What does Padarnalat mean

sustainability

In the past, all of Europe was covered by dense primeval forests, mainly beeches. (There are only beeches in Europe.) Today only about 1% of the original forests are left. All others had to give way to urban development and agriculture. The remaining 1% of the forests are mostly commercial forests. Only the mountain tops of the Carpathian Mountains are still covered by primeval forests. But the Austrian timber mafia is raging there today, above all the Schweighofer company. Another jewel is the Bialowieza National Park, half of which is in Poland and the other half in Belarus. This 1400 km² remnant of the old primeval forests, which covered the continent for thousands of years and grew like this 10,000 years ago, contains oaks that are up to 600 years old, including the "Dominator" oak that is up to 40m high or the "Emperor of the North" one Oak that can reach 6 m trunk circumference. More than 20,000 animal species, including elk, bison, wolves and lynxes live there. The forest is a real hotspot for biodiversity and a large, natural CO2 store. Bialowieza has been a World Heritage Site since 1976.

Even the Nazis were fascinated by this forest and chose it as their hunting ground. Very few people know this dark chapter. In 1941 Göring, who saw a kind of Germanic primeval wilderness in the forest, ordered Jews and partisans to be removed from it. The Nazi henchmen destroyed and burned 116 villages, displaced 7,000 people and killed 900 Jews and partisans. Then he had the rear-bred Heck cattle of the Heck brothers, modeled after the original, abandoned. Also the Tarpan, a wild horse breed. The plan was to resurrect long-extinct animal species there. In 1944 the advancing Red Army put an end to the ghost. We don't know what happened to the Heck cattle, at least they have disappeared.

But the wild European bison, the wisent, is still there, around 450 pieces. By February 1921, wild bison were wiped out and there were only 56 specimens left in zoological gardens. Thanks to the successful offspring, animals could again be released into the wild in the Białowieża Forest from 1956 onwards. There is now a reasonably stable population of around 450 animals. Białowieża also offers a refuge for many other, often threatened animal species, such as the black stork or the blue roller. Nine species of woodpecker breed here, including: White-backed woodpecker and three-toed woodpecker, as well as lesser spotted eagle and short-toed eagle, seven species of owls, red thrush and miniature flycatcher. The biological diversity of the forest is overwhelming, because not only many animal species, but also 3,500 mushroom and 5,500 plant species have been identified so far.

But now this unique natural paradise is threatened. The greedy, right-wing government of Poland is stretching its fingers towards the forest. She has just changed the laws for nature conservation and forest. It is now allowed to cut trees even without a permit. If in retrospect it turns out that the tree was too big and too old, a ridiculous fine of 116 euros has to be paid. That's nothing compared to the profit that an old oak tree brings in. It is very popular as furniture wood. The Warsaw Environment Minister, who considers the Natura 2000 regulations to be excessive, already allowed twice as much logging to be carried out in the protected area and the adjacent zones as allowed by EU regulations last year. Despite massive opposition from environmentalists, a few days ago the Polish government gave the go-ahead for clearing part of the forest. She claims the bark beetle problem needs to be dealt with. The Polish government is currently experiencing resistance from environmentalists and organizations such as Greenpeace. Seven environmental protection organizations have lodged a complaint with the EU Commission. At least 35% of the Bialowieza jungle is strictly protected and should not be touched.

The forest was shaped by nature over thousands of years and the printer (bark beetle) is one of its designers. It determines decay and creates new habitats for 10,000 years. The environmentalists argue that the number of beetles regulates itself to a healthy level over the course of a few years by natural enemies.

The bark beetle problem only affects spruce trees, which make up 3% of the trees, and can be regarded as an argument.