When were wagon wheels invented?

How long has wood been used?

Wood - the oldest material in human history. How long has wood been used? What was made of wood? We clarify!

Wood was used 1.2 million years ago, in the Stone Age, to make fires and to make tools and weapons. When humans settled down 10,000 years ago, forests were cleared to gain areas for growing grain and to make space for settlements. Huts were built from the cleared wood, mostly oak and other deciduous trees. In the first year after Christ, in the Iron Age, wood was used to smelt ore.

Use of wood from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age

The Stone Age began around 1.2 years ago and ended in 2200 BC. The Bronze Age began in 2200 and ended in 800 BC. Chr.

Wood was used to make fires, which heated and whereupon meat could be cooked and cooked.

The following things were made of wood:

  • the handle of stone axes, sickles, knives, hatchets, wedges
  • Drinking vessels
  • Bowls and cans
  • Plate
  • Spoon
  • Chip boxes
  • baskets
  • bucket
  • Wagon wheels
  • Fences
  • Huts
  • Wood fibers for cords and ropes
  • Horsetail for sharpening tools
  • Digging sticks and hoes
  • Arrow bow
  • made of raffia: chain fabrics for bags and cloaks
  • Birch bark tar
  • Piles, posts, sill beams
  • Hut walls made of rod mesh
  • Fir branches and willow branches for tying construction timber together
  • Bark strips to cover the roofs
  • Insulating layer of the floors made of: wood chips, branches and pieces of bark
  • paddle
  • Raft and cart
  • Charcoal

Use wood in Iron Age

Very high temperatures were necessary to melt iron ores, which is why energy was obtained from firewood or charcoal. To be able to produce around 1 kilogram of iron, 10 kilograms of charcoal were required. For 10 kg of charcoal, around 50 kg of wood were used.

Use of wood in ancient times

The ancient epoch lasted from 800 BC. To AD 600.

Wooden ceilings of magnificent palaces were supported by wooden stakes.

Wooden ceilings formed the floors and were covered with wooden floorboards.

Egypt (3000 BC - 500 AD)

The written language with hieroglyphs, the production of papyrus and the formation of a differentiated state with a society based on the division of labor made Egypt one of the early high cultures of the Mediterranean region.

Tutankhamun's tomb contained luxury furniture. The utility and ceremonial furniture was intended for the use of the God-King in the afterlife.

The Egyptians saw boards with hand saws from the trunks, which were attached to a stake driven into the earth. Beams are carved out of the trunk with hoes. The badger's ax is used as a smoothing and plane iron, but planing benches were unknown to the Egyptians. Wood joints were made using tenons, wooden nails and glue.

In the New Kingdom, wagon construction became a special part of the woodworking industry. Further specialties are the production of:

  • arc
  • Arrows
  • Throwing skewers
  • Horse mackerel
  • Sceptres
  • Musical instruments

Greece (1200 BC - 500 AD)

Knowledge of Greek furniture mostly comes from images on vases or reliefs.

Furniture in Ancient Greece:

  • Chests (for storing clothes)
  • Dining sofas and loungers
  • Tables (for placing food and vessels)
  • Seating furniture (stool, chair, honor chair)

In ancient Greece, craft could only be learned in a workshop.

The following specializations were formed:

  • sculptor
  • Wood carver
  • Carpenters
  • Saeger
  • carpenter
  • Lathe operator

Rome (900 BC - 1000 AD)

Roman furniture show clear geometric forms with clearly structured surfaces and clear proportions. Iron planes also with toothed blades were used. Connections were made with dovetail tines and tenons and surface treatments were done with oils.

Industrialization (18th century)

Two important components of the industrial revolution were ore and coal. Ore could be extracted from iron, whereby the charcoal made the very high temperatures possible.

The first machines were mostly made of wood. However, the machines were not really tough because the load was too great for the wood. Hence, newer machines were made of iron and steel. Huge amounts of charcoal were required to melt ore, which is why many forests have been cut down. Therefore, wood now also had to be imported.

today

Even today, wood is still used for

  • Furniture
  • Roof structures
  • Windows and doors
  • Exterior cladding
  • bridges
  • Stairs
  • Terraces
  • Pergolas
  • Noise barriers
  • Carports
  • Floors and
  • Wall surfaces used.

Dollhouse - instructions for building it yourself, equipping and caring for it.

FAQ- frequently asked questions

What is wood used for?

Wood is a renewable raw material and is mainly used in the following areas:

1) Furniture manufacturing

2) Instrument making

3) Construction

4) papermaking

5) Energy generation

6) packaging industry

Which wood is particularly weather-resistant?

These types of wood are particularly weather-resistant:

- Oak

- larch

- Douglas fir

- Robinia

- Bangkirai (tropical wood)

- Garapa (tropical wood)

How is wood formed?

Wood cells are formed over several stages of development, which are capable of dividing. Cells capable of dividing essentially consist of the cell wall, the protoplasm and the cell nucleus. This is how the wood cell becomes wood:

- the spherical nucleus takes on the shape of a spindle

- Chromosomes split lengthways

- Half of the chromosomes on one spindle tip, the other half on the other spindle tip

- Cell membrane forms in the middle of the spindle

- Protoplasm dies

- The cell wall consists only of a cavity, which is filled with air and water

- cells that are no longer able to divide begin to stretch (increase in length and thickness)

- The cell wall thickens due to the accumulation of cellulose and lignin

- The resulting framework is wood (firm, stiff and has its final shape)

What are the properties of wood?

The properties of wood are divided into sensual and physical properties. The sensual properties can be perceived by the senses:

1) The texture / grain (e.g. striped, flared, barbed, pyramidal, flowery or flamed texture)

2) The natural color

3) The natural shine (e.g. high shine for bars)

4) The smell

A distinction is made according to the physical properties of wood:

1) Density (true density, bulk density)

2) Strength (e.g. tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength)

3) hardness (soft to very hard)

4) Conductivity and insulation ability

5) Natural durability and resistance

What kind of material is wood?

Wood is a renewable raw material. Wood refers to the fabric of the tree's stem axis and is used for buildings, furniture, paper production and energy generation. Depending on the type of wood, wood is weather-resistant, can swell or shrink, has different degrees of hardness and different textures and colors.

What kind of wood?

The following wood can be used for furniture construction:

- maple

- acacia

- birch

- Oak

- Alder

- beech

- cherry

- walnut

- ash

Hardwoods and softwoods should be used for outdoor areas and terrace construction:

- larch

- Douglas fir

- bamboo

- Bangkirai

The following woods can be used for the flooring:
- maple

- ash

- larch

- Oak

Which wood for outdoors?

For the outdoor area and the terrace construction, hardwoods and conifers should be used:

- larch

- Douglas fir

- bamboo

- Bangkirai

Wood - the oldest material in human history. How long has wood been used? What was made of wood? We clarify!