How are bruxzir crowns made from wheat

Cereals, cereal products

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The word grain is derived from the Old High German term gitregidi ab, which means something like yield, possession, actually = "that which is carried".
Grain is a collective name for agriculturally cultivated, annual plant species from the sweet grass family (Poaceae = Gramineae). The grains are the solitary fruits that are extremely starchy and represent an important source of food for humans and animals.
Like legumes, cereals have been used as food for a long time. Archaeological finds indicate that grain cultivation originated in the Near East around the 9th millennium BC. Today, grain cultivation represents a large proportion of agricultural production worldwide. In 2014, 728,966,757 tons of wheat were grown worldwide. Asia is one of the largest producers with 315,710,236 tons, followed by Europe with 249,134,618 and the USA with 55,395,400 tons.


The types of grain include → wheat, rye, barley, oats, rice and millet. Buckwheat is also often counted as a cereal because its grains look very similar, but botanically it is one of the knotweed family.


In Central Europe, cereals can be sown twice a year: summer cereals are sown in spring and winter cereals in autumn. Wheat can be harvested in July / August. Earlier, the ears of grain were harvested with a scythe and tied together to dry in sheaves. So that the grain could be separated from the straw, the grain was threshed with flails. This detached the grains from the straw. Then the loose straw was collected. But now the crowns were still mixed with straw remnants and ears of wheat. These residues were also removed by sieving, with the aid of the wind or a machine. The wheat was separated from the chaff. After many hours of work, you had the grains that could be ground in the mill. Today a combine harvester mows the grain, threshes it and cleans the grains immediately. In the end, the grains and straw are separated.

Video: broadcast with the mouse - barn thresher.


When it comes to rice, there is long-grain rice (Patnareis 6-8 mm) and round-grain rice (rice pudding 4-5 mm). Long grain rice is usually grainier and drier when cooked. Long grain rice is used, for example, as an accompaniment to meat, fish and vegetable dishes or as a soup. Round grain rice has a higher proportion of starch and is rather mushy, soft and sticky after cooking. Sweet dishes and rice pudding are made from short grain rice.

In the case of long grain rice, the following varieties can be distinguished:

Basmati rice, a particularly popular rice with extra long grains in India and Pakistan.
Wild rice, these are the seeds of a wild grain that is related to rice.
Jasmine rice from Thailand has long, translucent grains and a floral aroma when cooked.
Brown rice is the whole grain variant and is also known as brown rice. This rice is not shelled. Brown rice provides more vitamins and fiber than husked rice.
Black rice, a specialty that is particularly noticeable due to its dark purple color after cooking.
Parboiled rice: Through a special process, the nutrients in the shell migrate inside. Parboiled rice stays grainy even after it's cooked.


A side dish is expected to be around 50-70 g dry rice per person. If the rice is cooked in a pot, double the amount of water per cup of rice. Less water is added when cooking in the steamer. Bring the rice to the boil with the slightly salted water and let it simmer for a while. If the rice is being prepared on a hotplate or a glass ceramic hob, the → stove can be switched off after a few minutes. The residual heat is sufficient for swelling for a normal household amount. Otherwise, set the hob on low heat. White and parboiled rice takes about 20 minutes to cook. Brown rice has to swell much longer at around 40 minutes. The rice does not have to be stirred when swelling.

Cereal products

Cereal crowns can be processed into various cereal products by grinding, crushing and crushing. The cereal products include: semolina, meal, flour, groats, pearl barley and cereal flakes.

Shot: coarsely ground cereal grains. Wheat or rye meal, for example, is used to make whole grain bread. Whole meal can also be processed into patties.
food starch: Plants form starch during photosynthesis (→ metabolism of plants). It belongs to the → carbohydrates and is stored in plant organs such as tubers, roots and seeds as an energy reserve. Starch is obtained from starchy foods such as corn (corn starch), potatoes (potato starch), wheat (wheat starch) and rice (rice starch). Starch can be used for baking, preparing potato dumplings, potato gnocchi and for thickening desserts, soups and sauces. To do this, the cornstarch is first mixed with cold liquid (water, milk, juice), then added to the liquid and heated to thicken. Modified starch can be produced from edible starch using different processes (→ additives). Modified starch has the advantage that it does not have to be heated to thicken, but can also be stirred into cold liquids.
semolina: Semolina is made by grinding durum wheat or corn (corn grits or polenta). Depending on the grain size, a distinction is made between coarse, medium or fine semolina. Haze is very fine-grained semolina. Whole grain semolina is made by grinding the whole grain, while conventional semolina only uses the endosperm (→ wheat). Durum wheat semolina is processed into pasta, for example. Desserts, semolina gnocchi or semolina dumplings and casseroles can be prepared from semolina.
bran is particularly rich in fiber. The bran is a residue (shell and surface layers of the grain as well as the seedling) that remain after sieving the ground flour. In addition to fiber, bran provides protein, vitamin B1, vitamin E and important minerals.
bulgur: For the production of bulgur, wheat is pre-cooked, then dried and then finely or coarsely cut. Bulgur can be served as an accompaniment to meat and fish dishes, or it can be used with salads or casseroles.
Pearl barley: Barley is mostly made from barley, less often from wheat. The barley crowns are first cleaned and then sorted by size. The husks are then removed from the grain. For the pearl barley, the barley grains are cut and then polished. Rolled or cooked barley is made from whole barley grains that are repeatedly ground and polished in a pearl mill. Almost the entire fruit and seed peel is removed. The spherical end product is called Graupe. Pearl barley can be used as a soup, but can also be made into casseroles and risotto.
groats is mostly made from oats, barley, durum wheat or buckwheat. The grain is cleaned and freed from the shell and then roughly chopped to finely chopped. Grits can be cooked into sweet or savory porridge. It serves as a soup and is processed into grützwurst.
Cereal flakes can be made from all types of grain. The full or peeled grain is first steamed and then pressed into flakes between rollers. There is also the option of making flakes yourself at home using a squeezer. Cereal flakes z. B. Oatmeal is used in cereal. Bottle feeding for babies can be prepared from melted flakes.
For corn flakes, corn kernels are peeled and the seedling removed, then boiled with corn syrup, dried a little, then squeezed into flakes by rollers and then roasted. Vitamins and minerals are added to many products. In addition to starch, corn flakes contain a relatively high amount of sugar, with Kellogs corn flakes it is 8 g per 100 g.

Show with the mouse: Cornflakes. Accessed June 27, 2016


Cereal kernels essentially consist of a shell, the flour body and the sprout (→ diagram of a wheat kernel). The shell of a cereal grain, in turn, consists of three layers, the outer fruit shell or peel, the middle seed shell and the inner aleurone layer. The aleurone layer in particular contains biologically high quality → protein, fat, B vitamins, mineral and fiber. Most of the grain is made up of the endosperm, which in addition to starch also contains protein, little fat and minerals.
The seedling does not take up much of the grain of the grain, but it does contain a large part of the ingredients. The content of → vitamin B1 is five times as high as in the endosperm and the vitamin E content is even ten times higher. In addition, the seedling contains protein with important amino acids, a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, lecithin and vitamins.

Essential ingredients of a cereal grain:

Strength: 70% (→ carbohydrates)
→ water: 12%
→ protein: 11%
→ Fat: 2%
→ Dietary fiber: 2.5%
→ Minerals and trace elements: potassium, phosphorus, iron, manganese and zinc)
→ Vitamins: Vitamin E, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2)

Comparison of the ingredients of rice and wheat flour per 100 g of ready-to-eat food:

 Polished riceParboiled rice (cooked)Wheat flour (type 405)Whole wheat flour (type 1700)
energy343 kcal121 kcal;335 kcal307 kcal
Carbohydrates78 g27 g72 g61 g
Fiber1.4 g0.5 g4.0 g11.5 g
protein7 g2 g11 g12 g
iron0.9 mg1.0 mg1.4 mg5.0 mg
Vitamin E.0.2 mg0.1 mg0.2 mg2.1 mg
Vitamin B10.06 mg0.08 mg0.06 mg0.47 mg
Vitamin B20.03 mg0.01 mg0.03 mg0.17 mg
Vitamin B60.15 mg0.07 mg0.18 mg0.46 mg

Source: Heseker, Heseker: The nutritional table. DGE 2012


Whole grains can be bought in health food stores or health food stores (→ wheat). Cereal grains are usually surrounded by different husks. These are dry-skinned bracts. Depending on the cereal, a distinction is made between glume, lemma and palea. With barley, oats, millet and rice, cover and palea are and with husk wheat such as spelled or emmer the two glumes are fused together. After threshing, the ears of these cereals are present. In the case of naked grain, however, the grains are completely freed from the husks during threshing. These include naked wheat, rye, maize and the cultivated forms naked barley and naked oats. The grain can be ground or ground in its own grain mill, but it can also be processed as a whole grain.

Various cereal products and rice can be bought packaged in the supermarket. There are different type designations for ready-ground flour. The → type number indicates how many minerals are contained in the flour. The higher the type number, the more minerals it contains. With common household wheat flour type 405, 100 g of wheat flour contains 405 mg of minerals, while 100 g of wheat flour type 1050 still contains 1050 mg of minerals.


Whole grains can be stored for a long time (around 2 years). For this, they should be stored in a dry place and not airtight. A dry, well-ventilated place for storage is also recommended for cereal products. Direct sunlight and strong temperature fluctuations should be avoided. Before using the products, watch out for possible mold growth or storage pests such as flour moth or flour beetle (→ store food).

to bake

A variety of pastries are made from wheat flour. Wheat flour contains gluten (sticky protein). Other types of cereals containing gluten are: rye, spelled, barley, green spelled, emmer. Gluten is a general name for various proteins that combine with water to form glue. In wheat flour, these are the proteins gliadin and glutenin. People with → celiac disease cannot tolerate foods containing gluten and must avoid them. Corn, rice and millet do not contain gluten.

Glue provides the special properties of a dough. Glue is:

Swellable: Due to this property, a dough can bind a lot of water and does not stick when kneaded.
Elastic: The glue makes a dough elastic and can be kneaded into different shapes like strands and rolled out. A non-gluten-containing dough made from corn flour, for example, does not have this property.
Stretchy: Gas such as carbon dioxide is generated by → leavening agents. This gas is held in small pores in the baked goods. The dough expands and does not collapse. The glue allows pastries to rise. Corn flour, on the other hand, can only be made into flat cakes.

Rye flour also has gluten, but here the proteins are permeated with mucilage, the pentosans. The pentosans also swell and bind a large part of the water. Since the pentosans prevent the formation of glue, rye bread is made with sourdough. If whole grain flour is processed, the glutinous protein and the fiber-rich outer layers absorb a lot of water. The amount of liquid when using wholemeal flour must therefore be increased.

Composition of types of bread

Numerous types of bread and rolls are known in Germany. Important information on the composition can be found in the Guiding principles for bread and biscuits.

Type of breadComposition
Wheat bread or white breadConsists of at least 90% wheat flour.
Mixed wheat breadThe wheat flour content is at least 50%, but less than 90%.
Rye breadContains at least 90% rye flour.
Mixed rye breadThe proportion of rye flour is between 50% and 90%.
Whole wheat breadThis bread must be made from at least 90% whole wheat products.
Whole grain rye breadWhole grain rye bread is made from at least 90% whole grain rye products. At least 2/3 of the added acid comes from sourdough.
Whole wheat breadWhole grain bread is made from at least 90% whole wheat or rye products. The proportions to one another are arbitrary. At least 2/3 of the added acid comes from sourdough.
Whole wheat rye breadThis bread consists of more than 50% whole wheat products.
Whole grain oat breadFor wholemeal oat bread, at least 20% whole oat products must be used. The total proportion of whole grain products must be at least 90%. The same proportions apply to other types of grain.
Whole breadA meal consists of at least 90% rye or wheat bread. The relationships to one another are arbitrary.

In addition, there are z. B. multigrain bread such as three-grain or four-grain bread, pumpernickel, toast bread, crisp bread, stone oven bread, wood oven bread, barley bread and ham bread.

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Interesting link:

Bavarian State Library in cooperation with the Conference of State Historians at the Bavarian Universities and the Commission for Bavarian State History at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (publisher): Getreidebau (until 1800).


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