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Ramen - Ramen

This article is about the Japanese noodle dish. For the instant version and other uses, see Ramen (disambiguation).
Japanese dish of wheat noodles in a meat or fish broth

Ramen (/ rɑː m ə n /) (拉 麺, ラ ー メ ン, Ramen , Japanese pronunciation: [ɾaꜜːmeɴ]) (literally: "pulled noodles") is a Japanese noodle soup. It consists of Chinese wheat noodles served in a meat or (occasionally) fish broth, often flavored with soy sauce or miso, and uses toppings like sliced ​​pork (叉 焼, chāshū ), Nori (dried seaweed), menma and spring onions. Almost every region in Japan has its own variation of Ramen , as the Tonkotsu- Ramen (Pork bone broth) from Kyushu and the Miso- Ramen from Hokkaido. Mazemen is a Ramen - Dish that is not served in a soup, but with a sauce (such as Tare ).

history

origin

Ramen is a Japanese adaptation of Chinese wheat noodles. One theory is that Ramen First introduced to Japan in the 1660s by the Chinese neo-Confucian scholar Zhu Shunsui, who served as an advisor to Tokugawa Mitsukuni after escaping Manchu rule as a refugee in Japan and being the first to eat Japanese Ramen although most historians dismiss this theory as a myth created by the Japanese about the origins of Ramen to embellish. The more plausible theory is that Ramen Introduced into Yokohama's Chinatown by Chinese immigrants in the late 19th or early 20th century. According to the Yokohama Ramen Museum report, Ramen originated in China and made its way to Japan in 1859. Early versions were wheat noodles in broth topped with Chinese-style roast pork.

etymology

The word Ramen is a Japanese transcription of the Chinese Lamian (拉麵). In 1910 the first Ramen called shop Rairaiken [yes] (来 々 軒) opened in Asakusa, Tokyo, where the Japanese owner employed 12 Cantonese chefs from Yokohama's Chinatown and served the Ramen arranged for Japanese customers. Until the 1950s, Ramen was called shina soba (支那 そ ば, literally "Chinese Soba"), but today Chuka Soba (中華 そ ば, also means "Chinese Soba") or Ramen (ラ ー メ ン) are more common than the word "支那" ( Shina what "China" means) has acquired a derogatory connotation.

First appearance

Around 1900, restaurants serving Chinese cuisine from Canton and Shanghai offered a simple dish of noodles (cut rather than hand-pulled), a few toppings, and a broth flavored with salt and pork bones. Many Chinese people living in Japan also moved portable food stalls, selling Ramen and gyoza dumplings for workers. middle of 20. In the early 20th century, these stalls used some sort of Musical horn called Charumera (チ ャ ル メ ラ, from the Portuguese Charamela ) to promote their presence, a practice some vendors still maintain through a loudspeaker and looped recording. Were in the early Shōwa period Ramen a popular dish when eating.

According to the Ramen Experts Hiroshi Osaki became the first to specialize in Yokohama in 1910 Ramen Store opened.

Popularization of the post-war period

After Japan's defeat in World War II, the American military occupied the country from 1945 to 1952. In December 1945, Japan had its worst rice harvest in 42 years, resulting in food shortages as Japan drastically reduced rice production during the war as production slowed relocated to colonies in China and Taiwan. The US flooded the market with cheap wheat flour to address food shortages. From 1948 to 1951, bread consumption in Japan rose from 262,121 tons to 611,784 tons, but wheat also found its way in Ramen Most Japanese black market food vendors ate as the government food distribution system runs behind schedule about 20 days to survive. Although the Americans upheld Japan's war ban on the sale of food in the open air, flour was secretly diverted from commercial mills to the black markets, where nearly 90 percent of the stalls were under the control of gangsters who were on-site as Yakuza were called and extorted sellers for protection money. Thousands Ramen seller were arrested during the occupation. During the same period, millions of Japanese troops from China and continental East Asia returned from their posts in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Some of them would have been familiar with wheat noodles. By 1950 wheat flour, currency controls were removed and restrictions on vending machines relaxed, increasing the number of them Ramen Provider: private company also rented out yatai Starter kits made of pasta, toppings, bowls and chopsticks. Ramen Yatai provided a rare opportunity for small business after the war. Americans also aggressively promoted the nutritional benefits of wheat and animal protein. The combination of these factors caused wheat noodles to gain prominence in Japan's rice-based culture. Gradually were Ramen associated with urban life.

Modern time

In 1958, instant noodles were invented by Momofuku Ando, ​​the Taiwanese-Japanese founder and chairman of Nissin Foods. Instant Ramen, Named the greatest Japanese invention of the 20th century in a Japanese survey, it allowed anyone to get an approximation of this dish by simply adding boiling water.

From the 1980s onwards Ramen became a Japanese cultural icon and has been studied from many perspectives around the world. Local came at the same time Ramen Varieties on the national market and could even be ordered according to their regional names. 1994 was established in Yokohama Ramen Museum opened.

Today is Ramen arguably one of the most popular foods in Japan. There are around 5,000 in Tokyo alone Ramen Stores and across Japan more than 24,000 Ramen Stores. Tsuta , a Ramen Restaurant in the Sugamo district of Tokyo, received a Michelin star in December 2015.

Types

There are a variety of in Japan Ramen with geographical and manufacturer-specific differences, even for varieties with the same name. Ramen can be roughly divided according to its two main ingredients: pasta and broth.

Pasta

Most noodles are made from four basic ingredients: wheat flour, salt, water and Kansui (か ん 水) (from Kansui (鹼水, alkaline water)), a type of alkaline mineral water that contains sodium carbonate and usually potassium carbonate, and sometimes a small amount of phosphoric acid. Although Ramen Noodles and udon noodles are both made from wheat, they are different types of noodles.

The Kansui is the signature ingredient in Ramen Noodles and is native to Inner Mongolia, where some lakes contain large amounts of these minerals and their water is considered perfect for making these noodles. Making pasta with Kansui gives them a yellowish hue, as well as a firm texture. Eggs can too Replace Kansui . Some noodles come with neither eggs nor with Kansui made and should only be used for yakisoba as they have a weaker structure and are more prone to absorb moisture and become extremely soft when served in soup.

There is ramen in different shapes and lengths. It can be thick, thin, or even ribbon-shaped, as well as straight or wrinkled.

Traditional were Ramen Pasta made by hand, but as it grows in popularity, many prefer it Ramen Restaurants the internal Capacity to make fresh pasta to meet increased demand and improve quality. Since the middle of the middle are automatic Ramen Machines are available that imitate manual production methods. Manufactured in the 20th century by Japanese manufacturers such as Yamato MFG. and other.

Soup

Ramen Soup is generally made from chicken or pork-based broth combined with a variety of ingredients such as kombu (seaweed), katsuobushi (skipjack tuna flakes), niboshi (dried baby sardines), beef bones, pork bones, shiitake, and onions. Some modern ones Ramen broths can also be made from vegetables. Tara is often added to the broth to make the soup.

  • Tonkotsu soup (豚 骨, "pig bones"; not to be confused with Tonkatsu ) is a broth with a typically translucent white appearance. It is similar to the Chinese one Bait (白湯) and has a thick broth made from boiling pork bones, fat and collagen over high heat for many hours. This gives the broth a hearty pork flavor and a creamy consistency that rivals the melted butter or sauce (depending on the store). Although Tonkotsu is just a kind of broth, consider some people Tonkotsu ramen (Specialty of Kyushu, his birthplace) as a certain flavor category.

Flavors

The resulting combination is generally divided into several categories. (although new and original variations often make this categorization less clear) A description of these old variations is as follows:

  • Shoyu (醤 油, "soy sauce") Ramen have a clear brown broth based on a chicken and vegetable (or sometimes fish or beef) broth with lots of soy sauce, resulting in a soup that is flavorful, salty, and hearty, yet fairly light on the palate. Shoyu Has ramen usually curly rather than straight pasta, but that's not always the case. It is often made with marinated bamboo shoots or Menma , spring onions , Ninjin (Carrot), Kamaboko (Fish Patties), Nori (Seaweed), boiled eggs, bean sprouts or black pepper. occasionally the soup also contains chili oil or Chinese spices, and some stores serve sliced ​​beef instead of the usual Chāshū .
  • Shio (塩, "salt") Ramen is the oldest of the four types. It has a pale, clear, yellowish broth with lots of salt and any combination of chicken, vegetables, fish, and seaweed. Pork bones are also occasionally used, but are not cooked while they are used for Tonkotsu- Ramen are intended so that the soup remains light and clear. Chāshū is sometimes traded for lean chicken meatballs, and pickled plums and kamaboko (a piece of processed fish bun sometimes served as a white frilled circle with a pink or red spiral called narutomaki) are also popular toppings. The texture and thickness of the Pasta varies between the Shio Ramen , however, is usually straight rather than curly. "Hakodate Ramen" is the representative of Shio❨salt❩ ramen in Japan.
  • Miso (味噌) Ramen is a relative newcomer who gained national fame around 1965. This unique Japanese Ramen , which was developed in Sapporo Hokkaido, contains a broth that is copiously combined with miso and mixed with - and sometimes with - oily chicken or fish broth Tonkotsu or lard - to create a thick, nutty, slightly sweet and very hearty soup. Miso- Ramen Broth tends to have a robust, tangy taste and can therefore withstand a wide variety of aromatic toppings: spicy bean paste or Tobanjan (豆瓣 醤), butter and corn, leeks, onions, bean sprouts, ground pork, cabbage, sesame seeds, white pepper, and chopped garlic are common. The noodles are typically thick, curly, and slightly chewy.
  • Karē (カ レ ー, "Curry") Ramen , With Curry soup cooked Ramen , was probably born spontaneously relatively recently in Japan. In Japan, several cities claim to be their place of origin. The city of Muroran claims that it originated there in 1965 (see also Muroran Curry Ramen) while the city of Sanjō claims to have had kare ramen for over 80 years, and the city of Katori also claims to have been the place of its origin. Curry soup is made mainly from pork bones and vegetables and is flavored with curry. The noodles are thick and curly. The toppings include chāshū, wakame, and bean sprouts.

Covering

After the basic preparation you can Ramen can be seasoned and flavored with any number of toppings including, but not limited to:

Preference

Spices that are commonly Ramen Added include white pepper, black pepper, butter, chilli pepper, sesame seeds, and crushed garlic. Soup recipes and preparation methods are usually closely guarded secrets.

Most Tonkotsu- Ramen Restaurants offer a system that is called Kae-dama (替 え 玉) is known. Customers who have finished their noodles can put a "refill" (for a few hundred yen more) in their remaining soup.

regional variations

While standard versions of Ramen have been available across Japan since the Taishō period, the past few decades have shown an increase in regional differences. Some of them that have gained national importance are:

Sapporo , the capital of Hokkaido, is particularly famous for its Ramen . Most people in Japan associate Sapporo with its rich people Miso- Ramen which were invented there and which are ideal for the harsh, snowy winters of Hokkaido. Sapporo miso Ramen usually topped with sweet corn, butter, bean sprouts, finely chopped pork, and garlic, and sometimes local seafood like scallop, squid, and crab. Hakodate, another city in Hokkaido, is famous for its Ramen with Salty flavor, while Asahikawa in the north of the island offers a variation with a soy sauce flavor. There are many in Muroran Ramen Restaurants Muroran Curry Ramen.

Kitakata ramen is known for its rather thick, flat, curly noodles, which are served in a pork niboshi broth. The area within the former city limits has the highest number of Ramen Facilities per capita. Ramen has such a meaning in the region that the word Soba usually locally Ramen and not to actual soba that is referred to as Nihon Soba ("Japanese soba").

Ramen in Tokioter Style consist of slightly thin, curly noodles served in a soy-flavored chicken broth. The Tokyo style broth usually has a hint of Dashi , there old Ramen Establishments in Tokyo often originate from soba restaurants. Standard toppings include chopped green onions, menma, sliced ​​pork, kamaboko, egg, nori, and spinach. Ikebukuro, Ogikubo and Ebisu are three areas in Tokyo that are used for their Ramen are known .

The Yokohama Ramen Specialty is called Ie-kei (家 系). It consists of thick, straight noodles that are in a pork broth with Soy flavor that will be served Tonkotsu resembles and sometimes as Tonkotsu-Shoyu is called . The standard toppings are fried pork (chāshū), boiled spinach, nori leaves, often with shredded Welsh onions (negi) and a soft or hard-boiled egg. It is tradition for customers to mention the softness of the pasta, the richness of the broth and the amount of oil they want.

Wakayama Ramen in the Kansai area has a broth made from soy sauce and pork bones.

Hakata ramen come from the Hakata District in Fukuoka City in Kyushu. It has a rich, milky feel Tonkotsu- Pork bone broth and fairly thin, non-curly and elastic noodles. Characteristic toppings such as crushed garlic, Beni Shoga (pickled ginger), sesame seeds and hot pickled mustard greens (Karashi Takana) left behind for customers to serve themselves. Ramen Stalls in Hakata and Tenjin are known in Japan. Hakata has the latest trends Ramen too Made one of the most popular types in Japan, and across the country there are several chain restaurants serving Hakata Specialized in ramen are.

  • Hakata Ramen With Tonkotsu- Soup

  • Aburasoba ("oiled noodles")

  • Butter corn Ramen , Specialty of Hokkaido

Related dishes

There are many related Chinese-influenced noodle dishes in Japan. The following are often used along with Ramen in Ramen Facilities served. They do not contain noodle dishes traditionally considered Japanese such as soba or udon, which are almost never in the same establishments as Ramen be served.

  • Nagasaki champion. The noodles are thicker than Ramen, but thinner than udon. Champon is topped with a variety of ingredients, mostly seafood, fried and dressed in a starchy sauce. The fried ingredients are poured directly over the cooked pasta, with the sauce serving as a soup.
  • Tan men is a mild, usually salty soup served with a mix of sauteed vegetables and seafood / pork. Not to be confused with the Tantan men (see after).
  • Wantan Men has long straight pasta and wonton, served in a mild, usually salty soup.
  • Abura soba ("Oil noodles"). Essentially Ramen and toppings that are served without soup but with a small amount of oily soy sauce instead.
  • Tsukemen (" Dipped noodles "). The noodles and soup are served in separate bowls. Dinner dips the noodles in the soup before eating. Can be served hot or chilled.
  • Tantan men (担 担 麺). Japanese version of Dan Dan noodles, itself a Szechuan specialty. Ramen in a reddish, spicy chilli-sesame soup, which usually contains minced pork, garnished with chopped spring onions and chilli and occasionally topped with spinach or bok choi (chingensai).
  • Sūrātanmen or Sanrātanmen (酸辣 湯 麺, "Noodles in hot and sour soup") are very similar to the hot and sour Szechuan soup, but are served with long noodles. The ingredients for the topping are sautéed and a thickener added before the mixture is poured onto the soup and pasta.
  • Hiyashi-chūka (冷 や し 中華, "chilled Chinese"). Also known as Regimes , especially in western Japan. A summer dish made from chilled Ramen on a plate with various toppings (usually thin strips of omelette, ham, cucumber and tomato), served with a vinegar and soy dressing and Karashi (Japanese mustard). It was first made at Ryutei, a Chinese restaurant in Sendai.

Restaurants in Japan

A Ramen Restaurant in the center of Kyoto

Ramen is offered in various restaurants and locations including ramen shops, Izakaya drinking places , Lunch cafeterias, karaoke halls and amusement parks. Lots Ramen Restaurants only have one counter and one chef. In these stores, meals are paid for in advance at a ticket machine to streamline the process.

Ramen from however, best quality are usually only available in specialized Ramen-ya- Restaurants available. Some restaurants also offer halal Ramen (with chicken) in Osaka and Kyoto. There Ramen-ya- Restaurants mainly Ramen If they offer dishes, they usually lack variety on the menu. Next Ramen are among the dishes that come in one Ramen-ya- Restaurant commonly available include other dishes of Japanese Chinese cuisine such as fried rice ( Chahan or Called Yakimeshi ), Gyoza (Chinese dumplings) and beer. The Interiors of Ramen-ya are often filled with Chinese-inspired decorations.

Outside of Japan

Shio Ramen from a Ramen Restaurant in Southern California

Ramen became popular in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan where it is known Rishi Lamian (日 式 拉麵, lit. "Japanese-style lamian"). Serving restaurant chains Ramen alongside distinctly Japanese dishes such as tempura and yakitori. Interestingly, in Japan these dishes are not traditionally made with Ramen served with gyoza, kara-age and other dishes from Japanese Chinese cuisine.

In Korea Ramen called ramyeon (라면 / 拉麵). There are different types such as ramyeon with kimchi taste . While some restaurants usually serve vegetables like carrots and spring onions or eggs are served, they serve variations of Ramyeon, that contain additional ingredients such as dumplings, tteok or cheese as a topping.

Outside of Asia, especially in areas with a high demand for Asian cuisine, there are restaurants that cater to Japanese dishes Ramen Specializing in pasta. For example, Wagamama, a UK-based restaurant chain that serves Pan-Asian food, serves one Ramen Noodle soup. In the United States and Canada, Jinya Ramen Bar serves tonkotsu Ramen .

Immediate Ramen

Instant Ramen From 1971 onwards, noodles were exported from Japan by Nissin Foods under the name "Oodles of Noodles". A year later it was renamed "Nissin Cup Noodles", packaged in a foam food container (in Japan as Cup ramen ) and then recorded growth in international sales. In the course of time the term " Ramen "Used in North America to refer to other instant noodles. While some research has suggested that consumption of instant noodles Ramen two or more times a week increases the likelihood of developing heart disease and other conditions, including diabetes and stroke, especially in women, these claims have not been reproduced and no study has found the instant Ramen Consumption in isolation is an aggravating factor.

Potted version

In Akihabara, vending machines distribute hot ones Ramen in a steel can that is called Ramen kan (ら ー め ん 缶) is known. It is made by a popular local Ramen Restaurant in flavors like Tonkotsu and curry and contains noodles, soup, menma and pork. It is intended as a quick snack and includes a small folded plastic fork.

In popular culture

Emoji

In 2009, Unicode became an emoji for Ramen suggested. The emoji was approved for Unicode 6.0 in October 2010.

museum

The Shin-Yokohama Rāmen Museum is a unique museum about Ramen in the Shin-Yokohama district in Kōhoku-ku, Yokohama.

See also

Remarks

further reading