Those who originally said share and conquer meaning

Share and conquer

Share and conquer

Judah Benjamin, the Confederate Foreign Secretary, was sent to England as a diplomat to seek British support for the Confederacy's struggle for independence. Britain refused to help the Confederates and remained neutral in the American Civil War.

But what if Benjamin had been successful? What if Britain entered the war on the south side?

Victory of the south

Judah Benjamin, a representative of the Confederation, travels to London and persuades Britain to join the Civil War for the Confederation. British forces are present at the Battle of Gettysburg, a Confederate victory. Washington and Baltimore fall into Confederate forces and British and Confederate forces prepare to attack Philadelphia. With a British blockade and a Confederate advance in the west, Abraham Lincoln is forced to sign a treaty recognizing the Confederate States of America ending the war as a success of the South.

The early years of the Confederation

Normalization of relationships

Relations between the United States and the Confederate States are weak and troubled. In what has been termed normalization (rather than reconstruction), many problems are being addressed, including both sides: creating a safe government for the Confederation, dividing western territory, and stopping the many "skirmishes" - or clashes between armed peasants near the border.

Two years after the war ended, Abraham Lincoln was murdered by a radical Republican, John Wilkes Booth, who was angry about how Lincoln had surrendered. During this time, radical Republicans wanted to attack the Confederation and defeat the nation once and for all. By the time Republican Ulysses S. Grant comes to power, it will be too late, but Grant will later lead the nation into war with Britain.

The Confederation stands ready to open all diplomatic relations with the United States. But it's not that easy in the north. The house is divided - radical Republicans, Democrats, Liberal Republicans are against each other.

The treaty of 1867 is the first formal agreement between the two nations. A buffer state is emerging in the west, the Republic of Colorado, which stretches from the Mexican border to the Platte River and covers the Great Plains and the southern Rocky Mountains. Oklahoma becomes an independent Indian reservation, but the United States remained diplomatic over the territory. In 1869 the two nations started trading.

Economic differences

The economic differences between the northern and southern states create tension as the two nations begin to trade with one another. The north is faced with massive immigration and industrialization, the south prefers a policy of isolationism. It is referred to as "pure Americanism". Although they do not rely on international trade, Confederate citizens (whites) are generally richer than US citizens because products are made by slaves and Confederates sell them, and therefore all the money they make is a profit. Capitalism is being abolished in the south and Americanism is taking its place - basically slavery. The United States is industrializing rapidly, while the Confederation remains a somewhat weaker agrarian state. This will be a major factor in US victory in World War I.

External Relations: 1870-1900

War in 1870

The war of 1870 was a conflict between the British Empire and Canada against the United States of America. The North American Confederation and Mexico supported the United States. The complete victory of the United States was the fall of the Dominion of Canada, which was partly ruled by Great Britain, and was replaced by a pro-American Republic of Canada. As part of the settlement, the area of ​​Toronto, Montreal, and Nova Scotia was occupied by the United States, which would hold it until over a century later in 1980.

The conflict was the culmination of years of tensions between the two nations that had built up since Britain's intervention in the Civil War and British aid to the Confederation. Republican President Ulysses S. Grant took office in Washington in 1868. He put an end to normalization efforts and called on the Confederation to repay the damage done in the battles of Philadelphia, Washington and Gettysburg, which the South refused to do. Fearing a US invasion of the Confederation, Britain sided with the South.

In the US, the Democrats and Liberals made important efforts to prevent a second war with the Confederation, but none of the opponents of the Republican Party could foresee war with the British. Meanwhile, the Confederation was growing in power - its rapidly growing army quadrupled between 1865 and 1870. This was mainly due to its strong alliance with Great Britain.

On July 2, 1870, US President Ulysses S. Grant sent a telegram to London calling on the United Kingdom to break off trade relations with the Confederation, otherwise American troops would invade Canada. The British and Canadians were outraged by the telegram. Britain, fearing the growing power of the United States, mobilized and declared war on July 19th. Britain declared war on only the US, but Mexico and Colorado quickly joined the United States.

The superiority of the American, Mexican and Colorado armed forces soon became apparent, also thanks to the efficient use of the railways and the impressively superior Krupp steel artillery. The United States had the second densest rail network in the world, and Canada was nowhere near it. A quick streak of American victories in southeastern Canada culminated in the Battle of Toronto, in which most of the Canadian and British armies were captured on September 2nd.

This ended Canadian rule and the Republic of Canada was established two days later, independent from Great Britain. Despite American officials planning to make peace with the new regime, the Republic of Canada refused to lose its territory. The United States launched a second offensive in Canada this week, and the war continued.

During a five-month campaign, American armies defeated newly recruited Canadian and British forces in a series of battles fought across eastern Canada. After a prolonged siege, Ottawa fell on January 28, 1871. All remaining French troops surrendered, and the Republic of Canada signed an armistice with the United States two weeks later. After the war, the United States experienced strong nationalism. The Detroit Treaty was signed between the United States and Great Britain in June 1871. The treaty ended the war and restored pro-British rule in Canada, annexing southern Ontario, southern Québec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia to the United States.

Crisis point

The 1877 war between the United States of America and the Confederate States of America lasted from 1877 to 1880. It was mainly fought on the Atlantic, on land, on the coasts and on the waterways of North America.

There were several immediate reasons for the United States to declare war - first, a series of trade restrictions put in place by the United States to prevent American trade with Britain, a country the United States was then at war with; Second, the US "Grant Doctrine" which refused to allow Confederate expansion into western North America; Third, the Yankees' military support for black slaves, who in the south often rebelled against white owners. A huge surge in Yankee nationalism after the US victory in the 1870 war created a feeling of "war fever". The Yankees realized that if they could defeat Canada and Britain so easily, then they could defeat the South as well. This became known as the "we could" theory.

Confederate expansion to the Southwest was strongly opposed by the United States. For example, in 1874 the Confederation claimed the rights to build a Pacific Port in San Diego and a railroad that linked it to the rest of the Confederation via Arizona and New Mexico. The United States stubbornly refused and came back to the Confederation with its own request to remove its base from Norfolk Virginia as it is close to the United States.

Some Yankee historians claimed in the early 20th century that the Confederates wanted to seize Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Colorado from the United States, a view most Yankees still share while others believe fear was just a CSA tactic before a seizure to get a negotiation chip. Members of the US Congress at the time claimed that land hunger and expansionism, rather than maritime trade disputes, were the main reasons the Confederation declared war.

Until 1875, the Confederation demanded free trade rights with Great Britain and other nations such as Mexico and Canada, but the Republican anti-Confederates refused. The United States also had the goal of preserving the Republic of Colorado, which the Confederation wanted to conquer and separate between the US and the CSA. The United States demanded that the state be preserved during a peace conference in 1879, but gave in when it realized the Confederation was not advocating it.

Frustrated with shipping, the United States torpedoed a Confederate ship in Chesapeake Bay heading for Britain. This happened on June 12th.

On June 18, 1877, the Confederate States declared war on the United States.

War in 1877

The war got off to a bad start for the Confederation in August 1877 when General George Custer rejected an attempt to invade the north and a force of 1,350 U.S. troops he commanded. This led to the Yankee capture of Nashville. A second invasion further west against West Virginia and Maryland was quickly defeated at the Battle of Washington.

The Confederation's strategy relied in part on state-raised militias that lacked training, resilience, or were unable to lead. Financial and logistical problems also plagued the Confederation's efforts. Military and civil leadership were absent and remained a decisive weakness of the South until 1879. Tennessee and Arkansas turned down the war because, if only lightly defended, they were exposed to the greatest threat of the Yankee invasion. The United States had excellent funding and logistics, but under the "poor" leadership of US President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Yankee strategy was defensive in the first year of the war. The United States did not go on the offensive until 1878, but by then the Confederates were fully mobilized and prepared to attack. At sea, the somewhat larger Yankee Navy blocked most of the south coast. The blockade destroyed Confederate agricultural exports, especially cotton and sugar. The Confederate strategy of using wooden boats failed when the Yankees searched the coast at will.

In August 1878, the Yankees invaded the Virginia coast. US soldiers landed in various locations in Chesapeake Bay, including an attack on Richmond. The Yankees burned the Confederate Capitol Building and other public centers in what is known as the Burning of Richmond. After this event, the Confederate Capitol was relocated to Atlanta, where it would remain in Atlanta, the Confederate capital, not only for the remainder of the war, but also for the time being.

The turning point came in 1878 when the Confederate forces crossed the Potomac River and began the siege of Washington. After massive bombing and naval attacks, the older US capital fell on September 15. After the evacuation of the president and government officials to Baltimore, the Confederation saw its first major victory over the north.

The Confederates were more successful at sea as they built several fast frigates in the large Norfolk shipyard. They sent out several small gunboats and some iron brackets to attack US ships; Yankees' commercial interests have been damaged, particularly in Latin America. The decisive deployment of naval power took place in the Chesapeake Bay and control of the Mississippi. In 1878 the Confederates took control of the entire Chesapeake Bay and bombed Baltimore. This cut off supplies to the west of the Yankee forces, and when the southerners reached the Glasgow Canal, the entire Delaware Peninsula fell to the Confederates.

After the fall of Delaware, the Confederates turned their attention to the mouth of the Delaware River called Dover Bay. If they took this bay, they would cut the US Navy off from the huge Philadelphia shipyards. Control of Dover Bay changed hands several times without either side being able or willing to take advantage of temporary superiority. The Americans finally gained control in 1879, and the victory forced a huge Yankee army that was about to invade to return this year. Both sides remained in a stalemate for a year. The Yankees attempted to retake the Chesapeake throughout 1879 and early 1880, but failed. In the United States, Republican popularity declined when it became clear that the Republican Party could not reunite the country.

In the 1880 election, Democratic candidate Winfield Hancock won. He wanted to make peace with the Confederation and did so by offering the territories of New Mexico, Arizona, Oklahoma, and Arkansas to the Confederation. Meanwhile, the areas of Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and Wyoming have been annexed to the United States. In 1880 the United States and the Confederate States of America made a peace that left the pre-war borders in the east untouched.

After four years of war, the main causes of the war had disappeared. Neither side had any reason to continue or a chance to achieve any decisive success, as the North and South were almost equal in military strength in 1880, despite the Confederation controlling more territory. As a result of the stalemate, the two nations signed the Treaty of Baltimore on December 24, 1880.

The war had the effect of uniting the people in both countries. The United States celebrated because it had avoided conquest and had lost far fewer lives than the Confederation. The unannounced goal was to unite the entire country under US rule, and the Republican Party would not prevail again until 1912 and be replaced a long time later by the ever-growing Reform Party, or "Yankee" party. The Confederates celebrated another victory over the north. This led to an increase in nationalism in their own country. After that war, they would become a platform for imperialism and interventionism in the Pacific and Latin America.

imperialism

"Grover's Race"

In 1888, US President Grover Cleveland coined the term "race" between the United States. Relations between the two nations were still weak after the war of 1877. But now the United States finally accepted the fact that the Confederation had won two wars and full independence. The Yankees developed this theory that they had the right to expand into the Pacific and Latin America, which was justified by the territory they lost during the Civil War. The Confederates, who experienced tremendous nationalism after the war of 1877, adopted a similar imperialist platform. The Confederation annexed Mexico's Baja Territory in 1887 and gave the Confederation access to the Pacific.

This began what Grover Cleveland called a race between the two nations, and the race later became known as "Grover's Race". The Confederation has bought up all of the debts of the Caribbean states, mainly in Mexico, Haiti, Panama, Santa Domingo, Jamaica and the Bahamas. In 1896 the United States annexed Hawaii and then bought Alaska from Russia.The Confederation, anxious not to lose its leadership over the Yankees, bought Panama and planned to build a canal across the country that would connect the Atlantic and Pacific. Yankee spies sabotaged plans for the canal, and construction was not due to begin until 1906.

Confederate Imperialism: Wars with Japan and Spain

In 1898, the Confederation waged war against Spain via Cuba and the Philippines and allegedly helped a Cuban uprising against Spanish rule. The Confederates quickly won the Spanish-American War. Meanwhile, the United States annexed the Oklahoma Panhandle, a more local Yankee gain. When the Boxer Rebellion broke out in China in 1900, both the United States and the Confederation helped European powers put down the anti-Western insurrection. Tensions increased very sharply. The Confederates have spoken out against the "Open Door Policy" of the USA from the start. After the rebellion was destroyed, the Confederation requested its own "sphere of influence" in China. European powers refused, especially Japan, which opposed the Confederate influence in the Pacific. The Confederation again threatened Japan with growing pride and nationalism and tried to provoke war. But the Confederates did not take the first step. Japan did.

On February 8, 1904, Japan attacked the American port of Manila in the Philippines in a surprise attack, followed by a declaration of war. Before American forces could even begin fighting the Japanese, Japan quickly blocked, bombed and began to take over the Philippines. The Americans failed to invade Japan's sphere of influence in Manchuria (China). Japanese forces also attacked the Confederates in Guam and Samoa. The war was fought slowly, mainly because of the distance between the two powers and because the Panama Canal was not built, the only Confederate port in Baja had to be their entire base during the Pacific War. The Confederates also requested that they could use the Yankee bases in Midway and Hawaii. The United States refused.

A year and a half later, in the fall of 1905, Japan won the war after the Confederates withdrew from China and the rest of the Pacific. The war embarrassed the Confederation and further increased tensions between the US and the CSA due to US support for Japan. Towards the end of the 20th century, the US and CSA were looking for a new part of North America that would play a new role in relations between the two powers: Mexico.

Latin America as a "powder keg"

At the turn of the century, the Confederate States of America and the United States were in a rivalry for supremacy in the Western Hemisphere. The Confederation still controls Sonora, Cuba and Panama and has built the Panama Canal and strategic naval bases in Midway and Samoa. Britain threatens war with the United States - if the Canadian territories of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and parts of Ontario do not return to Canada. But in 1904 the Confederation invaded Mexico and several island states in the Caribbean. The confederation occupied Cuba, Santa Domingo, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. The United States now occupy Alaska and Hawaii.

In addition, both nations had built up huge armed forces and formed alliances with European countries - Germany, Great Britain, France, Russia and Austria were involved in an arms race. Under these circumstances, the north and south seem to be on the way to a third war between them.

On June 28, 1914, Confederate President Woodrow Wilson toured Havana in occupied Cuba. Gerardo Machado, a Cuban nationalist, shot him dead in Wilson's motorcade. Machado was a member of the Puño Café, Spanish for Black Fist, a terrorist organization that fought against Confederate imperialism. The Black Fist was also funded and supported by Mexico.

After the assassination, the Confederation made three demands on Mexico: that Mexico surrender all members of the Black Fist it hosted, that Mexico surrender all weapons to the United States and pay a fine of $ 30 million. Mexico refused.

A month later, on July 28, the Confederation declared war on Mexico. The United States, whose influence in Central America was threatened, was mobilizing its armies, and a third war between the United States and the CSA was imminent.

First World War

background

First World War

date

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918 (armistice effective for the Confederation) The Weimar Treaty was signed on June 28, 1919.

place

Europe, North America and the Middle East (briefly in China and the Pacific)

Exit

Victory of the Central Powers; Collapse of the British, French and Russian empires; Weimar Treaty ratified; The civil wars in Russia and the Confederation are ongoing. Power shift from Great Britain and France to the USA and Germany.
Entente
  • Confederate States of America
Central Powers
Dead: 5.525.000

Wounded: 12.831.500

Missing: 4.121.000

Total: 22.477.500

Dead: 4.386.000

Wounded: 8.388.000

Missing: 3.629.000

Total: 16.403.000

The war to end all wars

Confusion among the Entente Powers

The strategy of the Entente Powers suffered from misunderstandings. Britain had promised to support the German invasion of Mexico, but interpretations of what that meant varied. Previously tested operational plans were replaced in early 1914, but never tested in exercises. Confederate leaders believed that Britain would force the US to focus on fighting British Canada and divert US troops from the war against the Confederacy. However, Britain envisioned the Confederation turning the majority of its troops against the United States, while Britain was dealing with Germany. This confusion forced the Confederate Army to split its forces between the American and Mexican fronts, which would prove to be one of the mistakes that cost the Confederation the war.

Mexican campaign

The Mexican army fought from August 12th in the battle of Sabinas Hidalgo against the invading Confederates and occupied defensive positions on the south side of the city. Over the next two weeks, Confederate attacks were repulsed with heavy losses, marking the Central Powers' first major victory of the war and undermining Confederate hopes for a swift victory. As a result, the Confederation had to hold sizeable troops on the Mexican front and weaken its efforts against the United States.

Anglo-French invasion of Germany

Britain and France attacked Germany through neutral Belgium before turning east to encircle the German army on the French border. The plan was for the right flank of the French advance to converge on Düsseldorf-Cologne, and the French were initially very successful, especially in the Battle of Koblenz (August 14-24). Until September 12, the Germans, with the support of Austria-Hungary, stopped the British-French advance south of Cologne in the First Battle of Bonn (September 5 to 12). The last days of this battle marked the end of the mobile war in the west. A small, ineffective German offensive into France further south began on August 7, and after the Battle of Colmar, German forces withdrew to Germany.

A stalemate war begins

In North America, only one British army was defending Canada's Niagara Peninsula, and when the United States attacked in that region, it diverted British-Canadian forces destined for the Western Front against Germany. Britain defeated the United States in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Toronto (August 17 - September 2). This diversion, however, exacerbated the problems of insufficient speed of advance of railroad heads, which the British did not foresee. The Entente Powers were thereby denied a quick victory and were forced to wage war on two fronts against the United States in North America and against Germany in Europe. The Anglo-French armies had fought their way into a good defensive position within Germany and permanently incapacitated 230,000 German troops when they had lost themselves. Even so, communication problems and questionable command decisions cost Britain and France an early chance of victory.

War in Asia and the Pacific

British New Zealand occupied Confederate Samoa (later Western Samoa) on August 30th. On September 11, the Australian Navy and Army Expeditionary Force landed on the island of New Pomerania, which was part of the Confederate Republic of New Guinea. Japan captured the Confederation's Micronesian colonies. By 1915, British troops landed on the Marshall Islands, Howland Island, Baker Island, Wake Island and Guam. Within a few months, the Allied forces had captured all of the Confederate territories in the Pacific. there were only a few Commerce Raiders and a few holdouts left in New Guinea.

Trench warfare on the German front

Military tactics prior to World War I had not kept pace with technological advances. These changes resulted in the creation of formidable defense systems that, for most of the war, could not be broken with outdated tactics. Barbed wire was a major obstacle to infantry advancement. Artillery, far more deadly than it was in the 1870s, along with machine guns, made traversing open terrain very difficult. The Germans introduced poison gas; it was soon used by both sides, although it was never found to be crucial to winning a battle. Its effects were brutal, causing a slow and painful death, and poison gas became one of the most feared and best remembered horrors of the war. Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics to break entrenched positions without great losses. Over time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons such as the tank. Germany was its main user; The British captured German tanks and built a small number of their own tanks.

After the First Battle of Bonn, both the Entente and the German armed forces began a series of flank maneuvers, known as the "Race to the River". The Germans tried to build a huge system of rifts that prevented the British and French from going deeper into Germany. The so-called Bismarck Line stretched from the Rhine in Bonn to the Dutch border in Aachen. Germany also placed massive gun emplacements on the Rhine bridges, which were soon reinforced so that crossing the Rhine soon became even more difficult than breaking the Bismarck Line. Germany wanted to take the offensive while Great Britain and France defended the occupied territories; As a result, the Entente Trenches were generally much better built than those of their enemies. German trenches were only supposed to be "temporary" before their forces broke through the Entente Defense. Both sides tried to break the stalemate with scientific and technological advances. On April 22, 1915, the Germans first used chlorine gas on the German front in the First Battle of Euskirchen (in violation of the Hague Convention). German troops withdrew when they were gassed, and a six-kilometer hole opened near Stolberg, which the Allies quickly exploited and temporarily occupied all of Aachen. German troops filled the gap in the Second Battle of Aachen. In the third battle of Aachen, German troops secured the city from the Entente forces.

Neither party was able to deal a decisive blow in the next two years, although the protracted Anglo-French actions in Düren throughout 1916 combined with the bloodshed in Bornheim put the exhausted German army on the verge of collapse brought. Unsuccessful attempts at a frontal attack came at a high price for the Germans and led to widespread mutinies, especially during the Kreuzau offensive. On July 1, 1916, the Bundeswehr experienced the bloodiest day in its history and suffered 57,470 victims on the first day of the Battle of Kreuzau, including 19,240 dead.

In the years 1915-17, Germany suffered more losses than both Entente powers combined due to the strategic and tactical stance chosen by the sides. At the strategic level, the Germans made several attempts to break through the Allied lines, while the British and French only fought a single main offensive in Düren. The Allied defenses included a slightly defended front position and a more powerful main position, further out of range of the artillery, from which an immediate and powerful counter-offensive could be launched.

On the western front there were around 1.1 to 1.2 million soldiers in the German army. Thousands of battalions, which occupied the stretches from the Rhine to the Belgian-Dutch-French border, operated with a month-long four-stage rotation system if no offensive was in progress. The front contained over 9,600 km of trenches. Each battalion held its sector for about a week before returning to the support lines and then to the reserve lines before being out of action for a week.

In the Battle of Hurtgenwald in 1917, the only significant German military success was the conquest of Hurtgenwald and opened up the possibility of a German advance into French Belgium. The Allies tried several times this year to retake Hurtgenwald, but failed on all three occasions. However, the Germans were extremely unprepared for an offensive in Belgium that claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. Instead, they holed up south of the Hurtgen Forest and built massive defense systems in the south and west of the city. The Hurtgenwald was conquered by the Allies in 1918.

War in Central America

Faced with the United States, the Confederation could only leave a third of its army to attack Mexico. After heavy losses, the Confederates briefly occupied Guadalupe. However, a Mexican counterattack at the Battle of Saltillo succeeded in driving them out of the country by the end of 1914. During the first ten months of 1915, the CSA used most of its military reserves to fight the United States. However, British and Confederate diplomats achieved a coup by persuading Guatemala to join an attack on Mexico. The Confederate provinces of Cuba, Bahamas and Haiti provided troops for the CSA, invaded Mexico and fought against Florida and the United States. Honduras allied itself with Mexico.

When the Entente powers counterattacked it was a great success. Mexico was conquered in just over a month. The attack began in October when the Confederates launched an offensive from the north; Four days later, the Guatemalans joined the attack from the south. Fighting on two fronts and facing defeat, the Mexican army retreated to the Mexico City area, stopping only once to fight back against the Guatemalans. The Mexicans were defeated at the Battle of Veracruz. US and Honduras ships attempted to bring the rest of the battered Mexican forces to Honduras. Confederate troops invaded from Guatemala and eventually conquered Honduras. The same ships carried about 5,000 Mexican troops to Panama, where they were eventually safe. This brave move was a success.

At the end of 1915, a German force landed in Cativa, Panama, to offer aid and pressure the government to declare war on the Allies. They failed and were recalled by Germany to fight in Europe.