How to use Lacvert Collagen plus 1000
Collagen, also written as collagen, is a structural protein that occurs in the body of many multicellular animals and thus also of humans. It is part of the tendons, ligaments or bones, among other things.
Parts of the skin are also made up of collagen. The substance plays an important role in both medicine and cosmetics. The structural protein is used in body care and make-up to improve the appearance of the skin or as a dietary supplement to promote the health of bones and cartilage.
What is collagen
Collagen is one of the so-called structural proteins. Structural proteins are all those proteins that primarily serve as a framework in the cells and tissues of the body. In contrast to other proteins, they do not act as enzymes, but rather have the task of giving the cells and tissues their shape and tension. They keep the structures elastic, but at the same time ensure a certain strength. In addition to creatine and elastin, collagen is one of the most important structural proteins in the body.
Collagen always consists of long protein chains, the collagen molecules. These form a left-handed helix, also called a helix. Three of these structures are arranged with one another in what is known as a superhelix. Hydrogen bridges between the individual strands ensure the necessary stability.
The collagen fibers are tightly wound so that they have enormous tensile strength. However, they are hardly stretchable.
The collagens can be divided into different subspecies. In humans, type I is mainly found. Therefore, the term collagen is often used synonymously for type I collagen in common parlance. A total of 28 different types of collagen are known. 10 other proteins also have collagen-like structures.
Type I collagen
Type I collagen is a fibrillar collagen. This means that the protein is able to form fibrils. These are quite thick and have horizontal stripes. Type I occurs mainly in the following body structures:
- Fiber cartilage
- Leather and cornea in the eye
Type II collagen
Type II collagen is also a fiber-forming protein. It is part of the hyaline and elastic cartilage and is also found in the fibrous cartilage and in the vitreous humor of the eye.
Type III collagen
Type III collagen is often associated with type I. Like this form, type III is also fiber-forming and thus belongs to the fibrillar collagens.
Collagen III is an important component of the reticular fibers and thus also of the reticular connective tissue. Reticular fibers are particularly fine strands that are arranged in a network-like structure. The reticular tissue is part of lymphatic organs such as lymph nodes, spleen or tonsils and tonsils. But type III can also be found in the following body structures:
- Bone substance
Collagen IV is a reticulate collagen that is found primarily in the basement membrane. The basement membrane, also called the boundary membrane, separates all epithelial tissue of the body from the underlying connective tissue.
This protein is a fiber-associated collagen. It is mainly found in the extracellular matrix of the skeletal muscle. Tendons, bone tissue, cartilage tissue, adipose tissue, nerve tissue and the skin also contain this type of collagen.
Other types of collagen
Various other fiber-forming, reticulated or transmembrane collagens are found in the body. For example, they are part of the placenta or fetal tissue. They can also be found in the internal organs, the skin, the growth zones of the cartilage or in the eyes. The exact functions of many types of collagen are still partly unclear.
Collagen peptides and collagen hydrolyzate
In addition to the forms such as collagen I, collagen II or collagen IV, one often reads the terms collagen hydrolyzate or collagen peptides in food supplements.
Collagen hydrolyzate is obtained from collagen. In contrast to gelatine, this hydrolyzate is enzymatically modified so that it is easily soluble in water. Collagen peptides are not a different form, but simply a different name for hydrolyzed collagen.
Collagen as a dietary supplement
Hydrolyzed collagen, also known as collagen hydrolyzate, is mostly used in food supplements. It is collagen, which has been made water-soluble through certain enzymatic processes. Collagen hydrolyzate is therefore bioavailable and can be processed accordingly by the body.
Most products use collagen, which is derived from animals. Possible sources are, for example, chicken bones or fish skin. But there are also synthetic collagens that can be used as food supplements.
Types of collagen in nutritional supplements
If you want to buy a collagen food supplement in a shop, you should pay close attention to which type of collagen it contains. Nutritional supplements with collagen I or collagen II are available. While type I can be found mainly in the skin and bone substance, type II collagen occurs especially in cartilage.
Anyone who suffers from joint problems is therefore more likely to resort to dietary supplements with type II collagen. Someone who wants to tighten their skin from the inside or strengthen their nails should buy a type I dietary supplement. In reality, however, the separation is not to be seen as strictly as the types in the body are always mixed up.
Collagen dietary supplement forms
Basically, collagen is available in the form of powder, tablets or capsules. Each dosage form has advantages and disadvantages. Collagen hydrolyzate in powder form is mostly odorless and tasteless and can be easily dissolved in water.
If you don't want to mix it, you can take the collagen in tablet or capsule form. This dosage form is particularly practical on the go and when traveling.
Collagen in the cosmetics industry
Collagen is a component of many moisturizing and skin-tightening creams. Structural protein is particularly popular in the areas of beauty and anti-aging due to its firming effect. Shower gel, mascara, lipstick and after-sun lotion are also popular products in the cosmetics industry that contain collagen.
Likewise, collagen is not only contained in cosmetics, but also in many hair care products. It is supposed to put a film around the hair so that it appears smoother and is also easier to comb.
Collagen in skin care products
In the case of cosmetic products, however, the question arises whether the collagen they contain can even penetrate the top layers of the skin. The skin consists of three layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue.
In the dermis there are interwoven fine collagen and elastin strands. They keep this middle layer of skin elastic and also store moisture. In order for cosmetics containing collagen to be effective, it must penetrate the epidermis in order to reach the dermis.
However, this is not possible because collagen, as a molecule, is too large to penetrate the skin. However, the skin may feel better after using cosmetics that contain collagen. After drying, cosmetics with collagen contracts on the skin, increasing tension and at least temporarily eliminating small bumps and / or dents.
The exact need is not known. The body is basically able to produce collagen from amino acids on its own. But with increasing age, the body's own production decreases.
You should also know that the needs are very individual. Someone who suffers from joint discomfort or even cartilage damage certainly has higher needs than someone whose joints are healthy and fit.
In studies that were carried out on the effects of collagen, the dosage was mostly between 2500 and 10000 milligrams daily, the average intake was around 8000 milligrams.
How does collagen work in the body?
Most people owe the strength of their bodies to fiber-forming proteins. Collagen is made up of several molecules. Three chain-shaped proteins wind around each other to form a helix. Many of these “protein ropes” in turn connect to form collagen fibrils.
The neighboring collagen molecules are offset so that the fibril itself consists of less dense and dense zones. A bundle of fibrils is called collagen fiber. Collagen can bind water, around 60 percent of the weight is due to the water content.
The bound water plays a role both for the passive, mechanical stabilization and for the active role of the collagen. For example, researchers have found that collagen contractions, which occur as a result of dehydration in the bones, compensate for tensile stresses and thus prevent breaks or cracks in the brittle bone structure. 
Collagen gives structure
Depending on its composition, the collagen in the connective tissue of the body makes up a large part of the so-called extracellular matrix. This is the part of tissue that lies between the cells in the intracellular space. Thus, these fine strands are also used to shape organs in the body.
They help regulate the water content of the tissues and keep them elastic. Without collagen, ligaments and tendons would not be as stable and tear-resistant, and the articular cartilage would be less pressure-resistant.
Without collagen, humans would not be able to see either. The filigree collagen fibers ensure the strength and clarity of the cornea. If the arrangement of these fine strands in the cornea is disturbed, this leads to reduced strength. With such a keratoconus, the cornea bulges forward, so that the eyesight is significantly restricted.  
Collagen and skin
The skin is not only one of the largest organs, it also performs many tasks:
- Protection from cold and heat
- protects against pressure, bumps and friction
- offers protection against chemical damage and radiation
- prevents heat and moisture loss
- prevents pathogens from penetrating through the protective acid mantle
- acts as a sense organ
The skin has a special structure so that it can do justice to all of these tasks. The top layer of skin, the epidermis, consists of 5 different layers.
The underlying dermis is an elastic layer of skin, which mainly consists of loosely interwoven connective tissue. The network layer, an important part of the dermis, is formed by a dense network of collagen fibers that is filled with elastic tissue. This construction gives the skin firmness, tension and elasticity.
The bottom layer of the skin is the subcutaneous tissue. It consists of a loose tissue in which fat pads are embedded. The firm strands of the dermis run through this layer as extensions. They also act as retaining straps as they are also attached to the body fascia under the skin. The general body fascia that lies under the skin is also made up of very strong collagen fibers.
Collagen against skin aging
The structure of the skin changes with increasing age. The individual layers of the skin become thinner and the number of collagen fibers decreases. This also reduces the fat and water content of the skin. Wrinkles form and the skin is prone to dryness and cracking. Overall, there is a significant loss of elasticity with wrinkles, the skin is no longer as capable of regeneration as it used to be.
Various studies show that collagen can reduce the signs of aging. In animal experiments, Song et al. Mice use collagen hydrolyzate daily at a dose of 400 to 800 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. This substitution made it possible to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the skin. The collagen also counteracted slackening of the skin, stimulated the build-up of fibers in the dermis and thus helped the skin to become more elastic. 
Collagen and photoaging
Collagen hydrolyzate may play a decisive role in the treatment and prevention of photoaging, i.e. skin aging caused by sun rays. Excessive contact with UV rays can cause skin to age prematurely. The UV rays generate more free radicals in the skin. These damage the skin cells and destroy the supporting structure made of collagen and elastin fibers.
The skin loses moisture and becomes increasingly dry. Photoaging signs include:
- a sagging complexion
- rough wrinkles
- noticeable pigmentation
The intake of collagen hydrolyzate can counteract these phenomena. For example, collagen peptides from fish skin have a positive influence on UV-damaged skin.
Collagen hydrolyzate can increase the moisture content of the skin and help repair and regenerate the elastin and collagen strands. Dry skin and wrinkles caused by dryness are reduced and the skin becomes more elastic again. Red light therapy, irradiation with red light, can support this effect.    
Collagen and skin cancer
Various skin cancer diseases are summarized under the collective term skin cancer. In addition to black skin cancer (melanoma), this also includes basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
Every year in Germany alone, around 20,000 people are newly diagnosed with malignant melanoma. The frequency is increasing steadily. Two thirds of all melanomas are discovered at a very early stage and accordingly have good prospects of recovery.
The main cause of black skin cancer is UV light. Repeated sunburns significantly increase the risk of skin cancer. Those who value a tan in summer should therefore only stay protected in the sun. There is also a certain hereditary predisposition to this form of skin cancer.
Since the ingestion of collagen hydrolyzate can stimulate the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the skin, it also protects against the harmful influence of free radicals. Dietary supplements containing collagen may also help prevent cancer in this way. Further research with this focus could generate more knowledge and expand the possibilities for cancer prophylaxis. 
Collagen and connective tissue
The connective tissue is a basic tissue of the body, which consists of connective tissue cells and intercellular substance. The mobile and also the local cells of the connective tissue are embedded in an extracellular matrix, which is largely formed from collagen and other structural proteins. These form a network with so-called proteoglycans in between.
The collagen fiber structure makes the tissue resistant to tensile forces, whereas the proteoglycans regulate compression forces. In this combination, the tissue serves, among other things, to maintain the shape of the organs.
Connective tissue strengthening
A weak connective tissue can show itself through various signs. If the skin surface is no longer properly supported, visible dents form in the skin. These are mainly found on the buttocks or thighs and are also known as cellulite or orange peel.
Stretch marks are also signs of weak connective tissue. These are tissue injuries that occur when the skin is overstretched. They are initially bluish in color, but gradually fade until a light, scar-like streak remains. Many people do not know that weak connective tissue in the legs can also lead to spider tears or varicose veins.
Various articles from current research show that women with weak connective tissue can benefit from taking collagen. In a placebo-controlled double-blind study from 2015, 105 women with moderate cellulite received 2.5 milligrams of bioactive collagen peptides or a placebo preparation daily.
After a period of 6 months, there was a clear effect in the group that took the collagen hydrolyzate. The skin was less dented and firmer. The best results were achieved by women of normal weight, but orange peel was also reduced in women who were overweight. 
Collagen and muscles
Many people know that collagen plays an important role in joint and skin health. But the structural protein also has an impact on the muscles.
In weight training, collagen hydrolyzate was long decried as a "useless" protein due to its low biological value. The biological value is a marker for how well the body can convert a food protein into a protein of its own. For a good biological value, the collagen lacks amino acids.
Build muscle with collagen
It was concluded from this that collagen is not suitable for supporting muscle building. A fallacy, as an article from 2015 reveals. The aim of this study was to find out whether collagen is suitable for strengthening muscles.
Study participants were elderly men with grade I or II sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is the technical term for age-related muscle wasting, which affects around 10 percent of all 60 to 70 year-olds and up to 50 percent of those over 80.
Half of the study participants received a placebo preparation, while the other half took 15 grams of collagen peptides daily. In addition, all test subjects completed guided strength training three times a week.
The results were surprising. The participants who supplemented the collagen gained 4.2 kilograms of muscle mass in 12 weeks. In the control group, the muscle gain was only 2.9 kilograms. Muscle strength also improved significantly in the collagen group.
Similar results could only be achieved in comparable studies by administering the hormone testosterone. However, taking testosterone is associated with significantly more side effects. 
Why collagen has such a positive effect on muscle growth despite the lack of essential amino acids has not yet been clarified. It is believed that the substance hydroxyprolyglycine it contains activates anabolic signaling pathways in the muscles, which in turn stimulates muscle-building processes.
Collagen and skeleton
The human skeleton is made up of more than 200 skeletal bones. The skull, spine, pelvic bones, chest and many other bones support the body and are extremely stable. They also serve to protect important organs. Even walking upright would not be possible without the skeleton.
In order to understand the importance of collagen for bone health, it is important to take a closer look at bone structure. Macroscopically, the outer cortical layer (compacta) can be separated from the inner spongy framework (cancellous bone).
The tissue that gives the bone its stability is called bone tissue. It consists of bone cells, the so-called osteocytes, which are enclosed in an extracellular matrix. 95 percent of the organic parts of this bone matrix consist of collagen. For the most part, these are type I collagens.
Crystals from the mineral hydroxyapatite are attached to these tensile collagen fibrils. The collagen fibers in combination with the mineral give the bone its compressive strength due to the deposition in a defined orientation. Without collagen, the bones would not be stable and resilient.
Collagen and osteoporosis
Osteoporosis, also popularly known as bone loss, is a disease characterized by the loss of bone mass. The bones lose stability and strength and thus break faster.
Osteoporosis is particularly common in postmenopausal women. Presumably, hormonal processes are the cause here. According to recent research, however, oxidative stress and changes in the collagen structure also seem to play a decisive role.
Oxidative stress, as it occurs, for example, when there is an increased attack of harmful free radicals, but also an increased supply of blood sugar lead to an increased development of so-called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These glycated reaction products impair the cross-linking of the collagen strands and thus ensure an unstable bone structure.
In addition, the body's own production of collagen decreases with age. This also affects the stability of the bone. 
Collagen and bone metabolism
Scientific studies suggest that taking collagen can improve bone health. A 2004 study with mice showed a significant increase in bone density after four weeks of administration of collagen. 
However, collagen can also be combined with other medications for osteoporosis therapy. Among other things, the hormone calcitonin is used to treat osteoporosis, which can reduce the increased rate of bone breakdown. Supplementing with collagen can be useful here to counteract bone loss. 
Collagen and joints
A movable connection between two or more bones is called a joint in medicine. There are around 360 joints in the human body. The knee and hip joints are some of the largest joints.
A joint is always made up of two bones that are shaped so that they interlock well. The end of one bone is called the joint head and the end of the other bone is called the joint socket. Both ends of the bone are covered by a thin layer of cartilage.
The joint space is located between the ends of the bones. This is filled with synovial fluid, also called synovial fluid. Together with ligaments, tendons and muscles, the joint capsule that surrounds the entire joint forms a protective covering.
The cartilage layer and synovial fluid enable smooth and, above all, painless movements of the joint. If there are impairments here, the joint can often only be moved with pain.
The cartilage tissue on the joint surfaces consists of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) and the extracellular cartilage matrix. This consists of a basic substance in which collagen fibers are embedded like a network. A loss of collagen is therefore always accompanied by a loss of cartilage mass.
Collagen and cartilage formation
Once cartilage has been broken down, it cannot be rebuilt. Many doctors still hold this opinion. However, recent studies suggest that the damaged cartilage can be regenerated.
If the cause of the cartilage wear is eliminated, the cartilage substance can rebuild. The interesting question is to what extent collagen can support the structure of cartilage. 
When cartilage is damaged, more cartilage precursor cells, so-called chondrogenic progenitor cells, migrate into the damaged region. These ultimately transform into cartilage cells to compensate for the cartilage damage. For this regeneration, however, the cells need the right nutrients and building blocks.
Studies show that collagen hydrolyzate can increase the activity of the chondrocytes so that they produce more cartilage tissue. At the same time, the collagen also serves as a building block for this cartilage substance. 
Collagen and osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is the medical term for joint wear and tear. Osteoarthritis is one of the degenerative joint diseases that are associated with a decline in cartilage tissue. In principle, osteoarthritis can develop in any joint. The knee and hip are particularly often affected.
Typical symptoms of osteoarthritis are starting pain and morning stiffness of the joints. The first movements after a long break are painful, but after a short period of activity the symptoms subside quite quickly. The stiffness of the joints in the morning usually does not last longer than 30 minutes. Other symptoms include:
- Tenderness of the joints
- limited joint mobility
- Rubbing or grinding sound in the joint when moving
- Joint swelling
The exact causes of osteoarthritis are controversial. On the one hand, the mechanical abrasion contributes to a reduction in the cartilage. But it also seems that malfunctioning chondrocytes play a role in the development of the joint disease.
When the cartilage wears out, it can no longer adequately protect the bone structures of the joint from impact and friction. In order to protect itself, the bone builds up more bone substance. As a result, the joints deform and also thicken in a nodular manner.
It is not uncommon for the affected joint to develop inflammation with overheating, reddening of the joint and joint effusion. One speaks here of activated osteoarthritis.
There are several risk factors for osteoarthritis:
- Gender (women are more likely to get sick)
- Injuries that cause joint instability
- Joint stressful hobbies or joint stress at work
- genetic predisposition
Treat osteoarthritis with collagen
The primary goal of conservative osteoarthritis treatment is to slow down joint wear and tear and to alleviate joint discomfort. In addition to various medications or orthopedic aids, physiotherapy also helps. In order to prevent a surgical procedure, the additional intake of collagen-containing food supplements can be useful.
Several studies have found that supplementation helps improve the quality of life for patients with osteoarthritis. The structural protein also has a better effect than chondroitin or glucosamine, which are also often recommended for the treatment of osteoarthritis. 
Crowley et al. used the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in their 2009 study to correctly assess the symptoms of their subjects. After taking type II collagen for a period of 90 days, the score on this scale was reduced by around 30 percent. With the help of the visual analog scale, the patients themselves estimated their pain to be around 40 percent less than before the treatment. 
Collagen and rheumatism
Even if the term rheumatism is popularly used for joint problems, it is not a single disease, but a whole group of diseases. The rheumatic group includes complaints of the musculoskeletal system, which are associated with pain and often with functional restrictions.
In addition to the bones and muscles, collagens and organ functions are also affected. In the meantime, around 400 individual diseases are known that can be classified as rheumatic. Well-known rheumatic diseases are:
- rheumatoid arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis)
- ankylosing spondylitis
- Collagenoses such as scleroderma or lupus erythematosus
The exact causes of rheumatism are unclear. What many diseases of the rheumatic type have in common is that the immune system attacks the body's own structures. It is therefore an autoimmune disease. In collagenoses, for example, the immune system regards the collagen in the connective tissue as foreign and forms antibodies against it.
Since collagen occurs in many organs, various organ systems such as mucous membranes, vessels, skin, lungs or heart can be affected.
Collagen in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common rheumatic diseases and also the most common chronic joint inflammation. Up to 1 percent of the population worldwide is affected by the disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis can develop slowly or suddenly. The main symptoms include swelling and overheating of the joints and morning stiffness. Typically, the symptoms appear symmetrically on the metacarpal and middle joints of the fingers or toes. However, other joints such as the hips or ankles can also be affected.
Rheumatoid arthritis has not yet been cured. The aim of treatment is therefore to stop the progression of joint destruction and also to alleviate the pain. Scientific research suggests that collagen may help here.
60 patients with rheumatoid arthritis took part in a study by Harvard University. Before the study, they stopped all immunosuppressive drugs and were divided into two groups. One group received a placebo, the other group took collagen for 90 days.
Although there were no changes in the blood counts of the two groups after these three months, the differences in well-being were clear. The joints were less swollen and less sensitive to pressure. While the mobility of the participants in the placebo group deteriorated, this could be prevented in the collagen group. The study participants who took collagen also needed pain medication less often. 
Collagen and blood vessels
A dense network of blood vessels supplies the body's organs with oxygen-rich and nutrient-rich blood. Just as many blood vessels are used to transport the venous blood. The body's arteries must be elastic for optimal supply and to compensate for fluctuations in blood pressure.
Elastin and collagen are responsible for the elasticity of the vessels while at the same time being stable against mechanical loads. With increasing age or with diseases such as diabetes mellitus, the elasticity of the blood vessels decreases. This makes them susceptible to the development of vascular calcification (arteriosclerosis).
Atherosclerosis due to a lack of collagen
So-called arteriosclerotic plaques are caused by oxidative stress, which leads to a chronic inflammatory process in the vessel walls. The vascular endothelium normally produces substances that prevent blood cells or platelets from attaching to the vessel wall.
In the event of a malfunction of the endothelium, which is favored by risk factors such as smoking or being overweight, the endothelial cells release adhesion molecules. These cause certain cells from the blood to penetrate the vessel wall and transform into phagocytes there, which in turn store fats and cholesterol components. This sets in motion an inflammatory process that ultimately contributes to the breakdown of collagen and thus to the formation of vascular calcifications.
Atherosclerosis prevention with collagen
A scientific article from 2017 provides indications that collagen could be suitable for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and thus also for the prophylaxis of diseases such as heart attacks or strokes.
With an intake of 16 grams of collagen per day, an improvement in cholesterol levels could be observed in the study participants after 6 months. While the “harmful” LDL cholesterol decreased, the values of the “good” HDL cholesterol improved. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). This index is an indicator of the stiffness of the joints. The higher the value, the greater the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack or stroke. 
Igase et al. Came to a similar conclusion. in their study from 2018. They wanted to find out whether the supply of collagen has an influence on the pulse wave velocity (brachial-anke pulse wave velocity). This value provides information about the speed at which a pressure wave passes through the artery. The more rigid the vessel walls and the smaller the vessel volume, the higher the value. Increased values when measuring the pulse wave velocity are found in arteriosclerosis but also in other diseases that are associated with changes in the vascular system.
In the study, half of the participants received a placebo supplement, while the test group consumed 2.5 grams of collagen per day. After the study, the test group showed a significantly lower pulse wave velocity compared to the placebo group. 
Which foods stimulate collagen production?
The body needs various vitamins and minerals to produce collagen. With a balanced diet or targeted supplementation, you can support the organism in this important collagen production.
Vitamin E can inhibit the activity of collagenases and thus counteract the breakdown of collagen. Vitamin C, on the other hand, as one of the most important radical scavengers, is also an essential cofactor in collagen production. In addition, vitamin C activates the antagonists of collagenases and thus also prevents collagen breakdown. The foods that are rich in vitamin C and vitamin E and thus play an important role in the necessary collagen production include:
- Superfoods like acai
- rose hip
- Sea buckthorn
- Brussels sprouts
- Vegetable oils
Silica is important for the formation of connective tissue fibers in the skin and other tissues. It supports the activity of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase, which is of great importance in collagen biosynthesis. Grains such as oats, barley or millet as well as nettles and field horsetail are important sources of silica. 
Collagen side effects and overdose
Animal experiments did not show any toxic effects even at a dose of 5000 milligrams / kilogram body weight. The use as a dietary supplement is therefore considered safe. The following side effects can occur in rare cases: 
- stomach pain
- a headache
If you are unsure whether you can tolerate the collagen well, you should order online from a shipping company that offers a satisfaction guarantee. Here the customer can report to the shop if they are not satisfied with the quality of the product and receive a refund for a payment that has already been made as a special service, or they can choose a new item in exchange.
Collagen Studies and References
- Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J. Collagen: The Fibrous Proteins of the Matrix. 2000.
- Quantock AJ, Winkler M, Parfitt GJ, et al. From nano to macro: studying the hierarchical structure of the corneal extracellular matrix. Exp Eye Res. 133, 2015, 81-99.
- Shoulders MD, Raines RT. Collagen structure and stability. Annu Rev Biochem. 78, 2009, 929-958.
- Song H, Zhang S, Zhang L, Li B. Effect of Orally Administered Collagen Peptides from Bovine Bone on Skin Aging in Chronologically Aged Mice. Nutrients. 9 (11), 2017.
- Song H, Meng M, Cheng X, Li B, Wang C.The effect of collagen hydrolysates from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) skin on UV-induced photoaging in mice: molecular weight affects skin repair. Food Funct. 8 (4), 2017, 1538-1546.
- Fan J, Zhuang Y, Li B. Effects of Collagen and Collagen Hydrolysate from Jellyfish Umbrella on Histological and Immunity Changes of Mice Photoaging. Nutrients. 5 (1), 2013, 223-233.
- Hou H, Li B, Zhang Z, et al. Moisture absorption and retention properties, and activity in alleviating skin photodamage of collagen polypeptide from marine fish skin. Food Chem. 135 (3), 2012, 1432-1439.
- Wunsch A, Matuschka K. A controlled trial to determine the efficacy of red and near-infrared light treatment in patient satisfaction, reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, skin roughness, and intradermal collagen density increase. Photomed Laser Surg. 32 (2), 2014, 93-100.
- Schunck M, Zague V, Oesser S, Proksch E. Dietary Supplementation with Specific Collagen Peptides Has a Body Mass Index-Dependent Beneficial Effect on Cellulite Morphology. J Med Food. 18 (12), 2015, 1340-1348.
- Zdzieblik D, Oesser S, Baumstark MW, Gollhofer A, König D. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 114 (08), 2015, 1237-1245.
- Willett TL, Pasquale J, Grynpas MD. Collagen Modifications in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Advanced Glycation Endproducts May Affect Bone Volume, Structure and Quality. Curr Osteoporos Rep, 12 (3), 2014, 329-337.
- Wu J, Fujioka M, Sugimoto K, Mu G, Ishimi Y. Assessment of effectiveness of oral administration of collagen peptide on bone metabolism in growing and mature rats. J Bone Miner Metab. 22 (6), 2004, 547-553.
- Moskowitz RW. Role of collagen hydrolysates in bone and joint disease. Semin Arthritis Rheumatism. 30 (2), 2000, 87-99.
- Intema F, Van Roermund PM, Marijektiven ACA, et al. Tissue structure modification in knee osteoarthritis by use of joint distraction: an open 1-year pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 70 (8), 2011, 1441-1446.
- Smeriglio P, Dhulipala L, Lai JH, et al. Collagen VI enhances cartilage tissue generation by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation. Tissue Eng Part A, 21 (3-4), 2015, 840-849.
- Crowley DC, Lau FC, Sharma P, et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 6 (6), 2009, 312-321.
- Lugo JP, Saiyed ZM, Lane NE. Efficacy and tolerability of an undenatured type II collagen supplement in modulating knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J. 15, 2016, 14.
- Harvard Study. Type II collages.
- Tomosugi N, Yamamoto S, Takeuchi M, et al. Effect of Collagen Tripeptide on Atherosclerosis in Healthy Humans. J Atheroscler Thromb. 24 (5), 2017, 530-538.
- Igase M, Kohara K, Okada Y, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study of the effect of pork collagen peptide supplementation on atherosclerosis in healthy older individuals. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 82 (5), 2018, 893-895.
- Szyszkowska B, Łepecka-Klusek C, Kozłowicz K, Jazienicka I, Krasowska D. The influence of selected ingredients of dietary supplements on skin condition. Adv Dermatology Allergol, 3 (3), 2014, 174-181.
- Marone PA, Lau FC, Gupta RC, Bagchi M, Bagchi D. Safety and toxicological evaluation of undenatured type II collagen. Toxicol Mech Methods. 20 (4), 2010, 175-189.
Collagen is the secret to youthful, enviable skin. This protein is crucial for the structure and elasticity of the skin. Collagen is responsible for making the skin elastic ... Read more ›
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