in the Codex - could indicate a variant in the templates used. That this could be an indication of a (no longer preserved) manuscript in which vv. 34–35 was missing (according to Payne 1995 and Payne / Canart 2000) is worth considering, but cannot be proven. The fact that the Greek accusative ΙΟΥΝΙΑΝ in Rom. 16.7 refers to a woman named Junia (and not to the man Junias postulated since Martin Luther) is now widely recognized. Greek manuscripts that already have accents contradict the assumption that the male name Junias, which is not attested in all of antiquity, could be an abbreviation for the well attested Junianus. The Junia interpretation is confirmed by Latin, Sahid and Syrian manuscripts that clearly contain a feminine form, meaning a woman named Junia (Doctor 1993; Epp 2005). The Bohairian translation speaks of a woman named Julia, a variant that e.g. B. also encountered in P46. Aland, Kurt / Aland, Barbara: The Text of the New Testament. Introduction to the scientific editions as well as to the theory and practice of modern text criticism, Stuttgart 21989. This. i.a. (Ed.): Nestle-Aland: Novum Testamentum Graece, Stuttgart 272001 [NA27]. Aland, Kurt et al. (Ed.): The Greek New Testament. Fourth Revised Edition, Stuttgart 42002 [GNT4]. Parker, David C .: An Introduction to the New Testament Manuscripts and Their Texts, Cambridge 2008 (esp. 256-282). Peter Doctor-Grabner

2. The collection of the Corpus Paulinum The beginnings of the collection of Paul's letters are in the dark. We have no authentic news about who and when the process of collecting and publishing Pauline letters was started. 2.1. Beginning of the collection and editorial revision

The Cicero letters show that Cicero initiated the first collection and publication of his letters himself, which was largely carried out by his secretary Tiro. There is no evidence of this about the Pauline letters, but it is quite conceivable that Paul kept copies of some of his letters with him and that these formed the starting point for the later collection of Paul’s letters (especially Trobisch 1989; 1994). That Paul used a secretary in several cases is proven by Rom 16:22. The mention of Paul in 1 Cor. 16:21 to write the final greeting with your own hand can also be interpreted as a corresponding hint (cf. Deuteropaulin

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Col 4,18 and 2Thess 3,17; Phlm 19, on the other hand, is a legal formula and does not indicate a change of clerk). Another possibility would be for the communities to have made the original letters available for later collection and publication. In the case of Corinth, it is assumed that the arrival of Clement's 1st letter in the church triggered such a process (Thrall 1994, 43–46). The request in Col. 4:16 to have the letter read out in the community of Laodikeia and the one addressed to the community there in Colossae testifies to this process in itself, but can also indicate that copies should be made at a very early point in time can be understood (for more details on both options, see below). In the course of collecting and publishing, there was certainly an editorial revision, the details and extent of which, however, also remain unclear. It would be possible that e.g. B. Paulus had dated his letters and the dates were only omitted when they were included in a collection, after all, the letters were supposed to be lifted beyond their original temporal and spatial relationship through publication. In fact, numerous papyrus letters are dated, but by no means all, and on the other hand, many examples from Cicero's letter collection have the date preserved. Some of the in  A.II.1. The examples shown are to be explained via the editing process (see there the explanations on Rom. 1, 7 and chapter 16; 1 Cor. 14.34-35; Eph 1.1). The question of a possible merging of originally several letters into larger units, or - in other words - the question of whether the canonical form of individual Pauline letters should be divided into several original letters (division hypotheses) has experienced a particularly detailed discussion. This was particularly considered in the case of 1 and 2 Corinthians and Philippians. The problem can be illustrated using the example of 2nd Corinthians. The fact that there is no reference to a compilation in the handwritten text transmission means that such a process must have taken place at a very early stage of collecting and publishing the Pauline letters, possibly at the beginning. In the course of literary-critical research, attempts were made to identify up to seven separate Pauline letters in the canonical version of 2 Corinthians (Schmithals 1984a). The following observations were made: an abrupt change in tone between chap. 1–9 and 10–13, the interruption of the travelogue from 2, 12–13 (this is only continued with 7.5–16), a sudden interruption of the train of thought by 6.14–7.1 (also in this Section heaped terms and thoughts that only occur here within the Pauline letters, which is why this section is considered by many to be an unpaulin interpolation), the doubling of the statements on the collection in chap. 8 and 9 as well as contradicting statements of Paul about his trust in the church (7.16 compared to 11.19-21 and 12.20-21).

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In more recent Pauline research, the thesis that 2Cor 1–9 should be seen as a letter of atonement, of which chap. 10–13 should be delimited due to a sharper tone and assigned to a different letter. A five-letter hypothesis (Mitchell 2003; 2005) is also relatively popular, assuming the following events: 1) 2 Corinthians 8 was written shortly after the first letter to the Corinthians in order to bring the collection to a conclusion. 2) Doubts about his competencies would have led Paul to write the apologetic letter 2Cor 2,14–7,4 (without 6,14–7,1 - this section is considered to be a later interpolation). 3) After the scandal during the so-called "intermediate visit", Paul retired to Ephesus and wrote 2 Corinthians 10: 1–13, 10 from there to justify his claim as an apostle. The letter was brought by Titus, with whom Paul met after his successful mission in Macedonia. 4) From Macedonia, Paul then wrote the “letter of atonement”, which is contained in 2Cor 1,1–2,13; 7.5-16; 13: 11-13 has been preserved. 5) Then Paul wrote 2Cor 9 to all churches in Achaia in order to bring the collection project to a successful conclusion. Attempts to establish an already original uniformity in 2nd Corinthians usually go in the direction of harmonizing the textual tensions, interruptions and insertions with the context, i.e. similar ideas or - at least to some extent - a comparable tone of voice in the other sections of the letter of the author. Or one reckons with an interruption during the writing: Paul sent Titus and the two brothers to Corinth and only then began to dictate the letter. While the chap. 1–9 new, negative news had arrived from Corinth, brought by the Titus group. Only after receiving this negative news did Paul read chap. 10–13 dictated (Schnelle 2003, 261 f.). Based on our knowledge of the writing, sending and reading of ancient letters, the assumption is hardly tenable that Paul wrote and sealed 2Cor 1–9 and 10–13 as separate letters and then had them delivered by Titus on the same mission to the church in Corinth, where they were would have been read as a unit (according to Keener 2005, 150). Hans-Joseph Klauck (Klauck 2003c) and Thomas Schmeller (Schmeller 2004) raised the discussion to a new level in that they used the extensive collection of Cicero letters to compare them with the Pauline letters and thus tried for the first time to determine the type and scope of the to study verifiable compilation processes of this collection of letters. The investigations show that there have been no efforts to smooth out any internal textual contradictions that may have arisen during the compilation, but that these were apparently not perceived as overly disturbing. In addition, compilations are entirely additive, i.e. they were created by simply stringing together the original letters, whereas interpolations cannot be detected as part of an editorial compilation process.

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A comparison with papyrus letters shows that all phenomena that are asserted in the context of division hypotheses can also occur in uniform letters. Of course, this does not mean that the uniformity of 1st and 2nd Corinthians and Philippians is more likely than a compilation. Both possibilities are to be discussed. Since a compilation of several originally separate letters cannot be regarded as necessary per se, the question must be asked what circumstances could make such an effort appear necessary or at least advantageous. In the case of Corinthian correspondence in particular, it is conceivable that at least one of the original letters was no longer completely preserved and was therefore compiled with another so that it could be included in a collection of letters. At least it is noticeable that not all of the originally at least four letters of Paul that were originally available separately found their way into the Pauline collection of letters. This could be due to a specific selection or the fact that the letters mentioned in 1Cor 5,9 or 2Cor 7,8.12 were no longer or at least not completely preserved at the time the Pauline letters were collected. 2 Corinthians 10–13 could therefore go back to the letter mentioned in 2 Corinthians 7: 8.12, which would then no longer have been completely preserved at the time the Pauline letters were first edited. In the course of this compilation, the still completely preserved letter, which, contrary to the chronological order, came first, would simply have left out the final part (= 2Cor 1–9) and attached the incomplete letter (= 2Cor 10–13). 2.2. First editions of Paul's letters

A collection of letters begun by Paul himself could have consisted of Romans, 1st and 2nd Corinthians and Galatians and could have been created during Paul's lifetime (Trobisch 1989; 1994). The initiative could also go back to Paul’s collaborators (e.g. Luke, Timothy, Onesimus). Theories that see the initiative for a collection of Paul’s letters in the churches now assume that this process was continuous, but differ in the stages and time periods assumed. A first core could have consisted of Romans, 1st Corinthians, Ephesians and (perhaps) Philippians and, before 1st Clement was written, around 96 AD. have been widespread (Streeter 1924, 526-527). The assumption that the collection was completed relatively early in a certain place and under the guidance of a certain person (whoever that person may have been) is plausible. In any case, different collections cannot have existed in different places for a longer period of time (Porter 2004, 122 f.). This is suggested by the oldest surviving certificates and manuscripts ( A.II.1.). It is unanimous that the Letter to the Hebrews was the last letter to be added to the collection and

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- and more than other letters - took up different places within the collection, which is evidenced by the manuscripts (in second place after the Letter to the Romans in P46, between the 2ndThessalonians and 1st Timothy in Codex Sinaiticus, between 2nd Corinthians and Galatians in the Sahidic tradition). This could indicate that the authorship of the Letter to the Hebrews was controversial at an early stage. 2.3. The oldest surviving evidence

The oldest verifiable collection goes back to Marcion (around 140 AD), the compilation of which consisted of ten letters, in the following order: Gal, 1.2 Cor, Rom, 1.2 Thess, Laodicenerbrief (= Eph), Col and Phlm (compiled into a letter) and Phil. In the so-called Canon Muratori, the date of which is disputed (late 2nd century or 2nd half of 3rd century or only 4th century; the fragment that has been preserved comes from the 8th century. ), all letters except the letter to the Hebrews are mentioned. In addition, the existence of a Laodicen letter and a letter to the Alexandrians is mentioned, but these are described as forgeries "for the sect of Marcion". In the oldest papyrus codex P46 (written around 200 AD; see also A.II.1.), Parts of nine letters are contained in the following order: Rom, Hebr, 1 and 2 Cor, Eph, Gal, Phil, Kol, 1Thess . In the original state there were possibly also the 2nd Letter to Thessalonians and perhaps the Letter to Philemon, thus ten or eleven letters in descending order in terms of their length. Whether P46 also contained the pastoral letters is discussed (cf. Duff 1998; Parker 2008, 253 f.). The order probably arises from the intention to put the group of church letters in front of the letters that were addressed to individuals. The oldest parchment codex, the Codex Sinaiticus (mid 4th century), contains all 14 writings in the order we are used to today - with the exception of the Hebrews, which still stands between the 2nd Thessalonians and the 1st Timothy; the Corpus Paulinum of Sinaiticus therefore ends with the Letter to Philemon. The same number and sequence is attested in the 39th Easter letter of Athanasius (367 AD). Deviations can be found in non-Greek traditions. The canon of the ancient Syrian tradition contains 14 letters, but among them is a 3rd letter to the Corinthians, while the letter to Philemon is not included. The Latin tradition temporarily contained the Laodicener letter as the 15th letter (included for the first time in the Codex Fuldensis). In itself, however, the 14-letter canon of the Corpus Paulinum can be considered complete from the middle of the 4th century. Breytenbach, Cilliers (ed.): Paulus, the Gospels and early Christianity, suffering and others. 2004. Lindemann, Andreas: The collection of Pauline letters in the 1st and 2nd centuries, in: Auwers, Jean-Marie / Jonge, Henk J.de (ed.): The Biblical Canons (BEThL 163), Leuven 2003, 321– 351

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Parker, David C .: An Introduction to the New Testament Manuscripts and Their Texts, Cambridge 2008 (esp. 246-256). Porter, Stanley E. (ed.): The Pauline Canon (Pauline Studies 1), Leiden / Boston 2004 (esp .: When and How Was the Pauline Canon Compiled? An Assessment of Theories, 95-127). Trobisch, David: The origin of the Paulusbriefsammlung. Studies on the beginnings of Christian journalism (NTOA 10), Freiburg (CH) / Göttingen 1989. Peter Arzt-Grabner

III. Research on Paul 1. Ferdinand Christian Baur 1.1. The idea of ​​the story

Ferdinand Christian Baur (1792–1860) began his career after a short period as a vicariate in 1816 as a repetiteur at the Evangelical Monastery in Tübingen. In his historical studies, Baur shows himself to be shaped by the idealistic view of history by Fichte, Schelling and, since the mid-1830s, Hegel. In his work Symbolism and Mythology, Baur defined world history as the “revelation of the godhead” (Baur 1979, Vol. 1, V). History must be analyzed against the background of the idea, the concreteness of which is history. The absolute is revealed in history. - According to Baur, a consideration of history is necessarily connected with a philosophical perspective: "Without philosophy, history remains forever dead and mute for me" (op. Cit. XI). The history of the Christian religion therefore also belongs in the process of the revelation of the idea or the absolute. In his research and teaching activities, Baur also turns to the beginnings of the Christian religion - and thus also to the letters of Paul. In Paul's theology he sees the essence of the Christian religion manifest itself. 1.2. History and criticism

Every consideration of history has to analyze its sources in several ways. Baur was the first theologian who carried out a consistent historical-critical research into Christian sources in a methodically reflective manner. The New Testament texts are not just sources, they themselves stand in a history that can be explored. The criticism in the sense of a multiple distinction became the no longer obscure gesture of a scholarly preoccupation with the New Testament texts. Textual criticism, li

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Terar criticism and theological factual criticism also belong together in Paul's exegesis. After much work in which Baur had also dealt with the letters of Paul, his great book Paulus, the Apostle of Jesus Christ was available in 1845. Idealistic philosophy of history is combined here with a methodologically consistent historical criticism. In his interpretation of the Pauline letters, Baur is concerned with the independence of thought, which must go through "that which has become unconscious with the awareness of the inner necessity of its becoming" (Baur 1866/67 Part I, 4). Paul is of particular interest to Baur because his theology does not persist in subjective particularity, but instead acquires its universal historical significance (6). Such an examination of the history of Paul's theology requires a critique of the sources in the New Testament that report on this apostle. For Baur, the Pauline letters deserve preference over the Acts of the Apostles. In the sense of a tendency criticism, he works out that in the Acts of the Apostles an apologetic and thus a purely subjective interest is to be perceived, which this source does not appear to be suitable for documenting the life and theology of Paul. The interest of the Acts of the Apostles, which is not oriented towards history, becomes clear in the harmonizing representation of the two main characters of the early Christian community, Peter and Paul. If one wanted to find out reliable information about Paul's conversion, his statements in his letters deserve more attention than the Acts of the Apostles (75). Of fundamental importance for Baur is the leveling of the differences between the Jewish Christianity of Peter and the Gentile Christianity of Paul, which he thinks he identifies in the Acts of the Apostles. A look at the letters collected in the New Testament that name Paul as the sender provokes Baur's historical criticism. He distinguishes three classes of these letters with regard to an actual authorship of Paul. According to Baur, four letters belong to the Homologumena, the real Pauline letters: the Galatians, the two Corinthians and the Romans (276). He counts the other Pauline letters under the Antilegomena or the Deuteropaulinic letters, i.e. under the controversial Pauline letters, whereby the pastoral letters still stand out because their inauthenticity is becoming more and more evident (276 f.). 1.3. Paul's thinking

In his Pauline book, Baur characterizes the real Pauline letters. The oldest in his view, the letter to the Galatians, presupposes Judaizing opponents (Baur 1866/67 Part I, 281). This letter leads into the uplifting struggle between Judaism and Christianity (283). At that time Christianity was faced with the question of whether it could free itself from Judaism or whether it would exist in a form of Judaism. The difference to Judaism had become a historical reality through Paul. This difference is said to be concrete in the

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