How many square miles are 139 acres
The Prussian Measure in Prussia from 1816 to 1869.
Carl Friedrich Gauß, German mathematician, geodesist, astronomer and physicist (1777 - † 1855)
After the Napoleonic era and the Wars of Liberation, Europe was redistributed at the Congress of Vienna, which lasted a total of about 9 months. The results of the Vienna Congress were summarized in the Vienna Congress Act of June 9, 1815. The Prussian delegation at the Congress of Vienna was made up of Prince von Hardenberg and Wilhelm von Humboldt by prominent Prussian diplomats, but they wrongly only played a secondary role in the later history of the Congress of Vienna. But what you achieved should pave the way for Prussia to the top in the German Confederation and severely weaken Austria. Prince Metternich, the State Chancellor of the Habsburg Empire, made serious speculations that instead of keeping Prussia small, he involuntarily created all the conditions for the further rise of Prussia, but unfortunately also for its later fall. Hardenberg and Humboldt could not have known that yet, but with the Rhine-Ruhr area, which later became the province of Westphalia, Prussia gained access to raw materials and a huge industrial area emerged in just a few years. The German Federal Act as part of the Vienna Congress Act was much more important for the further development of the Kingdom of Prussia. The Congress brought Germany back to the state of only loosely connected individual states of the declining Roman Empire of the German Nation, but without any national institutions to sheep. The unity and freedom hostile politics, especially the Austrian politics of Metternich was responsible for it. The Kingdom of Prussia got all core areas back, as well as the areas from the second Polish division including Danzig, and in the west it was awarded the Rhineland and Westphalia. As a result of this considerable increase in area in the west, the Kingdom of Prussia took over the so-called "Watch on the Rhine". This shift in emphasis from Prussia to the western border and then into Germany could and should not be without consequences. The eye of Prussian politics gradually shifted from the east to the west, which was a fundamental prerequisite for the later German unification process. Furthermore, it receives Western Pomerania with Rügen (Swedish Pomerania) and the northern part of the Kingdom of Saxony. Prussia now consisted of the provinces of East and West Prussia, Posen, Pomerania, Silesia (Lower and Upper Silesia), Brandenburg, Saxony, Westphalia and the Rhine Province. The province of West Prussia was united with East Prussia from April 13, 1824 to April 1, 1878 to form the Province of Prussia. In 1834, the small principality of Lichtenberg (11 square miles) with Saxe-Coburg-Gotha came to Prussia by contract of May 31, 1834 (PrGS: p. 159) and was annexed to the Rhine Province. Until 1866 there were no further significant changes in territory in the Kingdom of Prussia. After the German War in 1866, the new provinces of Schleswig-Holstein, Hesse-Nassau and Hanover were established.
The military catastrophe of 1806 and the subsequent conclusion of peace with Napoleon were actually in a certain sense a stroke of luck for Prussia. Due to the peace of Tilsit reduced to its core area, Prussia, Brandenburg and Silesia, the state was forced to reorganize. It was recognized that reforms in all areas of the state, from the military to the administration to the economy, were the top priority of the hour.
The implementation of the tax reform promised in the royal edict of October 27, 1810 had to take precedence over the social and military reforms recognized as much more urgent, in particular the regulation of landlord peasant conditions (edict of September 14, 1811). By the edicts of the year 1811 z. B. in Pomerania, from the 260 square miles of land owned by the knighthood (including 100 square miles of peasant land), 70 square miles of free property of the peasants.
Due to the fact that in the partly reclaimed, partly newly acquired parts of the country, under French rule, the establishment of a parcel cadastre had begun, by which the advantages of a new, more just cadastre were recognized, a new regulation of the property tax had become inevitable. The State Council, installed in March 1817 as the highest advisory body, called for a fairer distribution of the taxes levied in the provinces. The parcel cadastre for the reorganization of the property tax collection was completed and based on this model from the western provinces, a parcel cadastre was not created for the eastern provinces of Prussia until 1861.
But for the development of Prussia, the customs laws of June 11, 1816 for the core area and of May 26, 1818 for all of Prussia, which abolished all internal tariffs within the Prussian state territory, were of decisive and enormous scope. Anyone who was still on the road from Cologne to Königsberg in May 1816 had to be patient, as there were no fewer than eighty customs stations on the route, although the route largely led through Prussia. At each customs station there was a civil servant who carefully examined everything and collected the due customs fees. As a result, the journey took a very long time, not necessarily because the horse and carriage loved leisurely time.
No less than 58 internal tariffs, as well as all existing tariff barriers between the cities and the Plattenland, were removed. Only the salt and playing cards shelf remained, these products were still not allowed to be introduced. The customs border was moved to the state border. The economy and trade began to flourish enormously as a result of these impulses. This development led to the establishment of the Customs and Trade Association by Prussia on January 1st, 1833, which in the course of time almost all German states joined. The same applies to the German Mint Association, which was established on January 24, 1857. On January 1st, 1834, the customs borders between 18 German states ceased to exist and around 23 million Germans could now trade freely without having to fear controls and taxes within the customs union states. To collect import and export duties, the Zollverein introduced a decimal weight measure based on the French model, the duty pound of 500 grams.
From 1816, the Magdeburg measure was still in effect in principle, but was now valid throughout Prussia under the new name "Prussian measure". With the Prussian measure of 1816, the rut and mile remain the same as the Magdeburg measure (duodecimal system), but following the example of the new French, metric system, the smaller units were achieved by decimal division. But in view of the vehement resistance that the normal population in France initially opposed to the introduction of the metric system there, Prussia also shied away from officially introducing the metric system. The French were also not very popular with the people and the country had to be rebuilt after the war of liberation. So one stayed with the old, tried and tested system of graduation and measurement designations, but the Prussian "Measure and Weight Order of May 16, 1816" determines the sizes based on the Paris standard meter and the standard kilogram, which are derived from the Toise of Peru. From January 1, 1820, in all of Prussia, i.e. in all provinces, only the Prussian measure was valid. Other dimensions were only tolerated in private traffic.
If the line is defined by the decimal division of the inch, it is divided into 100 points; if the line is defined by duodecimal division, the line is divided into 144 points. The basic measure for the Prussian state is the Prussian factory foot. The customs after which the folding rule is named, takes its name from the Middle High German zol = knuckle. It was based on the width of your thumb. It is 1/12 of the foot with duodecimal division or 1/10 with decimal division. The inch is also broken down into a smaller dimension, the line. The decimal Prussian division gave the inch 10 decimal lines and the duodecimal Prussian division gave the inch 12 duodecimal lines. In practice, however, the Prussian decimal was once again only used by surveyors.
The Prussian foot is divided into inches on an "etalon a traits" by Eisen with the signature "Pistor & Schiek" made by Carl Philipp Heinrich Pistor, but the last inch is drawn in lines on an inlaid silver stripe. Like the “Toise du Peru”, it only has its legal length at 13 ° Réaumur.
Length dimensions in the duodecimal system (work dimension)
- 1 prussia. duodecimal scruple (point) = 0.1816281 millimeter (mm)
- 1 prussia. duodecimal line = 12 Prussia. Scruple = 2.179538 millimeters (mm)
- 1 prussia. duodecimal inch = 12 Prussia. Lines = 11.594167 Parisian lines = 144 Prussian lines. Scruple = 2.6154456 centimeters (cm)
- Basic dimension for the work dimension 1 prussia. duodecimal feet = 12 inches = 144 Prussian. Lines = 1,728 duodecimal scruples (point) = 139.13 Parisian lines = 313.85348 millimeters (mm) = 31.385348 centimeters (cm) = 0.31385348 meters (m)
- 1 prussia. Cubit = 2 feet + 1.5 inches = 25.5 inches = 295.65125 Parisian lines = 306 Prussian. Lines = 6.6693584 decimeters (dm) = 66.693584 centimeters (cm) = 0.66693584 meters (m)
- 1 prussia. Faden (sea creatures) = 6 feet = ½ Prussian. Ruthe = 824.78 Parisian lines = 188.31204 centimeters (cm) = 1.8831204 meters (m)
- 1 prussia. Fathoms = 6 feet = ½ Prussian. Ruthe = 188.311796352 centimeters (cm) = 1.88311796352 meters (m)
- 1 prussia. Laughter (mining) = 6 2/3 Foot = 8 eighths = 80 Prussian. Inches = 927.5333 parisian lines = 2.0923565 meters (m)
- 1 prussia. duodecimal Ruthe = 2 Prussia. Fathoms (klft.) = 12 Prussian. Feet = 1669.56 Parisian lines = 3.7662418 meters (m)
- ¼ pruss. Mile = 6000 feet = 1000 fathoms = 500 Prussian. Rods = 250 double rods = 1883.1212 meters (m) = 1.8831212 kilometers (km)
- 1 prussia. Mile = 24000 feet = 4000 fathoms = 3600 laughers = 2000 rods = 1000 double rods = 3864.722 parisian Toisen = 7532.4836 meters (m) = 7.5324836 kilometers (km)
- 1 geographical (post mile) mile = 23640 feet = 1966.79 Prussia. Ruthen = 1000 double Ruthen = 7407.4067 meters (m) = 7.4074067 kilometers (km)
- 1 degree of the equator = 14.751 Prussian. Miles = 111111.68 meters (m) = 111.11168 kilometers (km)
- 1 nautical mile = 1.8551 kilometers (km)
Length measures in the decimal system (field measure)
- Basic dimension when measuring the field1 decimal rod = 10 feet = 100 inches = 1,000 line = 10,000 scruples = 3.7662418 meters (m)
- 1 decimal scruple = 0.00037662418 meters (m)
- 1 decimal line = 10 decimal scruples = 1.66956 Parisian lines = 0.0037662418 meters (m)
- 1 decimal inch = 100 decimal scruples = 10 decimal line = 16.6956 Parisian lines = 0.037662418 meters (m)
- 1 decimal foot = 1,000 decimal scruples = 100 decimal line = 10 decimal inches = 166.956 Parisian lines = 0.37662418 meters (m)
- 1 decimal rod = 10,000 scruples = 1,000 decimal line = 100 decimal inches = 10 decimal feet = 1669.56 Parisian lines = 3.7662418 meters (m)
- ½ decimal mile = 100,000 decimal inches = 10,000 decimal feet = 1,000 decimal rods = 16695.6 Parisian lines = 3766.2418 meters (m) = 3.7662418 kilometers (km)
- 1 decimal mile (police mile) = 200,000 decimal inches = 20,000 decimal feet = 2,000 decimal rods = 7532.4836 meters (m) = 7.5324836 kilometers (km)
Area dimensions in the duodecimal system
- 1 square line = 4.750 square millimeters (mm²)
- 1 square inch = 144 square lines = 6.840 square centimeters (cm²)
- 1 square foot = 144 square inches = 0.09850404652 square meter (m²)
- 1 square meter (mining dimension) = 4.3780 square meters (m²)
- Basic dimension: 1 square rod = 144 square feet = 14.1845827 square meters (m²)
- 1 Prussian acre = 180 square rods = 25920 square feet = 0.2553224886 hectares (ha) = 25.53224886 Ar (a) = 2553.224886 (qm / m²)
- In Prussian Saxony, 1 field = 1 Prussian acre
- 1 Prussian square mile = 22222.29 acres = 5673.83952738 hectares (ha) = 4,000,000 Prussian square rods = 12,960,000 square lights = 56,738,328.0 square meters (m²)
- 1 geographic square mile = 21490.33 acres = 5486.95403626 hectares (ha)
Officially no longer approved and used from 1816:
- 1 hoof = 30 acres = 7.6597 ha = 7.6596.6 (m²)
- 1 sixties = 20 square rods = 284 square meters (m²)
Area measures in the decimal system
- 1 square line = 100 scruples = 0.0000141845827 square meters (m²)
- 1 square inch = 100 square line = 0.00141845827 square meter (m²)
- 1 square foot = 100 square inches = 1000 square line = 0.141845827 square meter (m²)
- Basic dimension: 1 square rod = 100 square feet = 10,000 square inches = 100,000 square lines = 14.1845827 square meters (m²)
To measure the fields, a Prussian square rod is divided up by the surveyors "into ten parts, one hundred parts and so on, as far as necessary".
Body and volume measurements:
A Prussian cubic inch is equal to 17.8911 cubic centimeters.
- 1 cubic inch = 1728 cubic lines = 17.891 cubic centimeters (cm³) = 0.17891 cubic meters (m³) = 178.91 milliliters (ml) = 0.017891 liters (l)
- 1 cubic foot = 1728 cubic inches = 2985984 cubic lines = 27 quart = 30.91584 cubic decimeters (m³) = 0.0309158439 cubic meters (m³) = 30.9158439 liters (l)
- 1 cubic rod = 1728 cubic feet = 12 manhole tubes = 1558.5424 Parisian cubic feet = 53.42257827 cubic meters (m³) = 53422.502 liters (l)
- 1 shaft trunk (Construction) = 144 pruss. Cubic feet = 4.4518815 French Steren = 4.4518815 cubic meters (cbm / m³) = 44.518815 square meters (m²)
- (1 shaft tube is 1 rod long, 1 rod wide and 1 foot high)
- 1 cubic fathom (general, firewood) = 108 prussia. Cubic feet = 3.338911 cubic meters (m³)
- 1 fathom = 1.8-3.9 cubic meters (m³) (Plywood)
- 1 thread = 1.74 - 4.07 cubic meters (m³) (Firewood)
- 1 pile = 4.5 fathoms = 486 cubic feet = 15.025079 cubic meters (m³) (e.g. for wood, peat)
- 1 pile of coal = 28 bushels
Measure of capacity, firm (Grain dimensions)
The muzzle and the bushel are the only legal measures of grain that are permitted for public negotiations. All other dimensions may only be used in private traffic. In public as well as in private use, the grain is now only coated and no longer measured in bulk.
- 1 cup = 0.858773 liter (l)
- 1 quart = 64 cubic inches = 1.1450313 liters (l)
- 1 Cubic Feet = 27 Quarts = 1728 Cubic Inches = 30.915845 Liters (L)
- Basic dimension 1 Metze = 4 Mäßchen = 3 Quart = 192 Prussians. Cubic Inches = 3.435094 Liters (L)
- 9 Metzen = 1 Prussian. Cubic feet
- 1 fourth (quarter) = 4 Metzen = 13.740376 liters (l)
- Basic dimension 1 bushel = 4 quarters = 16 Metzen = 16/9 cubic feet = 48 quart = 3072 Prussian. Cubic inches = 54.9615 liters (l) = 0.549615 hectoliters (hl)
- 9 bushels = 16 Prussian. Cubic feet
- 1 ton (salt, coal, etc.) = 4 bushels = 64 Metzen = 12288 cubic inches = 219.8460 liters (l) = 2.198460 hectoliters (hl)
- 1 ton (linseed) = 2 bushels = 37 2/3 pruss. Metzen = 7232 Prussia. Cubic Inches = 129.38853 liters (l) = 1.294 hectoliters (hl)
- 9 tons = 64 Prussian. Cubic feet
- 1 Malter = 3 tons = 12 bushels = 192 Metzen = 36864 cubic inches = 6.59532 hectoliters (hl) = 659.532 liters (l) since 1841
- before: 1 Malter = 4 bushels = 6.955 hectoliters (hl) = 695.5 liters (l)
- 1 Wispel = 2 Malter = 6 tons = 24 bushels = 96 quarters = 384 Metzen = 1536 Mäßchen = 13.190760 hectoliters (hl) = 1319.0760 liters (l)
- 1 load of rye and wheat = 3 wispel = 72 bushels = 1152 Prussia. Metzen = 3957.228 liters (l)
- 1 load of grain in general = 2.5 Wispel = 60 bushels = 960 Metzen = 3297.6902 liters (l)
- 1 load of oats and barley = 2 wispel = 48 bushels = 768 Metzen = 2638.1522 liters (l)
- 1 load of hard coal = 18 tons of pit size
- 1 railway wagon = 2 - 3 load of hard coal
To collect the tax on liquids, only quart and pail are used.
Volume dimensions, liquid (Liquid measures)
- 1 prussia. Mäßchen = 0.858773 liter (l)
- 1 prussia. Measure = 1 ½ liter (l)
- Basic dimension1 prussia. Quart (cloth) = 64 cubic inches = 1/27 Cubic Feet = 1.1450313 Liters (L)
- 1 prussia. Cup = 3 Prussian. Quart = 3.435094 liter (l)
- 1 prussia. Anchor = 30 Prussian. Quart = 34.35075 liters
- 1 prussia. Bucket = 2 anchors = 60 Prussian. Quart = 68.7015 liters (l)
- 1 prussia. Ohm = 2 buckets = 4 anchors = 26 quarters = 104 dimensions = 120 Prussian. Quart = 137.403 liters (l)
- 1 prussia. Tons (for beer) = 100 Prussian. Quart = 114.5 liters (l)
- 1 prussia. Oxhoft = 1 ½ ohms = 3 buckets = 6 anchors = 180 Prussian. Quart = 2.061054 hectoliters (hl) = 206.1054 liters (l)
- 1 prussia. Barrel (for beer) = 2 tons = 200 Prussian. Quart = 229 liters (l)
- 1 prussia. Kufe (for beer) = 2 barrels = 4 tons = 400 Prussian. Quart = 458 liters (l)
- 1 prussia. Fuder = 4 Oxhoft = 6 Ohm = 12 buckets = 24 anchors = 720 quart = 8.24418 hectoliters (hl) = 824.418 liters (l)
- 1 prussia. Gebräude (for beer) = 9 runners = 5 Fuder = 3,600 quart = 4,122 liters (l)
Weights from 1816 to 1869
- 1 grain = 0.03654 milligrams (mg) (Prussia before 1858)
- 1 cent = 10 grain = 0.3654 milligrams (mg) (Prussia before 1858)
- 1 ounce = 3.654 grams (g) (Prussia before 1858)
- 1 lot = 4 quents = 14.616 grams (g) (Prussia before 1858)
- 1 pound = 32 lot = 16 ounces = 128 quents = 467.7112 grams (g) (Prussia before 1858)
- 1 hundredweight (Ztr.) = 110 pounds (lbs) = 51.448 kilograms (kg) (Prussia before 1858)
- 1 quintals (dz) = 220 pounds (pounds) = 102.896 kilograms (kg) (Prussia before 1858)
- 1 scruple = 1/24 Ounce (pharmacy)
- 1 part = 3.2115 milligrams (mg)
- 1 grain = 16 parts = 51.3843 milligrams (mg)
- 1 carat = 4 gren = 64 parts = 205,537 milligrams (mg)
- 1 ounce = 144 carats = 2 lot (trade) = 28.35 grams (g)
- 1 salt sheffle = 101.25 pounds = 47.355759 kilograms (kg)
- 1 salt ton (t) = 4 salt shells = 405 pounds = 189.42304 kilograms (kg)
- 1 ton (t) = 20 quintals (Ztr) = 1028.96 kilograms (kg)
- 1 ship load = 4000 pounds = 1870.8448 kilograms (kg)
Please note that the weight in grams is French grams, which are calculated according to the French measurement of November 2nd, 1801. The following definition applied at the time: One cubic decimeter of distilled water, measured in a vacuum at its greatest density and a temperature of 4 ° according to the 100-part mercury thermometer or at 3.5 ° according to the Réaumur mercury thermometer, results in the weight of 1 kilogram.
|lb||Ounces||Loth||Drachmas (quintlets)||Scruples||Gran (stye)||holl. Assen||Richtpfennig|
The old Berlin normal pound was 256 pennies heavier than the Cölln coin pound. The normative Berlin normal weights were kept as standard weights by the Berlin magistrate.
|Hundredweight||lb||mark||Loth||Tiny bit||Grän||Franz. Grammen|
Weight measurement of the German Customs Union from July 1, 1858.
With the establishment of the German Customs Union on March 22, 1833, with effect from January 1, 1834, the weight units of the inch pound and inch centner were also introduced. These received the values of 500 grams (g) for the pound and 50 kilograms (kg) for the hundredweight, which are still known in everyday language. From 1839 the tariff of 100 pounds of 500 grams (g) became binding for all member states in trade with one another. The Dresden Coin Convention of 1838 established the Prussian Cologne Mark in silver as the standard measure for the southern German guilders and the northern German thalers. To facilitate mutual payment transactions, the so-called club coin with a fixed silver content of 33.333 grams (g) and 37.1 grams (g) total weight is introduced as the common main silver coin. It has been the customs union's railroad weight since 1852. At the end of the 1850s, the first states also adopted these units as their general national weight for trade. By law of May 17, 1856, Prussia abolished the old pound and also introduced the customs pound as a general national weight, which, however, only came into effect on July 1, 1858. From May 5, 1857, the customs pound also became the coin weight of the Zollverein and in 1862 the postal weight of the German-Austrian postal association. The inch pound is said to weigh 1 pound and 2.209158143 loth of the old Prussian pound. From July 1, 1858, the customs pound is also the new medical and jewelery weight in Prussia. As early as in the Customs Union Treaties of 1833, the states involved agreed to work to ensure that the same system of coins, measurements and weights should be used in all countries of the association. A uniform measure and weight system was only adopted in the North German Confederation, and a uniform currency was only established in the German Empire in 1873.
On January 1, 1872, the order of measure and weight for the North German Confederation became the order of measure and weight for the German Empire. This ended the Prussian independence in questions of size and weight.
- 1 grain = 0.016667 milligrams (mg)
- 1 cent = 10 grains = 0.16667 milligrams (mg)
- 1 ounce = 10 centimeters = 1.6667 grams (g)
- 1 inch loth = 10 quents = 16.6667 grams (g)
- 1 inch pound = 30 inch plumb bob = 500 grams (g) (Deutscher Zollverein from 1833)
- 1 inch-quintals (Ztr) = 100 inch-pounds (lbs) = 106.904 old Prussian pounds = 50 kilograms (kg)
- 1 inch quintals (dz) = 100 kilograms (kg)
- 1 inch ton (t) = 1000 kilograms (kg)
- 1 inch ship load = 40 inch-quintals (Ztr) = 4000 inch-pounds = 2000 kilograms (kg)
The coin pound has 500 grams (g), but is divided into 1,000 parts and the tenth part of a thousandth of a pound is called an ace (Aß) so 1 coin pound has 10,000 ace.
The Prussian Thaler coin was minted from 1750 to 1856.
Until 1821: 1 Reichsthaler = 24 groschen = 288 pfennigs.
From 1821: 1 Reichsthaler = 30 silver groschen = 360 pfennigs.
Count or piece measure
The count or piece measure: See below ► The count or piece size.
Measure and weight order
The Order of Measures and Weight for the Prussian States from 1816.
See below ► The Order of Measures and Weight for the Prussian States from 1816.
|Area dimensions||until 1577 Alt-Kulmisch||1577 - 1721 Neu-Kulmisch||1721 - 1755 (1792) Oletzkoisch||from 1793 Magdeburg measure||from 1816 Prussian|
|1 rod||4,322 m||4,389 m||4.170 m||3,766 m||3.766236 m|
|1 square rod||18,678 square feet||19,265 square feet||17.387 square meters||14,185 square meters||14,184 square feet|
|1 morning||0.5603 ha||0.5780 ha||0.5216 ha||0.2553 ha||0.255322 ha|
|1 hoof||16.810 ha||17.339 ha||15,648 ha||15,318 ha||7.6597 ha|
Examples of the conversion of old area dimensions into the new Prussian dimensions
- 1 old Culmian hoof = 30 old Culmian acres = 65.840 Prussian acres = 11851.2 Prussian square rods = 16.8090 hectares (ha)
- 1 old-fashioned hook = 20 old-fashioned acres = 43.893 Prussian acres = 11.206 hectares (ha)
- 1 old culinary acre = 300 square rods = 0.5603 hectares (ha) = 5603 square meters (m²)
- 1 old-fashioned square rod = 1.316782 Prussian square rods = 18.678 square meters (m²)
- 1 Neukulmischer Hoof = 67 Prussian acres = 12060 Prussian square rods = 17.338896 hectares (ha)
- 1 Neuchâtel morning = 2 Prussian acres = 47.50 Prussian square rods = 0.577963 hectares (ha)
- 1 neo-Culmian square rod = 1.3582 Prussian square rods = 19.26544 square meters (m²)
- 1 Oletzkoische hoof = 61 Prussian acres = 10980 Prussian square rods = 15.648351 hectares (ha)
- 1 Oletzko acre = 2 Prussian acre = 7.70 Prussian square rods = 0.521611 hectares (ha)
- 1 Oletzko square rod = 1.2258 Prussian square rods = 17.378 square meters (m²)
- Before 1793, 2 acres were about 1 hectare (ha = 10,000 square meters)
- After 1793, 4 acres were approx. 1 hectare (ha = 10,000 square meters) in size
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