What are wave cut terraces

Landform Glossary - Glossary of landforms

Links to Wikipedia articles on landforms

Land forms are categorized according to characteristic physical attributes such as formation process, shape, height, inclination, orientation, rock load and soil type.

Landforms by process

Landforms organized according to the processes that create them.

Aeolian landforms

Aeolian Landform - Landforms created by the action of the winds are formed by the wind and include:

  • Dry lake - a basin or depression that used to contain a body of standing surface water
  • Sandhill - A type of ecological community or ecosystem tended by xerian forest fires
  • Ventifact - A rock that has been eroded by wind-blown sand or ice crystals
  • Yardang - A streamlined Aeolian landform

Coastal and ocean landforms

Coastal and ocean landforms include:

  • Abyssal Fan - Underwater geological structures associated with extensive sedimentation
  • Abyssal Plain - Shallow area on the deep sea floor
  • Archipelago - A group of islands
  • Atoll - Annular coral reef
  • Arch - Natural rock formation in which a rock arch forms
  • Ayre - pebble beaches in Orkney and Shetland
  • Barrier bar
  • Barrier Island - coastal dune landform that forms parallel to the mainland coast due to the action of waves and tides
  • Bay - deepened coastal water connected to an ocean or lake
  • Baymouth Bar - A deposit feature resulting from longshore drift, a sandbar that partially or completely blocks access to a bay.
  • Beach - area with loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Elevated Beach - A beach or wave platform that has been raised above the coastline by a relative drop in sea level
  • Beach humps - coastal formations made up of various qualities of sediment in an arched pattern
  • Beach Ridge - A wave-lashed or undulating crest that runs parallel to a coastline
  • Bay - Shallow concave bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographic feature
  • Blowhole - Hole in the top of a sea cave through which waves can push water or spray out of the hole
  • Canal - A type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region
  • Cape - A large spit of land that extends into a body of water, usually the sea
  • Calanque - A narrow, steep-walled bay on the Mediterranean coast
  • Cliff - A vertical or near vertical rock wall of considerable height
  • Coast - area where land meets sea or sea
  • Continental Shelf - A portion of a continent that lies under an area of ​​relatively shallow water known as the shelf sea
  • Coral reef - rock outcrop in the sea created by the growth and deposition of stony coral skeletons
  • Bay - A small sheltered bay or coastal inlet
  • Cuspate Foreland - Geographical features on coasts and lake shores that are mainly created by longshore drift
  • Dune System - A mound of loose sand built by Aeolian processes or the flow of water
  • Estuary - partially closed coastal body of brackish water with river flow and free connection to the sea
  • Firth - Scottish word for various coastal inlets and straits
  • Fjard - A glacial shaped, wide, shallow inlet
  • Fjord - A long, narrow bay with steep sides or cliffs formed by glacial activity
  • Geo - A bay, a canyon, or a narrow and deep crevice in the face of a cliff
  • Golf - A large inlet from the ocean into the land mass
  • Headland - A landform that extends into a body of water, often of significant elevation and gradient
  • Inlet - A trough of a coastline that often leads to an enclosed body of saltwater, e.g. B. a sound, a bay, a lagoon or a swamp
  • Island - Any piece of subcontinental land surrounded by water
  • Island - Very small island
  • Isthmus - a narrow strip of land that connects two larger areas of land
  • Lagoon - A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs
  • Machair - A fertile, low lying grass plain
  • Sea terrace
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge - Basaltic underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic expansion
  • Oceanic Basin - Large geological basins that are below sea level
  • Ocean Plateau - Relatively flat submarine region that protrudes well above the level of the surrounding ocean floor
  • Oceanic Ridge - An underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic expansion
  • Oceanic Rift - Long and narrow depressions in the ocean floor
  • Peninsula - geographical feature
  • Ria - A coastal inlet formed by partial submersion of a non-glaciated river valley
  • River delta - landform of the silt deposit at the mouth of a river
  • Salt marsh - coastal ecosystem between land and open salt water that is regularly flooded
  • Sea Cave - A cave formed by the movement of the sea waves and located along the current or former coastlines
  • Seamount - A mountain that rises from the ocean floor and does not reach the surface of the water
  • Seamount chains
  • Shoal - Natural submerged sandbar that rises from a body of water to close to the surface
  • Shore - The edge of land at the edge of a large body of water
  • Sonic - A long, relatively wide body of water that connects two larger bodies of water
  • Spit - coastal bar or beach landform deposited by longshore drift
  • Strait - A naturally shaped, narrow, usually navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water
  • Strandflat - A landform typical of the Norwegian coast, consisting of a flat erosion surface on the coast and a seabed near the coast
  • Stack - geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or stone pillars and a stump
  • Submarine Gorge - A steep valley cut into the ocean floor of the continental slope
  • Slush Canal - A narrow inlet, usually on a rocky coastline, formed by the varying erosion of these rocks by coastal wave action
  • Mosaic Pavement - A relatively flat rock surface that is broken down into more or less regular shapes
  • Tidal swamp - swamp that is subject to a tide change in the water
  • Tide Pool - A rocky pool on a coast that is separated from the sea at low tide and filled with sea water
  • Tombolo - Deposition Landform in which an island is connected to the mainland by a sandy isthmus
  • Volcanic Arc - A chain of volcanoes formed over a subduction plate
  • Wavy Platform - The narrow flat area often found at the base of a cliff or along the coast of a lake, bay, or sea created by erosion

Cryogenic landforms

  • Cryoplanation terrace - formation of levels, terraces and gables in periglacial environments
  • Mound of earth
  • Lithalsa - A frost-induced highland form in permafrost areas
  • Nivation hollow - A geomorphic process associated with patches of snow
  • Palsa - A low, often oval-shaped frost cloud that occurs in polar and sub-polar climates
  • Permafrost Plateau - A low, often oval, burst of frost that occurs in polar and sub-polar climates
  • Pingo - mounds of earth-covered ice
  • Rock glacier - landform made of angular rock remnants that are frozen in interstitial ice, former "real" glaciers that are covered by a talus layer, or something in between
  • Solifluction flaps and sheets
  • Thermokarst - Irregular land surface made up of swampy hollows and small mounds formed when the permafrost thaws

Erosion landforms

Landforms created by erosion and weathering usually occur in coastal or riverine environments, and many appear under these headings as well.

  • Arête - A narrow ridge that separates two valleys
  • Badlands - A type of arid terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been severely eroded
  • Bornhardt - A large, dome-shaped, steep, bare rock
  • Butte - Isolated mound with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Canyon - deep gorge between cliffs
  • Cave - Natural underground space that is large enough for a human to enter
  • Cirque - An amphitheater-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Cliff - A vertical or near vertical rock wall of considerable height
  • Cryoplanation terrace - formation of levels, terraces and gables in periglacial environments
  • Cuesta - A hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Prepared plateau - area of ​​the plateau that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Erg - A wide, flat desert area covered in windswept sand
  • Etchplain - A plain where bedrock has been exposed to significant subsurface weathering
  • Exhumed river channel - A sandstone ridge that remains when the softer mudstone of the floodplain is eroded
  • Fjord - A long, narrow bay with steep sides or cliffs created by glacial activity
  • Exposed Slope - A rock wall with a gentle transition into a concavity in the foot zone
  • Flatiron - A steeply sloping triangular landform created by the varying degrees of erosion of a steeply sloping, erosion-resistant rock layer over softer layers.
  • Gulch - Deep V-shaped valley from erosion
  • Gully - landform created by flowing water that is severely eroded into the ground
  • Hogback - A long, narrow ridge or series of hills with a narrow ridge and steep slopes with almost the same inclination on both sides
  • Hoodoo - A tall, thin tower made of relatively soft rock, usually topped by harder rock
  • Homoclinal ridge - ridge with a moderately sloping and steeper slope
  • Inselberg, also known as Monadnock - Isolated rock mound or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Inverted relief - landscape features, the height of which has been reversed compared to other features
  • Lavaka - A type of gutter formed by suction of groundwater
  • Limestone Pavement - A natural karst landform that consists of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone
  • Mesa - Raised land area with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Mushroom Rock - Naturally occurring rock that is shaped like a mushroom
  • Natural Arch - Natural rock formation in which a rock arch is formed
  • Paleoplain - A buried plain of erosion; a particularly large and flat area of ​​erosion
  • Gable - A very gently sloping, sloping bedrock surface
  • Pediplain - An expansive plain formed by the merging of gables
  • Peneplain - A bas-relief plane formed by protracted erosion
  • Planing Area - A large area that is almost flat
  • Potrero - A long mesa that slopes upward at one end into higher ground.
  • Ridge - A geological feature made up of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous raised ridge over a distance
  • Rôche moutonnée
  • List of Rock Formations - Links to Wikipedia articles on remarkable rock outcroppings
  • Strike ridge - ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steep frontslope
  • Structural bank - long, relatively narrow land, which is bordered above and below by significantly steeper slopes
  • Structural Terrace - A stepped landform
  • Tepui - A table mountain or mesa in the highlands of Guiana in South America
  • Mosaic Pavement - A relatively flat rock surface that is broken down into more or less regular shapes
  • Cut off spur - A ridge that slopes down towards a valley floor or a shoreline that is cut short
  • Gate - Large, free-standing ledge that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded mountain peak or ridge
  • Valley - Low area between hills, often traversed by a river
  • Wavy Platform - The narrow flat area often found at the base of a cliff or along the coast of a lake, bay, or sea created by erosion

River land forms

River land forms include:

  • Ait Islands found on the Thames and its tributaries in England
  • Alluvial Fan - A fan- or conical-shaped sediment deposit that is crossed and built up by streams
  • Anabranch - A section of a river or stream that branches off from the main canal and flows back together downstream.
  • Arroyo - A dry creek or brook bed with a river after rain
  • Asymmetrical Valley - A valley with steeper slopes on one side
  • Backswamp - environment in a floodplain where debris settles after a flood
  • Bar - Natural submerged sandbar that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Bayou - French name for a body of water that normally occurs in shallow, low-lying areas
  • Bank-long, relatively narrow land, which is bordered at the top and bottom by significantly steeper slopes
  • Braided Canal - A network of river canals separated by small and often temporary islands
  • Canyon - deep gorge between cliffs
  • Cave - Natural underground space that is large enough for a human to enter
  • Cliff - A vertical or near vertical rock wall of considerable height
  • Cut the bank - the outer bank of a water channel that is constantly eroding
  • Crevasse - sediment deposited on a floodplain by a stream that breaks its dikes
  • Confluence - the meeting of two or more flowing waters
  • Catchment area - area where precipitation gathers and drains into a common outlet
  • Drainage division - Elevated terrain that separates adjacent drainage basins
  • Endorheic Basin - Closed catchment area that does not allow runoff
  • Entrenched meander
  • Epigenetic valley - valley that was created by erosion and has little or no sympathy for the bedrock structure
  • Esker - Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel connected to former glaciers
  • Exhumed river channel - A sandstone ridge that remains when the softer mudstone of the floodplain is eroded
  • Floodplains - land next to a river that is flooded during periods of high runoff
  • River Island - Exposed land within a river.
  • River Terrace - Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Canyon - deep canyon between cliffs
  • Gully - landform created by flowing water that is severely eroded into the ground
  • Natural dike - ridge or wall to hold back water
  • Swamp - wetland, which is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species
  • Meander - winding bend in a row in the channel of a river
  • Misfit Stream - a river too big or too small to have eroded the valley or cave passage in which it flows
  • Oxbow Lake - U-shaped lake formed by a cut meander of a river
  • Pointed Bars - A deposition feature of alluvium that accumulates in the inner bend of streams and rivers below the slope
  • Plunge pool - depression at the base of a waterfall created by the erosive force of falling water and rocks where it lands
  • Fast
  • Riffle - Flat landform in a flowing canal
  • River - Naturally flowing watercourse
  • River delta - landform of the silt deposit at the mouth of a river
  • River Island - Exposed land within a river.
  • Rock Pools - Cylindrical depressions cut in stream or river beds
  • Shut-in - A type of rock formation found in Ozarks streams
  • Thalweg - line of the lowest elevation in a watercourse or valley
  • Towhead - Exposed land within a river.
  • Shoal - Natural submerged sandbar that rises from a body of water to close to the surface
  • Source - A point where water from an aquifer comes to the surface
  • Strath - Great Valley
  • Stream - body of surface water flowing down a canal
  • Stream Basin - A section of a river or stream where the water is relatively deep and moving slowly
  • Swamp - A wooded wetland
  • Valley - Low area between hills, often traversed by a river
  • Valley - Low area between hills, often traversed by a river
  • Wadi - river valley, especially a dry river bed that only contains water when it is raining heavily
  • Waterfall - place where water flows over a vertical drop in the course of a river
  • Watershed - area where precipitation gathers and drains into a common drain
  • Yazoo Stream - hydrological term
  • V-shaped valley

Effects of landforms

Landforms created by extraterrestrial influences - collision of two astronomical objects with measurable effects - include:

Karst land forms

Karst - topography of dissolved soluble rocks - includes:

  • Abîme - A vertical shaft in karst areas that can be very deep and usually opens into a network of underground passages
  • Calanque - A narrow, steep-walled bay on the Mediterranean coast
  • Cave - Natural underground space that is large enough for a human to enter
  • Cenote - A natural pit or sinkhole that exposes the groundwater below
  • Foiba - A kind of deep natural sinkhole
  • Karst window
  • Mogote - A steep residual hill made of limestone, marble or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Polje - type of large flat plain found in geological karst regions
  • Scowle - landscape features ranging from amorphous shallow pits to irregular labyrinth caves to a depth of several meters
  • Sinkhole - depression or hole in the ground caused by the collapse of the surface into an existing cavity
  • Turlough - type of disappearing lake in limestone areas of Ireland
  • Uvala - A local toponym in some regions of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia for a closed karst depression

Lacustrine landforms

Lacustrine - associated with lakes - landforms include:

  • Beach - area with loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Elevated Beach - A beach or wave platform that has been raised above the coastline by a relative drop in sea level
  • Carolina Bay
  • Dry lake - a basin or depression that used to contain a body of standing surface water
  • Endorheic Basin - Closed catchment area that does not allow runoff
  • Lacustrine plain - lakes filled with sediments
  • Lacustrine Terraces - A stepped landform
  • Lake - large body with relatively calm water
  • Oasis - Isolated source of fresh water in a desert
  • Oxbow Lake - U-shaped lake formed by a cut meander of a river
  • Parallel streets of Glen Roy - nature reserve in the Scottish Highlands with old coastal terraces
  • Pond - A relatively small body of stagnant water
  • Proglacial Lake - A lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet
  • Salt pan, also known as the salt desert - Flat bottom surface covered with salt and other minerals

Mountain and glacier landforms

Mountain and glacier landform - landform created by the action of glaciers - includes:

  • Arête - A narrow ridge that separates two valleys
  • Cirque - An amphitheater-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Col - The lowest point on a ridge between two peaks
  • Crevasse - A deep crack or break in an ice sheet or glacier
  • Corrie - An amphitheater-like valley formed by glacial erosion or CWM
  • Bay (mountain) - A small valley in the Appalachian Mountains between two ridge lines
  • Dirt cone - deposit glaciers of ice or snow with an insulating layer of dirt
  • Drumlin and Drumlin Field
  • Esker - Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel connected to former glaciers
  • Fjord - A long, narrow bay with steep sides or cliffs created by glacial activity
  • River Terrace - Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Flyggberg - Isolated rocky mound or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Glacier - A persistent body of ice that moves under its own weight
  • Glacier Cave - A cave formed in the ice of a glacier
  • Glacier Foreland - The region between the current leading edge of the glacier and the moraines of the newest maximum
  • Hanging Valley - A side valley that meets the main valley above the valley floor
  • Hill - landform that extends over the surrounding terrain
  • Inselberg, also known as Monadnock - Isolated rock mound or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Kame-Mound formed on a retreating glacier and deposited on land
  • Kame Delta - A landform formed by a meltwater flow that flows through or around a glacier and deposits sediment in a proglacial lake
  • Electric kettle - A depression / hole in a floodplain created by retreating glaciers or draining from floods
  • Moraine - Ice Age accumulation of unconsolidated rubble
    • Roe moraine, also known as ribbed moraine - landform of ridges deposited by a glacier or an ice sheet across the ice flow
  • Moulin - Shaft within a glacier or ice sheet into which water penetrates from the surface
  • Mountain - A large landform that rises fairly steeply above the surrounding land in a limited area
  • Mountain pass - route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Mountain Range - A geographic area with several geologically related mountains
  • Nunatak - Exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak that is not covered with ice or snow in an ice field or glacier
  • Proglacial Lake - A lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet
  • Pyramid peak, also known as the Gletscherhorn - angular, sharply pointed mountain peak
  • Washout Fan - A fan-shaped body of sediment deposited by the braided streams of a melting glacier
  • Washout plain - plain of glacial sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Rift Valley - Linear lowland formed by a tectonic rift or fault
  • Rôche moutonnée
  • Sandur - Plain made up of glacial sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Side Valley - A valley with a tributary of a larger river
  • Summit - point on a surface with a higher elevation than any immediately adjacent point
  • Trim Line - A clear line on the side of a valley that marks the last highest extension of the glacier
  • Cut off spur - A ridge that slopes down towards a valley floor or a shoreline that is cut short
  • Tunnel Valley - Glacier-shaped geographical feature
  • Valley - Low area between hills, often traversed by a river
  • U-shaped valley - valleys created by clearing glaciers

Slope landforms

Slope land forms include:

  • Bluff - A vertical or near vertical rock wall of considerable height
  • Butte - Isolated mound with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Canyon - deep gorge between cliffs
  • Cliff - A vertical or near vertical rock wall of considerable height
  • Col - The lowest point on a ridge between two peaks
  • Cuesta - A hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Dale - Low area between hills, often traversed by a river
  • Defile - A narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills
  • Dell - Small, secluded hollow
  • Doab, also known as Interfluve - land between two confluent or confluent rivers
  • To draw
  • Steep step, also known as scarp - Steep slope or cliff separating two relatively flat areas
  • Flat (Landform) - A relatively flat land surface in an area of ​​greater relief
  • Glen - name for the valley common in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man
  • Gully - landform created by flowing water that is severely eroded into the ground
  • Hill - landform that extends over the surrounding terrain
  • Hillock, also known as Knoll - A small hill
  • Mesa - Raised land area with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Mountain pass - route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Plain - vast plain at a great height
  • Plateau - area of ​​a highland, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Canyon - Small valley that is often the result of pouring erosion
  • Ridge - A geological feature made up of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous raised ridge over a distance
  • Rock Shelter - A shallow cavernous opening at the base of a cliff or cliff
  • saddle
  • Scree - Broken rock fragments at the base of steep rock walls that have accumulated from periodic rock fall
  • Solifluction flaps and sheets
  • Strath - Great Valley
  • Summit - point on a surface with a higher elevation than any immediately adjacent point
  • Terrace - A stepped landform
  • Terracotta chain - A ridge on a hill formed when saturated soil particles expand and contract as they dry, causing them to slowly move downhill
  • valley
  • Valley - Low area between hills, often traversed by a river
  • Valley shoulder

Tectonic landforms

Landforms created by tectonic activity include:

  • Asymmetrical Valley - A valley with steeper slopes on one side
  • Dome - geological deformation structure
  • Faceted spur - A ridge that slopes down towards a valley floor or a shoreline that is cut short
  • Flaw - A small step or offset on the ground surface where one side of a flaw moved vertically to the other
  • Trench - Depressed block of the planet's crust bounded by parallel faults
  • Horst - An increased block of errors that is limited by normal errors
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge - Basaltic underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic expansion
  • Mud volcano - landform created by the eruption of mud or muds, water and gas
  • Oceanic Rift - Long and narrow depressions in the ocean floor
  • Extendable Basin - A structural basin in which two overlapping defects or a defect bend create an area of ​​crustal expansion that causes the basin to sink
  • Rift Valley - Linear lowland formed by a tectonic rift or fault
  • Boil sand - A cone of sand formed by expelling sand onto a surface from a central point by water under pressure

Volcanic landforms

Volcanic landforms include:

  • Caldera - Cauldron-like volcanic feature created by emptying a magma chamber
  • Cinder Cone - A steep, conical mound of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent
  • Complex Volcano - A landform made up of more than one related volcanic center
  • Kryptodom - Roughly circular protrusion made of slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Cryovolcano - A type of volcano that erupts volatile substances such as water, ammonia or methane instead of molten rock
  • Diatreme - A volcanic tube formed by a gas explosion
  • Dyke - A slab of rock that forms in a break in an existing rock
  • Fissure Ventilation - Linear volcanic ventilation through which lava erupts
  • Geyser - hot spring, characterized by the intermittent release of turbulent water accompanied by steam
  • Guyot - An isolated, shallow, underwater volcanic mountain
  • Hornito - Conical structures made of lava ejected through an opening in the crust of a lava flow
  • Kīpuka - area surrounded by one or more recent lava flows
  • Lava - Molten rock ejected from a volcano during an eruption
  • Lava dome - roughly circular protrusion formed by slowly extruding viscous volcanic lava
  • Lava coulee - Roughly circular protrusion of slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Lava field, also known as the lava plain
  • Lava Lake - Molten Lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Lava Spine - A vertically growing monolith of viscous lava that is slowly pressed out of a volcanic vent, e.g. B. from those that grow on a lava dome
  • Lava Cave - Natural conduit through which lava flows below the solid surface
  • Maar - bas-relief volcanic crater
  • Malpais - A rough and barren landscape of relics and largely intact lava fields
  • Mamelon - A rock formation created by the eruption of relatively thick or stiff lava through a narrow opening
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge - Basaltic underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic expansion
  • Pit Crater - A depression created by the subsidence or collapse of the surface over an empty or empty chamber
  • Pyroclastic Shield - a shield volcano composed mainly of pyroclastic and high-explosive eruptions
  • Resurgent Dome - A dome formed by the swelling or rising of a caldera floor due to movement in the magma chamber below
  • Rootless cone, also known as a pseudocrater - volcanic landform that resembles a real volcanic crater, but differs in that it is not an actual vent from which lava has erupted
  • Seamount - A mountain that rises from the ocean floor and does not reach the surface of the water
  • Shield Volcano - Flat volcano, usually made up almost entirely of liquid lava flows
  • Stratovolcano - Tall, conical volcano made up of many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta
  • Somma Volcano - A volcanic caldera that has been partially filled by a new central cone
  • Spray cone - landform of the ejection from a conically stacked volcanic vent
  • Volcanic Crater Lake - Lake formed in a volcanic crater
  • Subglacial mound - volcano formed when lava erupts under a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Submarine volcano - underwater slits or cracks in the surface of the earth that magma can erupt from
  • Super volcano - volcano that erupted 1,000 cubic kilometers in a single eruption
  • Tuff cone - landform of the ejecta from a volcanic vent in a conical shape
  • Tuya - A flat, steep volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Volcanic vent
  • Volcanic Cone - Landscapes of the ejecta piled up from a volcanic vent in a conical shape
  • Volcanic Crater - Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic Dam - A natural dam created directly or indirectly by volcanism
  • Volcanic field - area of ​​the earth's crust susceptible to localized volcanic activity
  • Volcanic Group - A collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms
  • Volcanic Island - island of volcanic origin
  • Volcanic Plateau - A plateau created by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic plug - volcanic object created when magma hardens in a fume cupboard of an active volcano
  • Volcano - A fracture in the crust of a planetary mass object that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface

Weathering of landforms

Weathering land forms include:

  • Bornhardt - A large, dome-shaped, steep, bare rock
  • Etchplain - A plain where bedrock has been exposed to significant subsurface weathering
  • Exposed Slope - A rock wall with a gentle transition into a concavity in the foot zone
  • flute
  • Honeycomb Weathering - A form of cavernous weathering and a sub-category of Tafoni
  • Inselberg - Remote rocky hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Karst - topography of dissolved soluble rocks
  • Nubbin - A small and gentle hill consisting of a bedrock core that is littered with rounded residual blocks.
  • Panhole - A shallow depression or basin that has been eroded into flat or gently sloping contiguous rock (weathering pit)
  • Tafoni - Small to large depressions in vertical to steeply sloping granular rock
  • Gate - Large, free-standing ledge that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded mountain peak or ridge

Landforms by shape

Positive landforms

  • Bornhardt - A large, dome-shaped, steep, bare rock
  • Cinder Cone - A steep, conical mound of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent
  • Cryptodome
  • Dome - geological deformation structure
  • Drumlin
  • Granite Dome - Rounded mounds of bare granite formed by peeling
  • Hillock - A small hill
  • Inselberg - Remote rocky hill or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Lava dome - roughly circular protrusion formed by slowly extruding viscous volcanic lava
  • Lava Spine - A vertically growing monolith of viscous lava that is slowly pressed out of a volcanic vent, e.g. B. from those that grow on a lava dome
  • Mesa - Raised land area with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Mogote - A steep residual hill made of limestone, marble or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Nubbin - A small and gentle hill consisting of a bedrock core that is littered with rounded residual blocks.
  • Gate - Large, free-standing ledge that rises abruptly from the surrounding smooth and gentle slopes of a rounded mountain peak or ridge
  • Tower karst
  • Tuya - A flat, steep volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Palsa - A low, often oval-shaped frost cloud that occurs in polar and sub-polar climates
  • Pingo - mounds of earth-covered ice
  • Pyroclastic Shield - a shield volcano composed mainly of pyroclastic and high-explosive eruptions
  • Resurgent Dome - A dome formed by the swelling or rising of a caldera floor due to movement in the magma chamber below
  • Seamount - A mountain that rises from the ocean floor and does not reach the surface of the water
  • Shield Volcano - Flat volcano, usually made up almost entirely of liquid lava flows
  • Stratocone
  • Stratovolcano - Tall, conical volcano made up of many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta
  • Volcanic Cone - Landscapes of the ejecta piled up from a volcanic vent in a conical shape
  • Volcanic island

depressions

  • Caldera - Cauldron-like volcanic feature created by emptying a magma chamber
  • Cave - Natural underground space that is large enough for a human to enter
  • Cenote - A natural pit or sinkhole that exposes the groundwater below
  • Cirque - An amphitheater-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Crevasse - A deep crack or break in an ice sheet or glacier
  • Deflation hollow
  • Sinkhole - Depression or hole in the ground caused by the collapse of the surface into an existing cavity
  • Gnamma
  • Trench - Depressed block of the planet's crust bounded by parallel faults
  • Honeycomb Weathering - A form of cavernous weathering and sub-category of Tafoni
  • Impact crater - circular depression on a solid astronomical body formed by a hypervelocity impact of a smaller object
  • Common valley
  • Electric kettle - A depression / hole in a floodplain created by retreating glaciers or draining from floods
  • Lagoon - A shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs
  • Lake - large body with relatively calm water
  • Lava Lake - Molten Lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Maar - bas-relief volcanic crater
  • Nivation hollow - A geomorphic process associated with patches of snow
  • Oxbow Lake - U-shaped lake formed by a cut meander of a river
  • Panhole - A shallow depression or basin that has been eroded into flat or gently sloping contiguous rock
  • Plunge pool - depression at the base of a waterfall created by the erosive force of falling water and rocks where it lands
  • Pond - A relatively small body of stagnant water
  • Extendable Basin - A structural basin in which two overlapping defects or a defect bend create an area of ​​crustal expansion that causes the basin to sink
  • Quarry - A place where geological material has been excavated from the ground
  • Fissure - part of a volcano in which a series of linear fissures form
  • Sea Cave - A cave formed by the movement of the sea waves and located along the current or former coastlines
  • Sinkhole - depression or hole in the ground caused by the collapse of the surface into an existing cavity
  • Tafoni - Small to large depressions in vertical to steeply sloping granular rock
  • Thermokarst - Irregular land surface made up of swampy hollows and small mounds formed when the permafrost thaws
  • Volcanic Crater - Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Volcanic Dam - A natural dam created directly or indirectly by volcanism

Flat landforms

  • Abyssal Fan - Underwater geological structures associated with extensive sedimentation
  • Abyssal Plain - Shallow area on the deep sea floor
  • Bank-long, relatively narrow land, which is bordered at the top and bottom by significantly steeper slopes
  • Butte - Isolated mound with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Continental Shelf - A portion of a continent that lies under an area of ​​relatively shallow water known as the shelf sea
  • Cryoplanation terrace - formation of levels, terraces and gables in periglacial environments
  • Prepared plateau - area of ​​the plateau that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Etchplain - A plain where bedrock has been exposed to significant subsurface weathering
  • Floodplains - land next to a river that is flooded during periods of high runoff
  • River Terrace - Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Inselberg Plain - Isolated rocky mound or small mountain that rises abruptly from a relatively flat surrounding plain
  • Lacustrine Terrace - A stepped landform
  • Lava field, also known as the lava plain
  • Oceanic Basin - Large geological basins that are below sea level
  • Ocean Plateau - Relatively flat submarine region that protrudes well above the level of the surrounding ocean floor
  • Washout Fan - A fan-shaped body of sediment deposited by the braided streams of a melting glacier
  • Washout plain - plain of glacial sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Paleoplain - A buried plain of erosion; a particularly large and flat area of ​​erosion
  • Pediplain - An expansive plain formed by the merging of gables
  • Peneplain - A bas-relief plane formed by protracted erosion
  • Plain - vast plain at a great height
  • Planing Area - A large area that is almost flat
  • Plateau - area of ​​a highland, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Polje - type of large flat plain found in geological karst regions
  • Elevated Beach, also known as Sea Terrace - A beach or wave platform that is raised above the coastline by a relative drop in sea level
  • River delta - landform of the silt deposit at the mouth of a river
  • Salt marsh - coastal ecosystem between land and open salt water that is regularly flooded
  • Salt Pan - Flat bottom surface covered with salt and other minerals
  • Sandur - Plain made up of glacial sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Strandflat - A landform typical of the Norwegian coast, consisting of a flat erosion surface on the coast and a seabed near the coast
  • Strath - Great Valley
  • Swamp - A wooded wetland
  • Table - Raised landforms with a flat top
  • Tidal swamp - swamp that is subject to a tide change in the water
  • Tepui - A table mountain or mesa in the highlands of Guiana in South America
  • Volcanic Plateau - A plateau created by volcanic activity
  • Wavy Platform - The narrow flat area often found at the base of a cliff or along the coast of a lake, bay, or sea created by erosion

Landforms, alphabetically

  • Abîme - A vertical shaft in karst areas that can be very deep and usually opens into a network of underground passages
  • Abyssal Fan - Underwater geological structures associated with extensive sedimentation
  • Abyssal Plain - Shallow area on the deep sea floor
  • Ait Islands found on the Thames and its tributaries in England
  • Alluvial Fan - A fan- or conical-shaped sediment deposit that is crossed and built up by streams
  • Anabranch - A section of a river or stream that branches off from the main canal and flows back together downstream.
  • Arch - Natural rock formation in which a rock arch forms
  • Archipelago - A group of islands
  • Arête - A narrow ridge that separates two valleys
  • Arroyo - A dry creek or brook bed with a river after rain
  • Atoll - Annular coral reef
  • Ayre - pebble beaches in Orkney and Shetland
  • Badlands - A type of arid terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been severely eroded
  • Bar - Natural submerged sandbar that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Barchan - A crescent-shaped dune
  • Barrier Bar - Natural submerged sandbar that rises from a body of water to close to the surface
  • Barrier Island - coastal dune landform that forms parallel to the mainland coast due to the action of waves and tides
  • Bay - deepened coastal water connected to an ocean or lake
  • Baymouth Bar - A deposit feature resulting from longshore drift, a sandbar that partially or completely blocks access to a bay.
  • Bayou - French name for a body of water that normally occurs in shallow, low-lying areas
  • Beach - area with loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Beach humps - coastal formations made up of various qualities of sediment in an arched pattern
  • Beach Ridge - A wave-lashed or undulating crest that runs parallel to a coastline
  • Bank-long, relatively narrow land, which is bordered at the top and bottom by significantly steeper slopes
  • Bay - Shallow concave bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographic feature
  • Blowhole - Hole in the top of a sea cave through which waves can push water or spray out of the hole
  • Blowout - Depression in a sand dune ecosystem caused by the removal of sediment by wind
  • Bluff - A vertical or near vertical rock wall of considerable height
  • Bornhardt - A large, dome-shaped, steep, bare rock
  • Braided Canal - A network of river canals separated by small and often temporary islands
  • Butte - Isolated mound with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Calanque - A narrow, steep-walled bay on the Mediterranean coast
  • Caldera - Cauldron-like volcanic feature created by emptying a magma chamber
  • Canyon - deep gorge between cliffs
  • Cape - A large spit of land that extends into a body of water, usually the sea
  • Carolina Bay
  • Cave - Natural underground space that is large enough for a human to enter
  • Cenote - A natural pit or sinkhole that exposes the groundwater below
  • Canal - A type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region
  • Cirque - An amphitheater-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Corrie - An amphitheater-like valley formed by glacial erosion or CWM
  • Cliff - A vertical or near vertical rock wall of considerable height
  • Coast - area where land meets sea or sea
  • Col - The lowest point on a ridge between two peaks
  • Complex Crater - Crater morphology with a large impact and uplifted centers
  • Complex Volcano - A landform made up of more than one related volcanic center
  • Confluence - the meeting of two or more flowing waters
  • Continental Shelf - A portion of a continent that lies under an area of ​​relatively shallow water known as the shelf sea
  • Coral reef - rock outcrop in the sea created by the growth and deposition of stony coral skeletons
  • Bay - A small sheltered bay or coastal inlet
  • Bay (mountain) - A small valley in the Appalachian Mountains between two ridge lines
  • Crevasse - sediment deposited on a floodplain by a stream that breaks its dikes
  • Crevasse - A deep crack or break in an ice sheet or glacier
  • Cryovolcano - A type of volcano that erupts volatile substances such as water, ammonia or methane instead of molten rock
  • Cuesta - A hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Cuspate Foreland - Geographical features on coasts and lake shores that are mainly created by longshore drift
  • Cut the bank - the outer bank of a water channel that is constantly eroding
  • Dale - Low area between hills, often traversed by a river
  • Defile