# What does 5 log10

## log: logarithms and exponentials

### Description

computes logarithms, by default natural logarithms, computes common (i.e., base 10) logarithms, and computes binary (i.e., base 2) logarithms. The general form computes logarithms with base.

computes \ (\ log (1 + x) \) accurately also for \ (| x | \ ll 1 \).

computes the exponential function.

computes \ (\ exp (x) - 1 \) accurately also for \ (| x | \ ll 1 \).

### Usage

log (x, base = exp (1)) logb (x, base = exp (1)) log10 (x) log2 (x)log1p (x)

exp (x) expm1 (x)

### Argument

a numeric or complex vector.

a positive or complex number: the base with respect to which logarithms are computed. Defaults to \ (e \) =.

### Value

A vector of the same length as containing the transformed values. gives, and for negative values of is. is.

For complex inputs to the log functions, the value is a complex number with imaginary part in the range \ ([- \ pi, \ pi] \): which end of the range is used might be platform-specific.

### S4 methods

,,,, and are S4 generic and are members of the group generic.

Note that this means that the S4 generic for has a signature with only one argument, but that can be passed to methods (but will not be used for method selection). On the other hand, if you only set a method for the group generic then argument of will be ignored for your class.

### Details

All except are generic functions: methods can be defined for them individually or via the group generic.

and are only convenience wrappers, but logs to bases 10 and 2 (whether computed *via* or the wrappers) will be computed more efficiently and accurately where supported by the OS. Methods can be set for them individually (and otherwise methods for will be used).

is a wrapper for for compatibility with S. If (S3 or S4) methods are set for they will be dispatched. Do not set S4 methods on itself.

All except are primitive functions.

### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) *The New S Language*. Wadsworth & Brooks / Cole. (for, and.)

Chambers, J. M. (1998) *Programming with data. A Guide to the S Language*. Jumper. (for.)

### See So

, , .

### Examples

# NOT RUN {log (exp (3)) log10 (1e7) # = 7 x <- 10 ^ - (1 + 2 * 1: 9) cbind (x, log (1 + x), log1p (x), exp (x) -1, expm1 (x)) #}- Where did I get your six meanings from
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