What does information abundance mean

navigation

As the skipper, what do you have to pay attention to with regard to the nautical charts and nautical books before starting your journey? For completeness of the documents and their correction up to date. Why does the respective map date absolutely have to be taken into account in the GPS navigation? Because the reference system used by GPS WGS 84 (World Geodetic System 1984) can differ from other reference systems used (map datum). What differences can arise between WGS 84 and other reference systems? The differences between φ and λ are generally of the order of 0.1 kbl to 1 kbl, i.e. approximately 20 to 200 m. Larger differences can occur. Where can you find information on the reference system used on the nautical chart and, if necessary, corresponding correction notes? On the edge of the card under the title. What is the correction note regarding GPS in the nautical chart if the map data used (e.g. ED 50) and WGS 84 do not match? Positions in WGS 84 obtained by satellite navigation (e.g. GPS) are to be relocated 0, ... minutes north / south and 0, ... minutes west / east in order to match this map. How do you know until when a German nautical chart is "officially" corrected? At the correction stamp of the BSH or an official nautical chart correction agency. How do you know until when a British nautical chart is "officially" corrected? On the correction stamp on the back of the nautical chart. What does the stamp on the British nautical chart mean: Corrected up to N.T.M. 3595 1998? Nautical chart is corrected until notification number 3595 of the Admiralty Notices to Mariners (N.T.M.) in 1998. What information do the messages for seafarers contain (NfS)? In the NfS, measures, events and changes that are important for safe navigation are announced on the maritime waterways, on the high seas and in the territorial waters of other countries in the European and adjacent areas. In which language are the messages for seafarers (NfS) written? The information is provided in German and English. What information do German and British beacon lists contain? Description of beacons, lightships and large barrels as well as their geographical location. Which floating navigation signs are not given in the British List of Lights and in German beacon lists? Tons less than 8 m high. Where can you find information on the characteristics of the shipping signs? In the beacon lists or in the List of Lights as well as excerpts in the nautical charts. In card 1 / INT 1 of the BSH. Floating shipping signs also in Annex I to the SeeSchStrO (e.g. tons of the lateral or cardinal system). What do the heights of the beacons in beacon lists in the North and Baltic Seas refer to? In waters with tides (e.g. North Sea) to mean high water, in tidal waters (e.g. Baltic Sea) to mean water level. Where can you find information about bridge signals? In the nautical and port manuals and in the nautical charts. What topics (rough breakdown) do the BSH's sea handbooks contain? Shipping matters, natural conditions, coastal studies and sailing instructions. How are directions given in nautical publications? True in degrees, counting clockwise (to the right). In which quadrant is the red warning sector of a pilot light with the indication red 030 ° -042 ° (reason!) In the southwest quadrant. The bearings to the beacon are given. 1. What are leading lights? Leading lights are lights that, as top and bottom lights, designate a course in the fairway, through a port entrance or in the open sea space between shallows as a guideline, for example. 2. When are you in a guideline of a leading light? A ship is in the guideline when the top and bottom lights appear vertically below / on top of each other. 1. What are leading lights? 2. When are you in a guideline of a leading light? 1. Leading lights are lights that, as upper and lower lights in deck bearing, designate a course in the fairway, through a port entrance or in the open sea space between shallows as a guideline, for example. 2. A ship is in the guideline when the top and bottom lights appear vertically below / on top of each other. What is a gate fire? A gate light consists of two lights of the same height, the same light intensity and the same identifier, which are arranged on both sides of the fairway axis exactly opposite one another (at right angles to the fairway axis) and equidistant from the fairway axis. What is the "scope" of a fire? The scope is the distance at which a fire creates a light impression that is just clear in the eye of the observer. What is the "nominal range" of a fire? The nominal range is the range of a fire for a defined value with a meteorological visibility during the day of 10 nm. What does the "scope" of a fire depend on? It hangs, among other things. From the light intensity (brightness) of the fire and the visual value (light permeability of the atmosphere). On the nautical chart you will find the entry next to a beacon: 18 M. What does this information mean? It is the nominal range, here 18 nautical miles. What is the "range of vision" of a fire? What does it depend on? Visibility is the distance at which a beacon can be seen by the observer across the curvature of the earth (Kimm). It depends on the height of the fire and the height of the eye of the observer. How must scope and visibility relate to one another so that the "fire in the horizon" method can be used? The range must be at least equal to the range of vision. Where can I find tables for determining the distance between a fire in the rear sight? In German and British beacon lists. Where are the symbols and abbreviations used in nautical charts explained? In card 1 / INT of the BSH. Who publishes the Notices for Seafarers (BfS) and what do these publications include? The BfS are published by the respective competent authorities of the water and shipping administration of the federal and state governments. They contain all important measures and events on the maritime waterways and the exclusive economic zone of Germany. How are the notices for seafarers (BfS) brought to the attention of recreational shipping? The BfS are posted at the official notice points (e.g. at waterways and shipping offices, port administrations, WSP offices, locks, marinas) for the sea area in which the notice point is located and for the adjacent areas and areas as well as on the Internet at www.elwis.de brought to the attention. List the most frequently occurring events and measures about which the Announcements for Seafarers (BfS) provide information. Changes to lights, buoys and landmarks, changed water depths, wrecks, navigation obstacles, pipelines, etc., construction work, dredging work, military exercises and related closures or obstructions. Who publishes the nautical warning messages (NWN) and who distributes them? Nautical warning messages (NWN) are issued by the traffic control centers for their area of ​​responsibility and by the permanently manned Maritime Warning Service Emden for the entire German warning area for broadcast via radio. The broadcaster Deutschlandfunk broadcasts all NWNs submitted by radio. What does the addition "vital" mean in a nautical warning message (NWN)? The NWN receives the addition "vital" if the warning indicates a life-threatening danger. What is the special feature of the addition "vital" in a nautical warning message (NWN) for recreational shipping? Vital nautical warning messages for recreational shipping will be forwarded for distribution via selected private and public broadcasters from April 1st to October 31st. Who publishes the News for Seafarers (NfS) and how and how often is it published? The NfS are published by the BSH in booklet form and on the Internet and appear once a week. What documents do you have to correct UK nautical charts that are not recorded by the NfS? The British Notices to Mariners. 1. What are P messages? 2. How do you deal with these messages in the rectification procedure? (Reason!) 1. P messages are those that announce an imminent (preliminary) action. 2. Due to the limited period of validity, no corrections are made on the basis of P messages from the BSH or official nautical chart correction agencies. Therefore, before each nautical chart is used, the still valid P messages must be recorded and noted on the chart. 1. What are T messages? 2. How do you deal with these messages in the rectification procedure? (Reason!) 1.T messages are those that provide information about a temporary state. 2. Because of the limited period of validity, no corrections are made on the basis of T messages from the BSH or official nautical chart correction agencies. Therefore, before using each nautical chart, the still valid T messages must be recorded and noted on the chart. What do you have to pay attention to when navigating to a coast when selecting nautical charts? Give reasons for your answer. Use nautical charts as large as possible. Only in these maps are all the nautical signs and other information important for navigation entered. What do you have to consider when calculating the course with regard to the location misalignments given on the nautical chart? The magnetic declination specified for a specific year must be corrected for the current year using the annual change indicated on the nautical chart. What do you have to consider when using German "Sportbootkarten"? After printing, they will not be corrected either by the BSH or by the nautical chart sales outlets. So they have to be corrected by the user after purchase before use via the NtS to the current status. What rule of thumb can you use to convert m / s to knots? "Twice as many knots (kn) as m / s" or "m / s multiplied by 2 = kn". What do you have to watch out for when you record the trip determined with logging, e.g. B. want to be taken into account when working on nautical charts? The usual logging methods only deliver the "Drive through the water (FdW)". In order to determine the "travel over ground (FüG)", the direction and speed of the current must be taken into account. Which trip do GPS devices show? The ride over ground (FüG). Which course do GPS devices show? The course over ground (KüG). Why do you have to enter your position regularly on the nautical chart? In order to detect deviations from the course line early and reliably and to correct the course if necessary. What is cutlery relocation (BV)? Direction (rw) and distance (in sm) from the coupling location (Ok) to the observed location (Ob), based on the same point in time. What are the causes of cutlery misalignment (BV)? The BV can have the following causes: inaccurate steering and coupling, course errors (e.g. inaccurate control panel) and missing or incomplete consideration of electricity and wind. Why should the angle between two bearings not be less than 30 ° and not greater than 150 °? So that the found location provides a sufficiently reliable position determination. Why are regular compass checks necessary? To check the functionality of the compass and the values ​​in the distraction table. How can significant water level fluctuations and currents (e.g. drift current) also be caused in tideless areas? Due to the strength, duration and direction of the wind or "sloshing back" of pent-up water masses (e.g. Baltic Sea). What navigational preparations do you make before a journey in the dark? Determine courses and course change points in advance, if possible, mark shallows and obstacles on the map, mark on the nautical chart which beacons appear when and where in the chimney and search the route for unfired buoys. Which possibilities of terrestrial positioning do you need to know? Cross bearing, bearing and distance (fire in the rear sight, radar distance), bearing and sounding. Name two options for determining your location if you only have an object with known features (e.g. a lighthouse) in sight. Bearing and distance (fire in the rear sight, radar distance), bearing and sounding. Which north directions are differentiated in the navigation? Explain them briefly. rwN: true north is the direction of a meridian to the geographic North Pole. mwN: magnetic north is the direction of the earth's magnetic field to the magnetic north pole, depending on the ship's location and date (year). An undisturbed magnetic (compass) needle moves in this direction. MgN: is the direction to magnetic compass north. The compass needle on board, influenced by the ship's magnetic field, points in this direction. Name the angles between the north directions true north (rwN), magnetic north (mwN) and magnetic compass north (MgN). Mw: Magnetic declination is the angle from rwN to mwN. Abl: Deflection (Abl) or Deviation (Dev) is the angle from mwN to MgN. Name the angle between the north directions rwN and MgN. The angle from rwN to MgN is the misalignment (Fw; Abl + Mw = Fw). Where can you find the required magnetic declination values? What should you watch out for? The magnetic declination can be found on the nautical chart for a specific year. This value must be corrected to the year of use with the annual change also indicated on the nautical chart. Where can you find the required distraction (deflection) values? What should you watch out for? The deflection is taken from a distraction table. The lead time depends on the attached course. Why does a separate distraction table (control panel) have to be created for each vehicle? The diversion table can have different values ​​on each ship. What do you have to pay attention to when a magnetic compass bearing (MgP) is to be fed to a true bearing (rwP)? Take the Abl for the attached MgK (magnetic compass course) from the control panel (diversion table); attach the MW taken from the nautical chart for the current year to the MWC (magnetic course) obtained in this way. What are the prerequisites for a usable base line from a sounding? The sea bed must rise / fall sufficiently regularly and sufficiently steeply. In addition to the fairway buoys, there are other buoys on the maritime waterways that are particularly important for recreational shipping. Which shipping signs are these? Special characters for designating restricted areas and cardinal characters for general danger spots. From which nautical publications can you see restricted and prohibited areas and their boundaries? From the nautical charts, notices for seafarers (BfS) and nautical warning messages (NWN). Which special characters mark roadsteads, special areas or places, e.g. B. Warning areas? Yellow barrel barrels, light barrels, spar barrels or poles. Which special characters mark restricted areas? Yellow barrel barrels, light barrels, spar barrels or poles with a wide red band. Labeling on barrel or light barrel with black letters: "Sperrgebiet" or "Sperr-G". What color are fire on special characters, if any? Color yellow. What does the display of the following shipping signs mean: white barrel barrel, spherical barrel or pole with a right-angled yellow cross - seen from above - or with poles with a wide yellow band? Driving ban for machine vehicles and personal watercraft on water areas that are closed due to swimming. What is the angular position of the sun and moon in relation to the earth during spring and sipping time (the spring delay should not be taken into account here)? During springtime, the moon and sun are on the same level as the earth, while the connecting lines earth / sun and earth / moon are at right angles to each other. Explain the term "age of the tide". The age of the tide indicates in which phase (sipping time, midday, jumping time) the current tidal situation is. Why do you find z. B. at reference locations in the North Sea or in the English Channel only one high or low water per day at times? The period of rotation of the moon around the earth takes an average of 24 hours 50 minutes (lunar day) compared to the solar day (= 24 hours). Therefore the last HW or NW "slips" temporarily into the next day. Why and how can the actual water levels differ from the information in the tide tables, sometimes considerably? Significant changes in the water level can occur due to wind and / or very high or very low air pressure. HWH or NWH can be higher or lower than indicated, the high and low tide times can occur earlier or later than indicated. What does the depth information in nautical charts in the German waters of the Baltic and North Sea relate to? On map zero (KN). What is map zero? Map zero (KN) is the reference area for the depth information on a nautical chart. How is map zero (CN) defined in the Baltic and North Sea and in the English Channel? Where can you find the relevant information on the null map level? In the Baltic Sea, KN corresponds to the mean water level. In the North Sea and the English Channel, KN corresponds to the lowest possible tidal water level (LAT = Lowest Astronomical Tide). The zero map level is described in the respective nautical chart. What do you need to consider when plumbing the water depth outside of low tide times? At the next low tide, the water depth will be less than at the time of sounding. What is the map depth? The map depth (KT) is the water depth related to map zero. Map depth is water depth minus tide height. What is the minimum water depth you can normally expect when doing a sounding? With the map depth. What is the significance of the indication "springtime" for the water levels in tidal areas? Particularly high high tides and particularly low low tides are to be expected at spring time. What is the significance of the indication "sipping time" for the water levels in tidal areas? Particularly low high tides and particularly high low tides are to be expected at sipping time. What is the significance of the information "sipping time" or "spring time" for the tidal currents? At spring time, the tidal currents set z. Sometimes much stronger than at sipping time. Where can you find information about tidal currents in coastal waters? In tidal flow charts, sea handbooks, in nautical charts from tide flow tables, which are related to the high tide times of the reference location named there. On a nautical chart you will find the depth 23 near the coast. What does that mean? The place of the number is 2.3 m above map zero and can fall dry. How are map depth (KT), water depth (WT) and height of the tide (H) related? WT - H = KT or KT + H = WT (solution also possible as a sketch). Why is it important to record the time of sounding in tidal waters? To be able to determine from the tide table whether the water is rising or falling. What is a level? A scale to display the water level. What influence can the wind have on the tides? The wind can create currents and changes in water level that add to the tidal currents and tides. Name three important advantages of GPS. GPS works worldwide. The position display is available at all times. The position error is small. What is the typical and realistic accuracy of positions that are determined with GPS and DGPS? GPS: 10 - 20 m with a probability of about 95%. DGPS: 1 - 10 m with a probability of about 95%. Where do you have to expect inaccurate GPS displays? If the GPS antenna is shaded. Near airports and near television channels. Close to marine facilities. When using VHF devices and other electronic / electrical devices on board. What does the abbreviation GPS mean? Global positioning system. What is the basic principle of GPS? The determination of the location is made possible by measuring the transit time of GPS signals from the satellite to the receiver and thus by measuring the distance to the satellites. What does the abbreviation DGPS mean and according to which principle does DGPS work? DGPS = Differential Global Positioning System. This is a regional improvement in localization. Correction values ​​for the GPS measured values ​​are transmitted to the ships by radio from reference stations. What should you watch out for when installing a GPS antenna? It must have a clear view all around (without any shadowing). Perfect earthing. What does operating the MOB button on GPS devices do? The position at the time the button was pressed is saved. True bearing (rwP) and distance to this point are displayed. What does the statement mean: "The location accuracy is 100 m with a probability of 95%"? With a probability of 95%, the ship is in an error circle of 100 m radius around the observed location. So: every 20th location determination (5%) is less precise than approx. 100 m. How can you tell whether the GPS position is accurate or reliable? Through the HDOP (horizontal dilution of precision = satellite distribution) displayed by the receiver. By the number of satellites tracked as indicated by the receiver. By comparison with other navigation systems and the coupling position. What should you watch out for when entering a GPS location on a nautical chart? The reference system must match. This can be done by: Selecting and setting the card reference system in the recipient. Manual shift of the GPS location by the N / S and E / W correction given in the nautical chart. Use of nautical charts based on the WGS 84 system. What is a waypoint? Geographical coordination of a point to be controlled. What does WGS 84 mean and what does it achieve? Global reference system "World Geodetic System 1984". With this system (= reference ellipsoid in GPS) an optimal adaptation to the real shape of the entire earth body is achieved worldwide. How can radar echoes from small vehicles and barrels "disappear" from the screens of radars? Due to rough seas and / or precipitation, incorrect operation, too great a distance, yawing of the own vehicle with a relatively ahead-oriented radar display (head up). How can you determine your ship's location with radar? Bearing of the object gives a bearing beam as a baseline. Distance measurement with the VRM (Variable Range Marker) gives a distance circle as a baseline. How can you possibly prevent echo displays from targets (e.g. 2 tons, 2 pier heads) from overlapping? Select a short pulse length. Reduce the measuring range. What does the term AIS at sea mean? AIS is the name of the Automatic Identification System. What does AIS do? All equipped ships send their identity and a ship-related data record automatically (i.e. without request and human intervention) at regular short intervals. In addition, if necessary, safety-related messages can be sent from ship or shore stations. What is the range of an AIS on-board unit and what does it depend on? The range and propagation conditions correspond to those of VHF. In the case of merchant ships, one can assume from 20 to 30 nm. The range depends on the antenna height. How can the range of an AIS on-board unit be increased on the land side and what effect do obstacles (e.g. mountains) have? Under certain circumstances, the range can be increased (e.g. with the help of "relay stations"), whereby shading obstacles can also be bypassed if necessary. Which AIS data are sent by commercial vessels? Static data: ID, call sign, length and width of the ship, etc. When can one rely on the availability and display of AIS signals from other vehicles? Name the essential requirements! Other vehicles are only displayed if the vehicle is also transmitting, i.e. This means, if the vehicle is equipped with AIS, the transmitting vehicle has not switched AIS off (the captain is only allowed to do this for certain compelling reasons), GPS is active and for reasons of capacity (e.g. due to too many ships in a sea area = " target overflow ") no vehicles are excluded. How should the accuracy of AIS data be assessed (position and manually entered data)? Position: With AIS, in addition to the GPS position of a ship, information is transmitted as to whether it is a GPS or DGPS location. If the GPS position of a ship is incorrect, this incorrect position will be displayed on all other ships. Manually entered data: It must be expected that destination, draft, voyage status, etc. are wrong if they - e.g. B. out of negligence - not be updated by the ship's command. What is the special significance of AIS for recreational shipping compared to the radar display on other ships? Sports vehicles are often not displayed safely on the radar devices of other ships or the displays are lost in the clutter of the sea or in the wealth of information. Since the AIS data is now also displayed in the radar on many ships, there is a risk that sports vehicles will be even less conspicuous if they are not equipped with AIS themselves. Which navigation devices should you have at least on board on a yacht, even for short trips near the coast? Steering compass, bearing compass, plumb bob, log, clock. What is the minimum navigational equipment for a yacht in coastal waters? Give at least 6 examples. Steering compass, direction finding device, terrestrial or satellite-based radio navigation device, log, plummet, binoculars, barometer, world receiver for radio, sea books and updated sea charts for the sea area to be traveled, log book, clock / timepiece. What is the advantage of a spherical compass over a binocular compass? The spherical compass can still be used as a measuring instrument even with a greater heel. The spherical shape improves the readability of the compass rose (magnification effect). What influences the distraction of a compass permanently? Change in the magnetic state on board, e.g. B. Fixtures and changes in the position of equipment. What temporarily affects the distraction of a compass? Electronic devices (e.g. radio, cell phone), magnetized objects (e.g. tools, bearing compass) and direct current lines near the compass. What is the distance between magnetizable material and the magnetic compass? At least 1 meter.