Parfianka pomegranate where to plant

Pomegranate, pomegranate tree

Characteristics

Height
from 200.00cm to 400.00cm
Growth width
from 100.00cm to 200.00cm
Growth characteristics
  • upright
  • bushy
  • Thorns or thorns
Sheet properties
  • Autumn colors
  • Shoot color
PH value
  • neutral to slightly acidic
Ornamental or utility value
  • Floral decoration
  • Fruit decorations
  • Medicinal plant
use
  • Single position
  • Planters
  • Winter garden
Garden style
  • Roof garden
  • patio
  • Mediterranean garden
  • Orchard
  • Pot garden

origin

The pomegranate tree (Punica granatum) from the loosestrife family (Lythraceae) has been an ornamental and useful plant that has been known for many thousands of years. Its original homeland cannot be proven beyond doubt, but the original form probably comes from Southeastern Europe and the Middle East. The botanical name "Punica" for "Punia", as today's Tunisia was called earlier, also refers to this. The pomegranate tree was also cultivated in ancient times in the rest of the Mediterranean, so that its wild form characterizes the landscape there in some areas. Due to its seeds and the distinctive color of the fruits, it was considered a symbol of fertility in many cultures. It occurs in Greek mythology as well as the Koran and the Bible, where a symbolic effect is ascribed to it. In addition to fertility, it also stands for power and life.

In Germany, the pomegranate tree is one of the oldest and most popular container plants. Already at the beginning of the 16th century it was a popular representative ornamental plant of the princely orangeries alongside the citrus plants. Centenary pomegranate trees can still be found in some of the palace's botanical gardens. In addition, there are now numerous cultivars that are popular in our part of the world mainly because of their beautiful flowers. The plants only bear their plump, dark red fruits when the location is optimal and the sun shines generously.

growth

The pomegranate tree grows as a densely branched large shrub or small tree with four to six-sided, later rounded branches and gray-brown bark. The side branches often end in a long thorn. In the bucket it grows up to three meters high. On the other hand, in natural locations such as in the garden, where the pomegranate tree can be planted in mild regions, it can reach heights of up to five meters and can live for over a hundred years. The pomegranate tree is also often cultivated as a shrub. The dwarf and ornamental varieties usually do not grow taller than 150 centimeters.

leaves

The opposite, elliptical to lanceolate leaves of the pomegranate tree sit on short stems, are two inches wide and three to eight inches long. They have a glossy green top and are bronze-colored. They turn yellow-orange in autumn and then fall off. The foliage on the plants looks a bit sparse, as the older shoots often only have leaves at their ends.

blossoms

The pomegranate tree is adorned with five to six centimeters large, intensely orange-red colored, bell-shaped flowers that open from June to September, depending on the wintering conditions. They are self-fertile and are pollinated by insects. The flowers of the ornamental varieties are usually much wider and often double. They are available in strong red, white or cream yellow.

fruit

The round, apple-sized fruits of the plant, the pomegranates, are yellow-brown to red in color and about ten centimeters in diameter. The exotic fruits are very decorative, have a firm, leathery skin and contain numerous pips. Each one is wrapped in juicy, red pulp. The kernels taste sour and fruity and can be processed into juice, syrup and desserts or consumed raw.

The fruits (left) of the pomegranate tree are apple-sized, garnet-red to red-brown and have a leathery skin. The leaves of the plants are bronze colored when they shoot (right)

In ancient times, pomegranates were an important staple for seafarers, as the fruits last up to six months and become even more aromatic during this time. The juice containing vitamin C also provided reliable protection against deficiency diseases such as scurvy.

Location

As a container plant, the pomegranate tree needs a sunny and sheltered place on the terrace or in the winter garden. The same applies to planted specimens outdoors: Always plant the pomegranate tree in front of a sunny house wall or not far from a dry stone wall so that it is warm enough. Pomegranate also thrives in the shade, but does not develop flowers or fruits there.

Substrate

The pomegranate tree develops best in loose, permeable soil with a high mineral content, such as lava chippings, sand and expanded clay.

Pour the pomegranate

The water requirement of the pomegranate is medium - the robust plant can withstand shorter dry periods without any problems. In the main growing season in summer, however, the pomegranate should be watered regularly until the soil is well moistened. It is important to avoid waterlogging and prolonged drought, because the pomegranate tree then sheds its leaves very quickly.

Fertilize

From March to August the pomegranate tree can tolerate a liquid fertilizer application every two weeks. In order for the plant to produce many flowers in the coming year, the shoots must mature well in autumn. Therefore, from mid-August onwards there will be no more fertilization and watering will gradually be restricted.

Repot

Pomegranate trees that are kept in the bucket must be repotted when the container is rooted through. The best time for this is early spring before the new shoots. Make sure to replace the old substrate with new one as completely as possible. Finally, press the root ball firmly and water the plant well.

Cut the pomegranate

A regular cut is not necessary. You should only prune your pomegranate tree if it has grown too big or if you want to thin out the crown of older plants. You can shorten shoots that are too long in the autumn before moving into the winter quarters or in the spring before the new outdoor season - but you also reduce the number of flowers. If you want to prune the pomegranate tree before putting it away for winter quarters, remove any thin shoots and cut the lead shoot extensions back in half. If your pomegranate tree is shrubby, you can thin out the crown by cutting out old branches at ground level in spring.

wintering

The pomegranate can withstand frost down to -5 degrees Celsius, for a short time it can even withstand temperatures down to -10 degrees Celsius. It can therefore easily overwinter in an unheated greenhouse. If you do not have space for a longer hibernation, you should leave the plant outside as long as possible and only move it temporarily to a cool place if a period of frost threatens. The winter quarters can be dark as long as it is below ten degrees Celsius: the pomegranate tree sheds its leaves in autumn anyway. Garages or tool sheds, for example, are ideal. Here, the root ball of the plants can freeze through for a short time without being damaged. Only keep the potting soil moist enough in winter that it does not dry out completely. From March / April, when the pomegranate tree sprouts again, it is put outside again - preferably in a place protected from rain.

sorts

The well-known varieties ‘Nana’ and ‘Nana Gracilissima’ have proven particularly useful for culture in the bucket. They grow up to two meters high and bloom profusely. Small fruits adhere to the branches until autumn. Punica granatum ‘Nana’ grows wide rather than tall and flowers as a freshly rooted cutting. From the budding to beyond the fall of the leaves, ‘Nana’ produces orange-red to garnet-red flowers and later even almost two-centimeter-sized fruits with germinable seeds. Other important dwarf varieties are the double Nana Plena ’and the strictly pyramidal Nana racemosa’.

The vigorous ornamental varieties bloom much longer than the fruit varieties. The flowers are often more or less double and do not set any fruit. The most important ornamental variety is probably ‘Flore Pleno’, which forms orange-red flowers in summer. These are very similar to the normal pomegranate blossoms, but because they are filled, they appear a little larger. ‘Legrellei’ is also a very popular ornamental variety. It has double, almost palm-sized flowers with mostly white-edged petals. Unfortunately, the types of fruit often disappoint in our latitudes: They only produce fruit in very hot summers or in the winter garden. It can also take five years for the first flower to bloom.

The fruits of the pomegranate tree are considered health makers in many ways. In the Middle Ages, for example, the kernels and their juice were used to treat intestinal diseases. The substance punicalagin contained in the fruits has been shown to inhibit the multiplication of viruses and has an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken internally, as pomegranate juice, in tablet or capsule form, the flavonoids contained in the fruits also have a positive effect on the blood vessels and the cardiovascular system in the case of hypertension (high blood pressure). In addition, the ingredients of the pomegranate are said to reduce menopausal symptoms. A therapeutic effect of the fruit on prostate cancer is still being investigated. So far, however, there are not enough studies that adequately prove this.

However, it is certain that pomegranate contains many antioxidants, i.e. polyphenols and flavonoids, which can protect our body cells from harmful influences. Allegedly there are even more polyphenols in pomegranate juice than in red wine or grape juice. Because of its antioxidant properties, the red fruit is considered to be one of the greatest natural antiaging wonders. In creams and shower gels, the healthy vegetable oil has a firming effect and can reduce the depth of wrinkles. In addition, the fruit is an important supplier of minerals such as potassium, B vitamins and trace elements such as iron.

Propagate pomegranate tree

Pomegranates are best propagated using cuttings. To do this, take leaf cuttings that are 10 to 15 centimeters long from the previous year's shoots, which should be cut in February at the latest. Then you put them so deep in pots with potting soil that they only look about two centimeters out of the ground, and keep them evenly moist at temperatures just over ten degrees Celsius. The wild form of the pomegranate can also be propagated using seeds: Sown and kept well moist, the seeds germinate at temperatures of around 20 degrees Celsius after just one to two weeks. However, it takes several years for the plants to bear fruit. That is why vegetative propagation is the better method.

Diseases and pests

In their winter quarters, pomegranates are rarely attacked by pests, as they shed their leaves in autumn. However, in spring and early summer, aphids sometimes grow on the tips of the young shoots. Spider mites can also appear in hot, dry summers.