What does homogeneous echogenicity mean

"Hypoechoic formation" is often used when describing an image during an ultrasound. What does this mysterious term mean to a typical patient? Most importantly, don't panic: the hypoechoic form in the mammary gland is not a disease or a diagnosis, just a structural description of what the doctor sees in front of him when performing ultrasound. Simply put, all tissues that have a relatively low density compared to other surrounding tissues have a hypoechoic structure.

Hypoechoic formation in the mammary gland is not always a symptom of the disease. However, in some cases, the presence of such a sign can indicate the presence of a sufficiently serious pathology.

[1], [2], [3]

Epidemiology

Hypoechoic formations in the mammary glands are considered the most common pathologies in the female population. They can be found in around half of all women surveyed.

The frequency of detection of hypoechoic formations reaches a maximum limit of 45 years and decreases after reaching the premenopausal period.

[4], [5], [6], [7]

Causes hypoechoic form in the mammary gland

In the event that an ultrasound scan shows a hypoechoic form in the mammary gland, we can assume the presence of such diseases:

  • Glandular carcinoma is a hypoechoic form with indistinct and unclear contours, with the presence of an acoustic shadow, structurally heterogeneous;
  • Adenosis is a hypoechoic form with diffuse contours, mostly irregular in shape;
  • the common cyst is a rounded hypoechoic shape in the mammary gland that has clear contours;
  • an atypical cyst is an hypoechoic form of the mammary gland with distinct contours, with a thick capsule and a large number of internal calcifications; usually at a late stage of the disease, the amount of calcification is significantly increased;
  • Fibroadenoma is hypoechoic focal formation of the mammary gland with clear boundaries, but it can sometimes resemble a cancerous growth with limited distribution;
  • a benign tumor is an avascular hypoechoic form of the mammary gland, the structure of which does not have a vascular network;
  • Fibro-cystic mastopathy is a hypoechoic homogeneous formation in the mammary gland, often multiple. In most cases, it has a hormonal etiology.

It should be noted that the natural formations in the mammary gland, such as the milk ducts or the vascular system, also have a hypoechoic structure.

[8], [9], [10], [11]

Risk factors

Factors that contribute to the development of pathological hypoechoic formations in the mammary gland can be quite a lot. Conventionally, they can be divided into several groups:

  1. Age: middle and old age.
  2. Sexual factor: women are 100 times more likely to get sick than men.
  3. The constitutional factor: full women get sick more often than thin women.
  4. Hereditary factor: If the direct relatives have had cases of breast disease, then they can recur in the next generations.
  5. Reproductive factor: early sexual development and lack of childbirth contribute to the development of diseases in the mammary gland.
  6. Metabolic factor: the slowdown in metabolism, as well as its violation, contribute to the development of breast diseases.
  7. External factors: hypothermia, chest injuries, unfavorable ecology, radiation can affect the condition of the mammary glands.
  8. Internal factors: regular abuse of alcoholic beverages, frequent stressful situations can lead to the development of breast diseases.

The list presented will help determine the degree of risk of developing hypoechoic formations in the mammary gland. Think about what you can change in your life to reduce the chances of getting sick.

[12], [13], [14]

Pathogenesis

The main mechanism of ultrasound diagnostics is the generation of high-frequency sound vibrations by the ultrasound sensor and their transmission to the examined tissue.

The ultrasonic sensor receives frequency reflection from tissue and back - this phenomenon can be compared to the natural transmission of the echo. This is why ultrasound research is often referred to as a term like echography.

The doctor performing the ultrasound scan can evaluate the visible image on the screen based on the following criteria:

  • The higher the frequency of the ultrasonic waves, the clearer the image is obtained;
  • The lower the frequency of the waves, the deeper the penetration.

During the research, the doctor evaluates the overall location and size of the mammary glands, as well as their structure. The term "acoustic density" is commonly used to evaluate the structure. This concept was created to describe the speed of the US wave in the examined tissue. The degree of acoustic density (or in another way - echogenicity) in different organs is different. The doctor-sonologist (ultrasound specialist) always knows the degree of echogenicity of all tissues in the body, therefore, immediately determines the presence of a norm or pathology.

[15], [16], [17], [18], [19]

Symptoms of hypoechoic form in the mammary gland

What does the term "hypoechoic form in the mammary gland" mean? Such a description means that a zone with a reduced acoustic density is found in the mammary gland.

The first signs of such a zone are a darker structure (compared to the closest tissues) along which ultrasonic waves travel more slowly than in a number of localized structures.

The fluid formation has similar properties. Most often it is later diagnosed as a cyst - a cavity element with the liquid contents inside.

Why doesn't an ultrasound specialist immediately characterize a hypoechoic shape like a cyst?

The fact is that, unlike the term "hypoechoinality," the cyst is already a diagnosis rather than a description. And to confirm the diagnosis of a single ultrasound is small: additional tests and studies are needed, which the doctor prescribes for suspected cases.

Rounded gipoehogennoe formation in the end can be:

  • Cyst;
  • a tumor;
  • Echinococcal Disease;
  • Galactocele.

If gipoehogennogo education found unclear boundaries, then it can be assumed:

[20], [21], [22], [23]

Complications and Consequences

The development of negative consequences and complications with hypoechoic formation in the mammary gland depends on its structural features. The worst prognosis can therefore be a malignancy of the tumor, that is, its degeneration into a malignant neoplasm. This can be the case, for example, with an untreated fibroadenoma: in one case, the disease degenerates into a sarcoma.

Fibrous-cystic mastopathy can also be complicated by a cancerous tumor in some cases, but most of the time the disease recurs and periodically "comes back" despite treatment. This happens when the cause of the mastopathy is not established or is incorrectly installed.

Premature treatment of formations in the mammary gland can lead to serious consequences. At the same time, with timely medical care, a quick and complete healing of the disease cannot be ruled out.

[24], [25]

Diagnosis of hypoechoic form in the mammary gland

If a hypoechoic form is found in the mammary gland, the doctor will prescribe other diagnostic procedures that will help clarify or refute the diagnosis.

  1. a general blood test that will show the presence of inflammation and anemia;
  2. a blood test for hormones;
  3. a blood test for the cancer marker CA-15-3.
  • Instrumental diagnostics:
  1. Mammography;
  2. Biopsy of the elements of tissue education;
  3. Computed or magnetic resonance imaging;
  4. Mammography.

[26], [27], [28], [29]

Differential diagnosis

Differential diagnosis is usually carried out between different types of hypoechoic formations in the mammary gland. The most common are such types of diseases as cysts, malignant and benign tumors.

Treatment of hypoechoic form in the mammary gland

The treatment regimen of hypoechoic formations depends entirely on the final diagnosis, established after the complex diagnosis.

If benign cysts and other similar formations are found, drug treatment is applied, which may include the following drugs:

  • Herbal preparations:
  1. Indinol - prescribed for fibrocystic mastopathy, 1 capsule daily with food. During the reception it is possible to change the duration of the monthly cycle, as well as short-term abdominal pain.
  2. Phytolon - used for various breast tumors (including malignant ones), 1-2 tablets 2-3 times a day. The course of admission is calculated for 1-6 months. Sometimes the drug can cause an allergic reaction.
  1. Utrozhestan is progestin prescribed for fibrocystic mastopathy - 200-300 mg per day. The drug can affect the monthly cycle and cause headaches.
  2. Estrogel is an estrogen that is used externally for the treatment of estrogen-dependent neoplasms. A dose of the gel is applied to the skin of the abdomen or the inner thighs once a day.
  3. Dufaston is a progestin that is prescribed according to an individual scheme, depending on the course of the menstrual cycle. The drug can cause headaches, migraines, sometimes - nausea and menstrual irregularities.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs:
  1. Ibuprofen - is prescribed for inflammatory infiltrates and painful syndrome, 200 mg up to 4 times a day. The use of the drug is sometimes accompanied by abdominal pain, dyspepsia. Possible development of pancreatitis.
  2. Wobenzym - an anti-inflammatory drug that is often prescribed for mastopathy. The average dosage of the drug is 3 tablets three times a day.

Treatment of gipoehogennyh formations in the mammary gland is prescribed only after the final diagnosis. As we mentioned at the beginning of the article, the term "hypoechoic formation" is just a sign of a possible disease or a structural description of the image obtained on the ultrasound machine.

Vitamins

As for the intake of vitamins, they should preferably be consumed in the form of plant products: fruits and vegetables.

For example, vitamin A - retinol - is found in large quantities in carrots, peaches, tomatoes, apricots, gooseberries. Retinol has a direct effect on cell growth, facilitates liver function and the production of hormones.

Practically all herbal products contain more or less vitamin C - ascorbic acid, which strengthens redox reactions, improves the energy supply of the body, promotes the excretion of toxic substances.

Vitamin E - tocopherol - can be obtained from vegetable oils, milk and eggs. Tocopherol protects healthy cells from the effects of free radicals and also normalizes the production of proteins.

If pathological hypoechogenic formations are found in the mammary glands, it is recommended to drink at least 100 ml of fresh vegetable or fruit juice every day. At night, you can also drink a cup of compote based on dried fruit or sour milk product.

Physiotherapy treatment

If hypoechoic formations are found in the mammary gland, then physiotherapy in the chest area is strictly prohibited until a definitive diagnosis is made that does not prohibit such procedures.

The fact that gipoehogennoe education in the end can be a malignant tumor, or have a high risk of malignant degeneration. And physiotherapy in this case can serve as a catalyst for malignant processes, so such procedures are never appointed before the final diagnosis.

Alternative treatment

Can I use alternative medicine formulations if hypoechoic form is found in the mammary gland? To be clear, before making the final diagnosis, one should wait with all medical interventions, including those based on alternative methods.

If found gipoehogennoe formation in the mammary gland:

  • It is impossible to use hot compresses, and even to get on and sunbathe in a bath;
  • Do not apply warming ointments;
  • Do not apply alcohol-based lotions and compresses.

Always wait for the doctor to make an accurate diagnosis, and after that, after consulting the same doctor, to carry out the treatment.

  • At night, you can apply a burdock leaf or a mother-and-stepmother to a sick breast, and the next morning, wipe the breast with a damp napkin and apply a little burdock oil.
  • You can make a mixture of equal parts of freshly ground burdock root, honey and castor oil. Evenly distribute the weight on a linen napkin and apply it to the mammary gland at night.
  • It is useful to apply the compresses from the grated fresh pumpkin pulp at night.
  • You can take a fresh cabbage leaf, put a little fresh butter on it, sprinkle with fine salt and stick it on the affected breast. This compress is also best used at night.

[30], [31], [32], [33], [34]

Herbal treatment

  • If you roll up the leaves of wormwood with boiling water and wrap them with a linen napkin, then this lotion can be applied to the sick chest in the morning and evening for about 1 hour. The same sheets can be used up to 4 times.
  • You can prepare a compress based on the infusion of St. John's wort: 1 tbsp. L. Herbs pour 1 cup of boiling water and insist 40 minutes. Next, moisten with a napkin and apply to the affected area. Instead of St. John's wort, other plants are sometimes used - for example, a climber, a shamrock or a gentian.
  • Compresses made on the basis of the clover infusion have a good anti-tumor effect. To prepare this infusion should take 2 tbsp. L. clover flowers and pour 250 ml of boiling water. After 10-15 minutes, the medicine can be used for compresses.
  • The burdock leaf is scrolled through the meat grinder. The resulting mass is applied to the affected area by covering it with a towel. So it is recommended to treat mastopathy, for example.

homeopathy

The homeopathic treatment can be used as an aid - i.e. as a supplement to the main treatment. For diseases of the mammary glands, which are accompanied by the appearance of hypoechoic formations, it is recommended to use the following homeopathic remedies:

  • Mastodinon - take at least 3 months, 1 tablet twice a day.
  • Cyclodinone - take 1 tablet daily for 3 months.
  • Mastopol - the standard dose of the drug - 1 tablet three times a day for half an hour before meals. Duration of treatment - 2 months.
  • Mastiol-Edas 127 - if the doctor has not prescribed any other treatment, take 5 drops of the drug in 1 tsp. Water three times a day. Duration of admission - 3 months (with interruptions in menstruation).

The homeopathic preparations listed are practically free from negative side effects. There are only occasional cases of an allergic reaction to the drug.

Operative treatment

The operation is often assigned when gipoehogennym formation is a malignant tumor in the breast: in this case surgery can be considered as an independent method of treatment or in combination with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. An integrated approach usually achieves the highest cure rate.

Surgical treatment as an independent method is carried out in patients with benign tumors that are not or only weakly suitable for medical treatment.

But sometimes the operation can be contraindicated: contraindications can be the age of the elderly patient, cardiovascular diseases in the decompensation stage, as well as the neglected stage of malignant tumors with massive metastasis. The best postoperative effect is expected if the treatment is carried out in the early stages of the development of the neoplasm, taking into account an integrated approach to the problem.

prevention

In order to lead a healthy lifestyle, the best way is to prevent the development of various diseases, including diseases of the mammary glands.

It is recommended to exercise more, eat properly and balanced, to fully recover in order to avoid stressful situations and injuries.

For breast health, it is important not to use tight and uncomfortable bras - the underwear should be free, but at the same time it is good to support the chest.

Bad habits - like smoking and drinking - increase the risk of developing breast disease. Negative factors are also:

  • Close to highways;
  • Radiation;
  • harmful production.

Do not take a long time to take contraceptives without a doctor's prescription, as they can significantly change the hormonal background that is the cause of various breast tumors.

Regularly conduct a pelvic examination: early detection of various hypoechoic formations in the mammary gland increases the likelihood of a favorable outcome.

[35], [36], [37], [38], [39]

forecast

The presence of hypoechogenic formation does not yet mean the development of a malignant process. However, such a sign can indicate the presence of other, no less complex diseases. Only the use of complex diagnostics helps to accurately determine the pathology.

Do not neglect further diagnostic procedures after an ultrasound. Detailed diagnosis will make a correct diagnosis and apply effective methods of treatment. It is not uncommon for cases where a hypoechoic form in the mammary gland is a typical cyst that resolves after a simple treatment.

[40], [41], [42], [43], [44]

Next page