What does aoristic passive indicative mean?
Infinitive (ancient Greek) - Infinitive (Ancient Greek)
The ancient Greek infinitive form is a non-finite verb form, sometimes a verb called mood, with no endings for person or number, but it is inflected (unlike in Modern English) for tense and voice (for a general introduction to grammatical formation and morphology of ancient Greek Find infinitive Here and for more information see these tables.
It is mainly used to express actions, situations and, in general, "facts" that depend on another verb form, usually a finite one.
It is a non-declinable nominal verb form that corresponds to a noun and expresses the verbal term abstractly; It is used as a noun in its main usages and has many properties, as will be seen below, but differs from them in a few ways:
- (a) When used without an article and used in its main usages (subject / object), it can usually only correspond to a nominative or an accusative case; used with the article, it can be in any case (nominative, genitive, dative and accusative).
- (b) It shows the morphological formation according to aspect, voice (active, medium, passive) and tense (only the future infinitive).
- (c) It retains some verbal syntactic features: it regulates the same oblique case (its object) as the verb to which it belongs, and it can have its own subject in the accusative case (see section Accusative and Infinitive below). .
- (d) It is modified by adverbs rather than adjectives.
Ancient Greek has both (a) the infinitive with the article (articular infinitive), for example τὸ ἀδικεῖν "do wrong, do wrong" and (b) the infinitive without the article, for example ἀδικεῖν "do wrong".
The infinitive with the article
The articular infinitive corresponds to a related verbal noun (only in singular numbers). It is preceded by the neutral singular article (τό, τοῦ, τῷ, τό) and it has the character and function of both a noun and a verbal form. It can be used in any case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative) and thus take part in a construction like any other noun: it can serve as a subject, object (direct or indirect), predicative expression (rarely) or as an apposition; it can have an adnominal (e.g., in a genitive construction as possessive or objective genitive, etc.) or an adverbial use (e.g., it can form a genitive denoting cause, etc.); it can form an exclamation (in poetry); it can also be the complement (object) of a preposition in any oblique case and denote many adverbial relationships; If it is a genitive, it can denote a purpose, often a negative one.
- τὸ παρανομεῖν εἰς κήρυκα καὶ πρέσβεις τοῖς ἄλλοις πᾶσιν ἀσεβὲς εἶναι δοκεῖ. (The articular infinitive τὸ παρανομεῑν somehow corresponds to the noun ἡ παρανομία "the illegality" and serves here in the nominative as the subject of the verb δοκεῖ "seem to be looked at" )
- Breaking the law (= breaking the law) against a herald and against ambassadors is considered ungodly by all other men.
- τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ἀδικεῖν (as predicative nominal in nominative), τὸ πλέον τῶν ἄλλων ζητεῖν ἔχειν. (as nominative to the demonstrative pronoun τοῦτο)
- This is (the definition of) injustice : to try to have more than other people.
- πλουσιωτέρους γιγνομένους τοὺς ὁρῶντες δικαίους τῶν ἀδίκων πολλοὶ καὶ φιλοκερδεῖς ὄπδμνς εοὖ μιαα ἐσνμν εοὖ μιαα ἐσμνν εοὖ μιαα ἐσμνς εοὖ μιάα ἐσμνς εοὖ μιέα ἐσμνς εοὖ μιέα τῷ μὴ ἀδικεῖν . (as a dative addition to the verb ἐπιμένουσι)
- In view of the fact that the lawful are getting richer than the outlaws, many, even though greedy for profit, easily insist Do not do unjust acts .
- μέγα φρονεῖ ἐπὶ τῷ δύνασθαι λέγειν . (as the dative complement of the preposition ἐπί, denoting the cause)
- He is proud of in a position to speak (= ... in his ability to speak)
- ... νόμῳ μόνον ἐστὶν αἴσχιον τὸ ἀδικεῖν τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι [...] ἀλλὰ καὶ φύσει. ( Τὸ ἀδικεῖν is the subject of the verb ὲστίν and τοῦ ἀδικεῖσθαι serves as the genitive of comparison on the depended comparison degree adjective αἴσχιον)
- Wrong action is not only inherently more fundamental than suffering, but also inherently.
- ἐτειχίσθη Ἀταλάντη ὑπὸ Ἀθηναίων ... τοῦ μὴ ληστὰς κακουργεῖν τὴν Εὔβοιαν. (as the genitive of the purpose)
- Αtalante was fortified by the Athenians ... to prevent pirates from ravaging Euboea.
In all previous passages the articular infinitive is in the present stem; This is by no means a rule, however, as it can be used in any strained stem denoting a variety of aspect differences (see the discussion of the present and aoristic dynamic infinitive below for more details).
Infinitive without the article
The infinitive without the article is of two types and has two discrete uses: den dynamic Infinitive and the declarative Infinitive. Traditionally they should Not in indirect discourse or. used in indirect discourse but this terminology is misleading; because infinitives of both kinds can be used in indirect discourse transformations (for example you can say (a) "I said he was going to go on an expedition" or (b) "I advised him to go on an expedition / that he should go on an expedition should "where indirect discourse is used in one way or another: direct discourse for (a)" He will commit ... "and for (b)" Company / you should commit ... ").
A so called more dynamic Infinitive can be governed by Verbs of will or the desire to do something (ἐθέλω or βούλομαι "be ready, desire", εὔχομαι "pray, desire for", κατεύχομαι "pray against, imprecate curse", αἱροῦμαι "choose, prefer", μ "λλω" to be, or: delay to ", κελεύω "urge command to", ἐπιτάσσω "order to", ψηφίζομαι "vote to", ἐῶ "allow to", δέομαι "beg to" "etc.), Verbs of will or desire, Nothing to do (δέδοικα / δέδια "fear of", φοβοῦμαι "fear of", ἀπέχομαι "contain to do", αἰσχύνομαι "to be ashamed", "ἀπαγορεύω" κωλύω "hinder, prevent" etc.) and verbs or verbals Identify ability, fitness, necessity, capacity, etc. (δύναμαι, ἔχω "can", ἐπίσταμαι, γιγνώσκω "know how", μανθάνω "learn to", "δυνατὸς εἰμί, ἱκανὸς εἰμί" I am able to "ημί" I am able ", δίη κατντ γ σ σ κ ί σ κ it is necessary to ", ὥρα ἐστί" it is time to "etc.). It can also after adjectives (and sometimes derivative adverbs) of related meaning are found (δεινός "skillful", δυνατός "capable", οἷός τε "capable", ἱκανός "sufficient, capable" etc.). It stands as an object (direct or indirect) of such verbs or verbal expressions, or it serves as a subject when the verb / verbal expression is used impersonally; it also defines the meaning of an adjective almost as an accusative of respect. An infinitive of this kind denotes only one aspect or a stage of the action, not the actual tense, and can be in any tense stem (mostly in the present and in the aorist (see also here), the perfect being rare enough), with Exception of the future; only the verb μέλλω "I'm about to" may exceptionally assume a dynamic future infinitive.
The difference between the present and the aoristic infinitive of this type is an aspect or stage of action, not the tense - despite their strained stem, such infinitives always have a future reference due to the volitive meaning of their ruling verb. In particular, an infinitive in the present verb stem emphasizes "the process or the course of the facts" and in many cases has "an immediate" semantic power, while an infinitive in the aoristic verb stem "emphasizes" the conclusion of the facts, an expression of a precisely defined or precisely delineated state of affairs ".
- Current dynamic infinitive (ongoing action phase):
- βούλομαί σε εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας ἰέναι .
- I would like you to to Athens walk (= every time or = start / continue to Athens etc.).
- ἀνάγκη ἐστὶ μάχεσθαι .
- It is necessary to fight (= to start / continue fighting).
- Aoristic dynamic infinitive (completed action phase):
- βούλομαί σε εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας ἐλθεῖν .
- I want you to go to Athens go . (only once, a simple and single occurrence of the Walking )
- αἰσχύνομαι ὑμῖν εἰπεῖν τἀληθῆ.
- I am ashamed , you the truth accept . (only once, a single occurrence of Tell as in the previous example)
Analogous aspectual distinctions between the present and the aoristic verbal stem are also present when using finite moods as imperative and subjunctive and even as optional of wishes in independent clauses. In cases like the following examples, a dynamic infinitive is somehow reminiscent of a corresponding finite mood expressing will or desire, prayer or curse, admonition or prohibition, etc., and the indirect discourse is viewed from one aspect:
- τὰς μηχανὰς καὶ ξύλα [...] ἐμπρῆσαι τοὺς ὑπηρέτας ἐκέλευσεν. (aoristic dynamic infinitive)
- He ordered the servants to set fire to the engines of war and the wood.
- Direct language form: "Τὰς μηχανὰς καὶ ξύλα ἐμπρήσατε "(2nd plural person, aoristic imperative mood)" Light the engines of war and the wood. "
- κατηύχετο (τῷ Ἀπόλλωνι) τεῖσαι τοὺς Ἀχαιοὺς τὰ δ κάκρυα τοῖς ἐκείνου βέλεσιν. (aoristic dynamic infinitive)
- He prayed (to Apollo) that the Achaeans should suffer punishment for his tears through his (: the) shafts of God.
- Direct language form: "(Ὦ Ἄπολλον, εἴθε / εἰ γὰρ ) τείσειαν οἱ Ἀχαιοὶ τὰ ἐμὰ δάκρυα τοῖς σοῖς βέλεσιν "." Apollo, may the Achaeans suffer a punishment for my tears by your arrows ". (Aorist optative of the wish to express a curse)
A so called more declarative Infinitive (see also declarative sentence) is mostly used in connection with verbs (or verbal expressions) to say, to think and (sometimes) to perceive, such as λέγω, φημί, ἀποκρίνομαι, ὑπισχνοῦμαι, ὁμολοῶγῶ, ἀκούω, etc. and it usually becomes oratio obliqua used (in indirect language or discourse). The latter means that there is a corresponding finite verb form of the oratio recta (of direct speech or direct discourse), so that a declarative infinitive denotes both the tense and the aspect or stage of the action. But the present infinitive represents either a present indicative or an imperfect and perfect infinitive, either a perfect indicative or a superfect one. A declarative infinitive with the particle ἂν is also the representative of a potential indicative or potential optative of the corresponding tense.
- Ὦ ἄνδρες βουλευταί, μέν τις ὑμῶν εἰ νομίζει πλείους τοῦ καιροῦ ἀποθνῄσκειν , ἐννοησάτω ὅτι ὅπου πολιτεῖαι μεθίστανται πανταχοῦ ταῦτα γίγνεται. (Current infinitive = current indicative)
- Senate men, if anyone of you believes that more people are being killed than the situation requires, have them consider the fact that these things happen wherever a system of government is transformed.
- Direct form: Πλείους τοῦ καιροῦ ἀποθνῄσκουσιν "More people are killed than the situation requires".
- ... φη σπονδάς σφᾶς ποιήσασθαι [...] καὶ τρέπεσθαι πρὸς τὸν πότον. (Aoristic infinitive = aoristic indicator; current infinitive = imperfect indicator)
- He said that they offered libations to the gods and began to practice drinking.
- Direct form: σπονδάς τε ἐποιησάμεθα [...] καὶ ἐτρεπόμεθα πρὸς τὸν πότον. "We made drink offers to the gods and let us drink".
- ἐγὼ οὖν οἴομαι ἐκεῖνον ἀποθανεῖσθαι . Future infinitive = future indicative
- I think he is will die .
- Direct form: Heκεῖνος ἀποθανεῖται "He will die".
- ἡγούμην ἀφεθήσεσθαι . Future infinitive = future indicative.
- I thought, that I would be released .
- Direct form: ἀφεθήσομαι "I will be released".
- λέγουσι δέ τινες καὶ ἑκούσιον φαρμάκῳ ἀποθανεῖν αὐτόν. (Aorist Infinitive = Aorist Indicative)
- But some people say that he died voluntarily from (drinking) poison.
- Direct form: ἑκούσιος φαρμάκῳ ἀπέθανεν "He died voluntarily from (drinking) poison".
- ... οὓς (anaphoric to τοὺς καλοὺς ἐκείνους καὶ μακροὺς λόγους) ἐν τοῖς μυρίοις ἐν Μεγάλῃ πόλει πρὸς Ἱερώνυμον τὸν ὑπὲρ Φιλίππου λέγοντα ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἔφη δεδημηγορηκέναι .
- ... what he (anaphorically for "the fine of those long speeches") said he have as your spokesman for the ten thousand in Megalopolis in response to Philip's champion Hieronymus delivered . (the perfect infinitive form δεδημηγορηκέναι can either represent a perfect indicative direct language form δεδημηγόρηκα "I have delivered orations" or a pluperfect a ἐδεδημηγορήκειν "I had delivered orations", the interpretation is exclusively linked to contextual textual or
- ἐγὼ [...] νομίζω αὐτὸν καὶ ἐφ 'οἷς νυνὶ ποιεῖ δικαίως ἂν ἀποθανεῖν . Aorist Potential Infinitive = Aorist Potential Optative.
- I think he deserves to be killed, even for what he's doing.
- Direct form: δικαίως ἂν ἀποθάνοι "He deserved to be killed".
Verbs that normally have a future reference, such as swμνυμι "swear", ὑπισχνοῦμαι "promise", ἐλπίζω "expect, hope", ἀπειλέω "threaten", προσδοκάω "expect" etc., either take the declarative infinitive (mostly the future, but ) less often some of them also take the present, aoristic or perfect infinitive, even the infinitive, with the particle ἄν representing a potential optative or indicative), and in this case an indirect discourse is used, or they are followed by the dynamic aorist (less often) the present) infinitive form, and they are like any verb will wishes etc. the same construction alternation is constructed in English (declarative content clause -a that clause or to -infinitive) as shown below.
- ὄμνυμι τὰ χρήματα ἀποδώσειν . (Future, declarative, infinitive)
- I swear, that I'll give the money back .
- ὄμνυμι τὰ χρήματα ἀποδιδόναι . (present, dynamic, infinitive)
- I swear to return the money .
- ὄμνυμι τὰ χρήματα ἀποδοῦναι . (Aorist, dynamic, infinitive)
- I swear to return the money .
For the difference between the present and the aoristic dynamic infinitive, see the discussion in the section above. In the last two examples, however, another reading is possible, if one considers that ἀποδιδόναι and ἀποδοῦναι are present and a declarative infinitive aorist: "I swear, that I (always or in any relevant situation, etc.) money back give . I swear I gave the money back . "
The infinitive introduced by conjunctions in subordinate clauses
The ("dynamic") infinitive is used instead of the indicative mood with a considerable difference in meaning in certain subordinate clauses that are introduced by certain conjunctions: ὥστε (ὡς) "so that", πρίν (πρόσθεν ... ἤ) "before" or " to "and relative adjectives that introduce relative outcome clauses, such as ὅσος" as much as ", οἷος" as short as ", ὃς or ὅστις" (so ...) that he could "in clauses that are preceded by the prepositional clauses ἐφ ' ᾧ or ἐφ 'ᾧτε or with ὥστε can be introduced "with the proviso that".
Note: A "declarative" infinitive is sometimes the mood of subordinate clauses in indirect language instead of a corresponding indicative (either a realis or a conditional unrealis) or an optical mood in modal assimilation to the main infinitive, which is used to represent the independent sentence of direct speech; So according to relative, temporal or conditional conjunctions such as: ὃς "who" or ὅστις "whoever", ἐπεὶ or ἐπειδή "since when", ὅτε "when", εἰ "if" etc. An example:
- ἔφη δέ, ἐπειδὴ οὗ ἐκβῆναι , ψυχὴν τὴν πορεύεσθαι μετὰ πολλῶν, καὶ ἀφικνεῖσθαι σφᾶς εἰς τόπον τινὰ δαιμόνιον, ἐν ᾧ τῆς τε γῆς δύ ‘ Not χάσματα ἐχομένω ἀλλήλοιν καὶ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ αὖ ἐν τῷ ἄνω ἄλλα καταντικρύ. δικαστὰς δὲ μεταξὺ τούτων καθῆσθαι ...
- He said that after his soul departed from his body, it marched in the company of many others and they arrived at a wonderful place where there were two openings side by side in the ground and two more in the sky in opposite positions. And these judges sat between these openings ...
Here the most important infinitives, which depend directly on the finite verb ἔφη, namely πορεύεσθαι and ἀφικνεῖσθαι, attractively influence the mood of the embedded clauses, which are introduced by ἐπειδὴ, a temporal conjunction, and ἐν ᾧ, a relative preposition.
- The appropriate mood form of direct narration would have been indicative: ἐπειδὴ ἐμοῦ ἐξέβη , & eegr; ψυχὴ ἐπορεύετο μετὰ πολλῶν, καὶ ἀφικνούμεθα εἰς τόπον τινὰ δαιμόνιον, ἐν ᾧ τῆς τε γῆς δύ ‘ ἦσαν χάσματα ἐχομένω ἀλλήλοιν καὶ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ αὖ ἐν τῷ ἄνω ἄλλα καταντικρύ. δικασταὶ δὲ μεταξὺ τούτων ἐκάθηντο ...
- After my soul departed from my body, it marched in the company of many others, and we arrived at a wonderful place where two openings were side by side in the ground and two more in the sky in opposite positions. And judges sat between these openings ...
Subject of the infinitive
In general, Greek is a pro-drop language or a null subject language: it does not have to express the subject (always in the nominative) of a finite verb form (either pronoun or noun) unless it is communicatively or syntactically important ( e.g. when emphasis and / or contrast are intended etc.). Regarding infinitives, regardless of the type, whether articulated or not, and also dynamic or declarative, the following can be said as a general introduction to the infinitive syntax (: case rules for the infinitive subject):
- (1) If the infinitive has its own subject (i.e. if the subject of the infinitive is co-referential neither with the subject nor with the object of the relevant verb form), then this word is in the accusative (accusative and infinitive).
- (2) When the subject of the infinitive is related to the subject of the main verb, it is usually neither expressed nor repeated in the infinitive clause (nominative and infinitive).
- (3) When the infinitive subject is co-referential with either the main verb object or some other argument constructed at a higher syntactic level, e.g. a dative of interest with an impersonal verb or verbal expression, then it is usually left out in the infinitive clause, and any predicate adjective or participle etc. is used in whatever case the main verb argument is used. However, it is by no means unusual for an accusative to be present or - usually - to be understood by a predicate adjective, participle, etc. in the accusative.
These three main designs available are detailed in the following sections.
Accusative and infinitive
The construction in which an accusative noun or pronoun acts as the subject of an infinitive becomes Called accusative and infinitive (See also the Latin construction of the same name accusativus cum infinitivo (ACI), which is the rule in indirect language - even in cases in which the verb and infinitive have co-reference persons). This construction can be used as an indirect linguistic mechanism, which in many cases is interchangeable with a supplementary declarative clause introduced by "ὅτι /" ὡς "(or an additional participle). For some verbs (usually with thought verbs such as νομίζω, οἴομαι), ἡγέομαι, δοκέω etc., with the verb φημί "say, confirm, assert", with verbs denoting hope, oath or promise, such as ἐλπίζω "hope", ὄμνυμι "swear", ὑπισχνοῦμαι "promise" etc.) the infinitive is the construction Usually used in Classical Greek, but can also be used for any infinitive use, whether it is indirect or not. In the following examples, the infinitive clause is enclosed in square brackets  :
- λέγουσίν τινες [Σωκράτη σοφὸν εἶναι].
- say some people [Socrates ACC wise ACC be INF ] literal translation (Subject and predicate adjective are in the accusative)
- Some people say that Socrates is (or was) wise. idiomatic translation
- νομίζουσιν [Σωκράτη σοφὸν εἶναι].
- Per 3rd pl consider [Socrates ACC wise ACC be INF ] literal translation (as previously stated)
- They consider Socrates to be wise (or: been wise). idiomatic translation
- Oratio Recta / Direct Language for both of the above examples would have been: Σωκράτης NOM σοφός NOM ἐστιν FIN (or ἦν). "Socrates is (or was ) wise ". (Subject and predicate adjective of the finite verb ἐστί in the nominative)
Some recent examples from classical Greek literature:
- [τοὺς πονηροτάτους καὶ ἐξαγίστους ὀνομαζομένους τὰς συμφορὰς σωφρονίζειν] λέγουσιν.
- [the most wicked and wicked ACC- Mishaps ACC chastise INF ] Per pl 3. say-they. literal translation (articulated subject in the accusative; the infinitive object τοὺς ὀνομαζομένους is also in the accusative)
- People say [that the mishaps chastise those who are labeled as utterly evil and ungodly]. idiomatic translation
Oratio recta / direct speech would have been: τοὺς πονηροτάτους καὶ ἐξαγίστους ὀνομαζομένους αἱ NOM συμφοραὶ NOM σωφρονίζουσιν FIN . "The mishaps chastise those who are described as absolutely evil and godless". (The articulated noun as the subject of the finite verb would have been put in the nominative)
- νομίζουσιν [τὴν αὑτῶν φύσιν ἱκανωτέραν εἶναι τῆς ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν προκριθείσης].
- Per 3rd pl think-they [the ACC their nature ACC more capable ACC are INF as-those chosen by the gods as best] literal translation (infinitive subject and predicate in the accusative)
- They think their nature is more competent than that chosen by the gods to be best. idiomatic translation
Oratio recta / direct language would have been: OM NOM ἡμετέρα φύσις NOM ἱκανωτέρα NOM ἐστὶ FIN τῆς ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν προκριθείσης. "Our nature is more competent than that chosen by the gods as best". (Articulated noun - subject of the finite verb - and predicate adjective both in the nominative)
And here is an example that doesn't involve indirect language:
- ἐβούλοντο οὖν [δοκεῖν αὐτὸν [ἄκοντα καὶ μὴ ἑκόντα μηνύειν]], ὅπως πιστοτέρα ἡ μήνυσις φαίνοιτο.
- Per 3rd pl wanted - she [seem INF him ACC [not ready ACC and not ready ACC too to inform INF ], so that the disclosure of information should appear more credible. literal translation (Topic of the first infinitive in the accusative, predicates with the second, embedded, infinitive also in the accusative)
- Their will was that he could involuntarily and involuntarily appear as an informant, so that the disclosure of information should appear more credible. idiomatic translation
This construction, accusative and infinitive, is also always present when the main verb is an impersonal or an impersonal verbal expression and the infinitive clause acts as the subject (here, too, there is no indirect language). In such cases, of course, the infinitive has its own theme. An example:
- [ὑμᾶς ACC ] χρὴ [τὴν αὐτὴν γνώμην ἔχοντας ACC τὴν ψῆφον φέρειν].
- [You ACC ] necessary - is [the same opinion with ACC carry the voice INF ] literal translation (The theme of the infinitive ὑμᾶς is in the accusative; the participle ἔχοντας also shows agreement with this pronominal form)
- It is necessary that you vote with the same opinion. idiomatic translation
Nominative and infinitive
If the subject of the infinitive is identical to the subject of the authoritative verb (co-reference), it is usually omitted and understood in the nominative. The phenomenon is traditionally referred to as a type Fall attraction understood (For a modern perspective and relevant modern terminology see also large PRO and small pro and control constructions). In the following examples, infinitive clauses are put in brackets ; Core elements are indexed with a subscript "i".
- οἱ Συρακόσιοι i ἐνόμιζον [PRO i πολέμῳ οὐκέτι ἂν περιγενέσθαι INF ]. (Possible infinitive)
- The Syracusans, to the I thought [PRO i by-was no longer could himself INF push through ]. (literal translation)
- The Syracuseans i believed [that she i could no longer rule the war]. (idiomatic translation)
- Oratio Recta / Direct speech: Πολέμῳ οὐκέτι ἂν περιγενοίμεθα. "We could no longer prevail in the war." (Possible option)
- [Πέρσης i NOM ] Per i ἔφη [PRO i εἶναι INF ].
- [Persian i NOM ] Per i said-he [PRO i be INF ] (literal translation)
- He I said (that) he I was (a) Persian I . (idiomatic translation)
Πέρσης is a predicate noun in the nominative case that shows the correspondence of upper and lower case with an understood and omitted pronoun (this is Coreferential Pro i and PRO i ).
- Oratio Recta / Direct speech: Πέρσης εἰμί. "I am (a) Persian".
Note: There are certain cases where the subject of the infinitive, whether declarative or dynamic, is put in an accusative even though it is related to the subject of the main verb. There is emphasis or contrast in this mechanism. An example:
- σχεδόν τι pro i οἶμαι [ ἐμὲ i ACC πλείω χρήματα εἰργάσθαι ἢ λλους σύνδυο ACC [οὕστινας βούλει] τῶν σοφιστῶν].
- almost in-some-degree pro I I think to myself ACC have more money earned INF than others ACC two together ACC [whoever how-you] of-the sopisths]. (literal translation)
- I i pretty good i think me made more money than any other two sophists put together your choice. (idiomatic translation)
This is where the unemphatically dropped null subject (if emphatic, a first person pronoun should ἐγώ i NOM be present) of the main verb directly after the verb within the infinitive clause in the accusative (ἐμέ, "I") repeated emphatically. The meaning is "I believe I it’s the one who made more money than any other two sophists put together - You can choose who you want. "The comparative noun phrase ἢ ἄλλους σύνδυο shows the agreement of the cases with ἐμέ .
- Oratio recta / direct language form: OMγὼ NOM πλείω χρήματα εἴργασμαι ἢ λλοι σύνδυο NOM [οὕστινας βούλει] τῶν σοφιστῶν. "I made more money than anyone else ..."
This is where the subject now becomes ἐγώ of the finite verb εἴργασμαι (a perfect indicative) emphatically pronounced in the nominative; The second part of the comparison, ἢ ἄλλοι σύνδυο , agrees with the nominative.
Topic omitted and understood in an oblique case (genitive, dative or accusative)
When the infinitive subject matches a word constructed with the authoritative verb at a higher syntactic level, in other words, when the subject of the infinitive itself is (a second) argument of the authoritative verb, it is usually either omitted and understood in the oblique case in which the second argument is put (see also the reference to PRO and control structures in the previous paragraph), or in the accusative as in an accusative and infinitive construction (but with the accusative noun or pronoun, which is mandatory suppressed and implies) .
- νῦν σοι i DAT ἔξεστιν, ὦ Ξενοφῶν, [PRO i ἀνδρὶ DAT γενέσθαι].
- Now is for you DAT , Xenophon, possible [PRO i man DAT becomes INF ]. literal translation
- Now it is possible for you, Xenophon, [to become a man]. idiomatic translation
- (Predicate noun ἀνδρί "a man", if it matches the dative σοι "for you".)
- GENρου i GENE ἐδέοντο [PRO i ὡς προθυμοτάτου GENE πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον γενέσθαι].
- Cyrus I GEN Pro begged for it [PRO i as eagerly as possible GENE against the war INF ]. literal translation
- You beg Cyrus i [to be like zeal i as possible in the war]. idiomatic translation
- (Predicate adjective προθυμοτάτου "willig" indicates case agreement with the genitive object τοῦ Κύρου "Cyrus".)
- Πολέμαρχος ὁ Κεφάλου ἐκέλευσε τὸν ACC παῖδα i ACC [PER i δραμόντα ACC [περιμεῖναί ἑ] κελεῦσαι (ἡμᾶς)]].
- Polemarchus the of-Cephalus commanded that ACC- Boys ACC [ ACC To run [ INF wait for him ] INF to order (us)]. literal translation
- Polemarchus son of Cephalus ordered his boy [to run and offer (us) [to wait for him]]. idiomatic translation
In all of the above examples, the case of the subject of the infinitive is determined by the case requirements of the main verb and "the infinitive is appended as the third argument" (In relation to the second and third examples, we have to do this in modern linguistic terms with an object control construction). As for the first two, this construction is traditionally sometimes used (in Latin terminology) Dativus cum infinitivo or Genitive cum infinitivo ( Dative with the infinitive or. Genitive with the infinitive ) called and as Fall attraction , the dative, viewed or genitive is used instead of a predicate in the accusative: ἄνδρα, ὡς προθυμότατον; see also below.
On the other hand, as indicated by predicate adjectives / -sunstantive or participatory components of the infinitive clause, it is not at all unusual for an accusative to be understood as the subject of the infinitive as in the following examples and to illustrate it by the context. In relation to the genitive, a predicate noun or participle is usually in the accusative, while an adjective can be in either the accusative or the genitive. As for the dative case, the choice between a word in accordance with a dative case and an accusative case seems to be determined by the speaker's / writer's preference.
- Λακεδαιμονίοις i DAT ἔξεστιν [PRO i ὑμῖν φίλους ACC γενέσθαι].
- For-Lacedaemonians DAT is possible [to you friends ACC ] becomes INF ]. literal translation
- It is possible that Lacedaemonians [become friends to you]. idiomatic translation
- (The predicate adjective φίλους "friends" is in the accusative case, if it matches an understood and omitted accusative subject Λακεδαιμονίους "Lacedaemonians". It is possible that the accusative of Thucydides is preferred here to avoid an accumulation of data that would produce Ambiguity or even incomprehensibility: Λακεδαιμονίοις-υμῖν-φίλοις )
- δεόμεθ᾽ οὖν ὑμῶν GENE [ἀκροάσασθαι τῶν λεγομένων, ἐνθυμηθέντας ACC ὅτι ...]
- we then beg from you GENE [listen carefully INF of what is said, taking into account ACC, that ...] literal translation
- We then ask you [to listen carefully to what is being said, bearing in mind that ...] idiomatic translation
- (Participle ἐνθυμηθέντας in the accusative "keep an eye", in the case of an omitted / understood accusative ὑμᾶς "you".)
This construction is mandatory if the infinitive in a slanted case, usually an attributive (and also in the nominative), is dominated by a participle. Here the predicate adjective always shows agreement with the case of the leading participle. An embedded participation clause such as φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοί "claims that they are wise" or οἱ φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοί "Those who claim they are wise, however, are rejected in this way in any other word order (see any of the following Updating and focusing):
- (οἱ) φάσκοντες σοφοὶ NOM εἶναι
- (τοὺς) σοφοὺς φάσκοντας ACC εἶναι
- (τῶν) φασκόντων GENE εἶναι σοφῶν GENE
- (τοῖς) σοφοῖς DAT εἶναι φάσκουσι DAT
In the phrase structuring above, the predicate adjective σοφοὶ "wise" is always set in the case of its participle φάσκοντες "claim".
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