So what a meme girl is running

Pronouns: relative pronouns

Relative pronouns are used generally for stylistic purposes; they help eliminate redundancy (of nouns) and connect ideas more smoothly.

Once upon a time there was a little girl.

+

Everyone loved the girl.

=>

Once upon a time there was a little girl that everyone loved.

Once upon a time, there was a little girl, whom everybody loved.

In other words, relative pronouns

  1. replace a noun whose referent is clear (i.e., a noun that has already been mentioned in the earlier part of a sentence / clause or in a previous sentence)
  2. introduce a clause (conceptually, an entire sentence) that describes a noun
Grandmother loved it most of all, who once gave the girl a red cap. The grandmother, who gave her a little red hat, loved her most of all.
One day the grandmother was sick and Little Red Riding Hood's mother gave the girl a basket in which she put a piece of cake and a bottle of wine. One day the grandmother was sick, and Little Red Riding Hood's mother gave the little girl a basket, in which she put piece of cake and a bottle of wine.
On the way to her grandmother, Little Red Riding Hood met the wolf, who was a very bad animal!On the way to her grandmother's place, Little Red Riding Hood met the wolf, who what a very evil animal!

Word order

There are two issues to consider in terms of word order when using relative pronouns: the word order in the relative (a type of subordinate) clause and the word order for the entire sentence.

Word order in the relative clause

The relative clause is introduced by either the relative pronoun or by a preposition + the relative pronoun. In German relative clauses, the conjugated verb typically goes to the end of the clause, although in some colloquial speech the word order is more relaxed. In more complex situations, such as a past subjunctive with a modal verb, the conjugated verb is placed before the double infinitive.

Little Red Riding Hood had a cake in the basketIn the basket Little Red Riding Hood had a cake
that his grandmother had baked.that she baked for her grandmother.
The wolf asked Little Red Riding Hood about his grandmotherThe wolf asked Little Red Riding Hood about her grandmother,
whose house he wanted to find.whose house he wanted to find.

Past subjunctive with a modal verb

If only Little Red Riding Hood was the wolf it shouldn't have trustedIf only Little Red Riding Hood hadn't told the wolf, whom she should not have trusted,
would not have told about his grandmother!about her grandmother!

When does the relative clause start with a preposition?

This is a relatively easy question (no pun intended ...). Relative clauses replace an entire sentence. Relative pronouns replace the redundant noun in this entire sentence. If this redundant noun was connected to a preposition, the preposition moves with it to the relative clause as well, this time connected to the relative pronoun:

We already know that the wolf will find the house where the grandmother lives. We already know that the wolf finds the housein which the grandmother lives.
(original: the grandmother lives in the house)
The wolf chooses the girl he is very interested inAt first, the wolf decides to leave the little girl, in whom he is very interested,
leaving first so he can catch the grandmother as well as the girl.so that he can snatch up both the grandmother and the little girl.
(original: he is interested in the girl)

Overall word order

The overall word order in a sentence that has a relative clause in it can follow two primary patterns. If the relative clause would separate a noun and only one or two short verbs at the end, then the relative clause is simply placed at the end of the sentence.

Red Riding HoodYou will definitely find the house my grandmother lives in!You will for sure find the house in which my grandmother lives!

If, however, the sentence continues on for a while after the noun, then the relative clause is embedded in that sentence and immediately follows the noun.

the wolfLittle Red Riding Hood, you should pick a fresh bouquet of these flowers that are all around and bring them back to your grandmother.Little Red Riding Hood, you should take your grandmother a fresh bouquet of these flowersthat are all around here.

Relative pronouns

In order to determine which relative pronoun you need to use, find out what the gender of the redundant noun is (will be the same in both original sentences), and find out what case the noun is in the sentence that will become the relative clause . In other words, the case and gender of the relative pronoun will match the case and gender of the noun in the replaced sentence!

Little Red Riding Hood goes deeper and deeper into the forest.

+

The forest is of course getting darker and darker.

=>

Little Red Riding Hood goes deeper and deeper into the forest, which of course is getting darker and darker.

Little Red Riding Hood goes deeper and deeper into the forest, which gets darker and darker, of course.

der Wald in the second sentence is masculine, nominative - therefore, the relative pronoun that replaces it has to be masculine, nominative as well.

nominativeaccusativedativegenitive
masculinethethethewhose
femininethethethetheir
neuterthethethewhose
Pluralthethethosetheir
possible prepositionsthrough, for, against, without, around, on, on, behind, in, next to, over, under, in front of, betweenfrom, except, at, with, after, since, from, to, opposite, on, on, behind, in, next to, over, under, before, betweeninstead of, in spite of, during, because of