What does army mean?

Federal Department of Defense, Civil Protection and Sport

The security situation in Europe has deteriorated overall in recent years. In addition to the ongoing threat from terrorism, it is above all so-called ambiguous or hybrid conflicts that shape the perception of threats today. A few years ago, a distinction was generally made between conflicts that were conducted either with conventional or unconventional means and methods, between regular and irregular actors, and between symmetrical and asymmetrical approaches and power relations. On the other hand, there is likely to be an increasing mix of all these forms in the future, a combination of forms of conflict and actors, which creates a threat that is difficult to grasp. For an aggressor, it is a matter of destabilizing and paralyzing a state and its society - covertly or openly - internally in order to achieve its goals without the open use of military means. A direct confrontation with the defender's army is avoided if possible; An open conventional attack with military forces usually only takes place - if at all - when coordinated defense is no longer to be expected or when the balance of forces is advantageous for the attacker. In principle, the aim is to achieve the strategic goals with no or only a limited open use of conventional military force.

In the context of a hybrid threat, there is still the possibility that conventional, regular military units will be deployed, either to achieve a deterrent effect or to bring about a decision in a military conflict. For example, regular units armed with tanks and artillery could march on the border and additionally threaten a state that has already been destabilized by sustained violence on a large scale in the interior of the country. It is also conceivable to use it to create a fait accompli through a surprising action right at the beginning of a conflict. The ability to repel a conventional armed attack will therefore continue to be essential for a defender in the future.