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One pound (British coin) - One pound (British coin)
|value||1 pound sterling|
|Edge||Alternately milled and smooth|
|composition|| Outer ring: |
(76% Cu, 20% Zn and 4% Ni)
|design||Queen Elizabeth the second|
|design||Rose, leek, thistle and shamrock surrounded by a crown|
The British a pound ( £ 1 ) Coin is a denomination of the pound sterling. The obverse bears the Latin engraving ELIZABETH II DG REG ("Dei Gratia Regina") FD ( Fidei defender ), which means "Elizabeth II. By the grace of God, Queen, Defender of the Faith". It shows the profile of Queen Elizabeth II since the original coin was introduced on April 21, 1983. Four different portraits of the Queen have been used, with the latest design introduced by Jody Clark in 2015. The design on the reverse of the current 12-sided coin shows four emblems for each of the nations of the United Kingdom - the English rose, the leek for Wales, the Scottish thistle and the shamrock for Northern Ireland, also two or three oak leaves - from a single one 5-branched stem within a crown.
The original round £ 1 coin replaced the Bank of England's £ 1 banknote, which was discontinued in late 1984 and withdrawn from circulation on March 11, 1988, although like all English banknotes in the bank's offices was redeemable. One pound notes continue to be issued in Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man, as well as by the Royal Bank of Scotland, but the pound coin is used much more widely. A new, twelve-sided (12-sided) coin design was introduced on March 28, 2017, and both new and old versions of the one-pound coin were circulated together until the older design was withdrawn from circulation on October 15, 2017 has been. After that date, the older design was used. Coins could only be redeemed at banks, although some retailers had announced they would continue to accept them for a limited time and they remained in use on the Isle of Man.
The main purpose of the coin redesign was to combat counterfeiting. As of March 2014, an estimated 1,553 million of the original nickel-brass coins were in circulation, of which the Royal Mint 2014 estimated just over 3% were counterfeit. In contrast, like the current 2 pound coin, the new coin is bimetallic and has an unknown hidden security feature called "iSIS" (Integrated Secure Identification Systems).
The current 12-sided pound coins are legal tender in any amount when offered to repay a debt. However, the legal tender status of the coin is usually not relevant for everyday transactions.
To date, there are four different portraits of Elizabeth II on the front. To see. For the first three of these, the inscription ELIZABETH II DGREG.FD was 2013, with 2013 being replaced by the year of issue. The fourth design, unveiled in March 2015, slightly expanded the inscription to include ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF. 2015. The 12-page design introduced in March 2017 has been rolled back to ELIZABETH II DGREG.FD 2017
In August 2005, the Royal Mint launched a competition to find new inverted designs for all coins in circulation except the 2 pound coin. The winner, announced in April 2008, was Matthew Dent, whose designs were gradually introduced into circulating British coinage from mid-2008. The designs for the 1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p and 50p coins show sections of the Royal Shield that together form the entire shield. The shield in its entirety was depicted on the 1 pound coin. The face of the coin remained unchanged.
The design of the reverse side of the original coin was changed every year from 1983 to 2008 to again show an emblem for Great Britain, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and England and a corresponding edge lettering. This label on the edge can often be "upside down" (when the front is facing up). From 2008 national designs were still coined, but alongside the new standard version and no longer in strict rotation. The inscription ONE POUND appeared on all inverted designs.
The round 1 pound coin (with the exception of 2004-07 and the 2010/11 "capital cities" designs) had a coin mark together with inconspicuous 2 pound coins: a small cross on the milled edge that represents Llantrisant in South Wales where the Royal Mint has been based since 1968.
The reverse of the new 12-sided bimetal pound coin, launched on March 28, 2017, was selected through a public design competition. The competition to design the reverse side of this coin opened in September 2014. It was won by 15-year-old David Pearce from Walsall in March 2015 and unveiled by Chancellor George Osborne during his budget announcement. The design features a rose, leek, thistle, and shamrock tied by a crown.
Legal tender status
Current £ 1 coins are legal tender in any amount. However, "legal tender" has a very specific and narrow meaning that only refers to the repayment of a debt to a creditor, not everyday purchases or other transactions. In particular, coins of certain denominations are referred to as "legal tender" when a creditor is legally required to accept them to pay off a debt. The term does not mean - as is often assumed - that a shopkeeper must accept a certain type of currency as a means of payment. A shopkeeper is not required to accept any particular type of payment, whether it is legal tender or not. Conversely, it is at the discretion to accept any desired method of payment.
The editions below indicate the number of coins for each date that for circulation was released. Coin sets have been made since 1982; If coinage on or after this date indicates "none", these sentences contain examples.
|year||Surname||design||Nation represented||Edge lettering||translation||Edition|
|1983||Royal weapons||Royal ornamental weapons||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||443,053,510|
|1984||thistle||Thistle and royal diadem||Scotland||NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT||Nobody attacks me with impunity||146,256,501|
|1985||leek||Leeks and royal tiara||Wales||PLEIDIOL WYF I'm GWLAD||I am true in my country||228.430.749|
|1986||Flax plant||Flax plant and royal diadem||Northern Ireland||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||10,409,501|
|1987||Oak||Oak and royal diadem||England||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||39,298,502|
|1988||Royal Arms Shield||Crown over the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||7,118,825|
|1989||thistle||Thistle and royal diadem||Scotland||NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT||Nobody attacks me with impunity||70.580.501|
|1990||leek||Leeks and royal tiara||Wales||PLEIDIOL WYF I'm GWLAD||I am true in my country||97,269,302|
|1991||Flax plant||Flax plant and royal diadem||Northern Ireland||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||38,443,575|
|1992||Oak||Oak and royal diadem||England||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||36.320.487|
|1993||Royal weapons||Royal ornamental weapons||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||114.744.500|
|1994||Lion rampant||Lion rampant in a double Tressure-Flory-Gegenflory||Scotland||NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT||Nobody attacks me with impunity||29.752.525|
|1995||Dragon||Dragon passerby||Wales||PLEIDIOL WYF I'm GWLAD||I am true in my country||34.503.501|
|1996||Celtic cross and torc||Celtic cross, lighter collar and pimpernel||Northern Ireland||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||89.886.000|
|1997||Three lions||Three lions passing guardians||England||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||57,117,450|
|1998||Royal weapons||Royal ornamental weapons||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||not in circulation|
|1999||Lion rampant||Lion rampant in a double Tressure-Flory-Gegenflory||Scotland||NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT||Nobody attacks me with impunity||not in circulation|
|2000||Dragon||Dragon passerby||Wales||PLEIDIOL WYF I'm GWLAD||I am true in my country||109.496.500|
|2001||Celtic cross and torc||Celtic cross, lighter collar and pimpernel||Northern Ireland||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||63.968.065|
|2002||Three lions||Three lions passing guardians||England||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||77.818.000|
|2003||Royal weapons||Royal ornamental weapons||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||61.596.500|
|2004||Fourth railway bridge||Fourth railway bridge surrounded by railroad tracks||Scotland||A decorative feature that symbolizes bridges and paths||N / A||39.162.000|
|2005||Menai Straits Bridge||Menai suspension bridge, surrounded by railings and stanchions||Wales||99.429.500|
|2006||Egyptian arched railway bridge||Egyptian Arch Railway Bridge, surrounded by canopy dags of the station||Northern Ireland||38.938.000|
|2007||Millennium Bridge||Gateshead Millennium Bridge surrounded by braces||England||26.180.160|
|2008||Royal weapons||Royal ornamental weapons||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||3.910.000|
|2008||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||43.827.300|
|2009||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||27.625.600|
|2010||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||57.120.000|
|2010||London||City of London Coat of Arms||England||DOMINE DIRIGE NOS||Lord lead us||2,635,000|
|2010||Belfast||Belfast Coat of Arms||Northern Ireland||PRO TANTO QUID RETRIBUAMUS||What should we give for so much?||6,205,000|
|2011||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||25.415.000|
|2011||Cardiff||Cardiff Coat of Arms||Wales||Y DDRAIG GOCH DDYRY CYCHWYN||The red dragon will give the lead||1.615.000|
|2011||Edinburgh||Edinburgh coat of arms||Scotland||NISI DOMINUS FRUSTRA||In vain without the Lord||935.000|
|2012||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||35.700.030|
|2013||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||13.090.500|
|2013||Rose and oak||Oak and rose||England||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||5,270,000|
|2013||Leeks and daffodils||Leeks and daffodils||Wales||PLEIDIOL WYF I'm GWLAD||I am true in my country||5,270,000|
|2014||Flax and shamrock||Shamrock and flax plant||Northern Ireland||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||5.780.000|
|2014||Thistle and bellflower||Thistle and bellflower||Scotland||NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSIT||Nobody attacks me with impunity||5.185.000|
|2014||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||79.305.200|
|2015||Royal Arms Shield||The shield from the royal coat of arms (4th portrait)||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||29.580.000|
|2015||Royal Arms Shield||The shield of the royal coat of arms (5th portrait)||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||75,000 (only in BU sets)|
|2015||Royal weapons||The royal coat of arms (5th portrait)||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||129.616.985|
|2016||Royal Arms Shield||The shield of the royal coat of arms (5th portrait)||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||30,000 (only in BU sets)|
|2016||Last round of pounds||Four heraldic beasts||United Kingdom||DECUS ET TUTAMEN||An ornament and protection||not in circulation|
All years except 1998 and 1999 were put into circulation, although the number of years issued varied widely - especially in 1983, 1984 and 1985 there were large mints to make it easier to switch from paper notes, while some years like 1988 are rarely seen (although 1988 is more noticeable as it has a unique inversion). Production since 1997 has been reduced thanks to the introduction of the circulating two pound coin.
The last round coins minted for 2016 and the 5th Portrait of the Shield of the Royal Arms 2015 were not put into circulation as they were only available in commemorative sets. This was the shield from the royal coat of arms by Matthew Dent and a design by Gregory Cameron, Bishop of St. Asaph, of four heraldic animals.
12 sided coin
|2016||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||300,000,000 (first launch in March 2017)|
|2017||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||749.616.200|
|2018||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||130.560.000|
|2019||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||138.635.000|
|2020||Nations of the Crown||United Kingdom||TBA|
In later years of the use of the round pound, surveys by the Royal Mint estimated the proportion of counterfeit 1 pound coins in circulation. This was estimated at 3.04% in 2013, an increase of 2.74%. The figure previously announced in 2012 was 2.86% after a sustained increase from 0.92% in 2002-2003 to 0.98% in 2004, 1.26% in 2005, 1.69% in 2006, 2.06% in 2007, 2.58% in 2008 and 2.65% in 2004, 3.07% in 2010 and 3.09% in 2011. The figures were reported broadly in the following year; In 2008 (as reported in 2009), Northern Ireland (3.6%) and the South East and London (2.97%) had the highest levels of counterfeiting, with the lowest being in North West England. In 2009, coin testing firms estimated the actual number was roughly twice the coin’s estimate, suggesting that the coin is underestimating the numbers so as not to undermine confidence in the coin. It is illegal to knowingly pass on counterfeit currencies. The official advice is to hand it over to the police, with details of where it came in, who will hold it and investigate. One article suggested, "Given that counterfeit coins are worthless, you will almost certainly be better off not even looking". In such cases, the recipient also has recourse to the supplier.
Counterfeits are circulated by dishonest people and then accidentally circulated by others who do not know. In many cases, banks do not review or distribute counterfeits. In 2011, the BBC television program moved Fake Britain withdrew £ 1,000 1 coins from each of the five major banks and found that each batch contained between 32 and 38 forgeries. The mint estimated that about 31 per £ 1,000 1 coins were counterfeit. Some of the forgeries were found by automated machines, others could only be detected by professional visual inspection.
In July 2010, after speculation that the Royal Mint might have to consider replacing 1 pound coins with a new design due to the counterfeiting, bookmaker Paddy Power offered odds of 6/4 (bet 4 pounds to 6 Pound to win plus £ 4 stake) back; Decimal probability of 2.5) that the 1 pound coin will be withdrawn from circulation.
Some forgeries were of poor quality, with obvious differences (less sharply defined, no intricate details, milled edges and visibly false markings). Many better counterfeits can be identified by comparing the front and back orientations - they should match in real modern British coins, but very often not in counterfeit rounds of £ 1. The design on the reverse must be correct for the year stamped (e.g. a 1996 coin should have a Celtic cross). It was difficult to make round pounds with properly made edges; The milling (grooving) was often incomplete or poor and the inscription (often "DECUS ET TUTAMEN") was sometimes poorly produced or in the wrong script. A shiny coin with less wear than the date suggests is also suspect, although it may be a real coin that has seldom been used.
Counterfeit coins are made using a variety of methods including casting, stamping, electrotyping, and copying with a current collector or electrical discharge machining. In a 2009 survey, 99% of counterfeit 1 pound coins found in ATMs were made of nickel-brass, three-fifths of which contained some lead and one-fifth used an alloy very similar to that used by the Royal Mint. The remaining 1% consisted of simple copper-zinc-brass or lead or tin or both. Those made of lead or tin can have a gold-colored coating; Occasionally, counterfeits made of acrylic plastic have been found containing metal powder to add weight.
The last "round pounds" were minted in December 2015; The replacement, a new 12-sided design, was introduced in 2017, with the date 2016 at the earliest. The coin has a 12-sided shape, similar to the three-point brass coin in front of the decimal point. It's roughly the same size as the previous 1 pound coin and, like most 2 pound coins, is bimetallic. The new design is supposed to make counterfeiting more difficult and has an undisclosed hidden security feature called "iSIS" (Integrated Secure Identification Systems), which is believed to be a code embedded in the top metal layer on the face of the coin and visible is only below a certain wavelength of ultraviolet light.
Current two-pound coins that are bimetallic (with the exception of a few rarely offered commemorative editions) are still harder to forge than the round pound. Such counterfeits are often slightly wrong in color.
Other pound coins that came into circulation
While the round pound was in operation, others that went into circulation in the UK despite not being legal tender were around 1 pound coins of the British Crown Dependencies, Gibraltar and the British South Atlantic Overseas Territories. Most of the coins in these areas were the same size and composition as a British equivalent in all denominations, and most bore the same portraits of the British monarch. None of these areas rushed to replace their round pound coins, except for Gibraltar after Britain did so, which continued to use Gibraltar pound coins as legal tender, as well as the new British pound coins.
In one new Yorker April 1993 article "Real Britannia", Julian Barnes describes the reverse design selection meetings from 1994–1997. This is stated in his book Letters from London reprinted as "Britannia's New Bra Size".
- Coincraft's standard catalog of English & UK coins 1066 to date , Richard Lobel, Coincraft. ISBN 0-9526228-8-2
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