Keep this in mind when movie quotes in Malayalam

How do you quote correctly?

Regardless of whether you are writing an article, a report, a book or a term paper: It is important to quote, above all to quote correctly. The quality of a contribution can be recognized by its literature list. The literature list shows that the author has dealt extensively with the topic and is thus able to make an important contribution to the topic.

Now let's look at different forms of citation:

Direct quote:

Here you are quoting directly from a book.

Example 1: Max Weber (1984, p. 40) writes that “the constructive terms of sociology are not only external, but also internal” as ideal types.

What did we do here?

First of all, we have not quoted a whole sentence. So we had to change the beginning and the end of the sentence ourselves. According to Max Weber, we have given the dates in brackets. The first number indicates the year of publication of the book, the second number the page. Which book this is exactly can be seen in the literature list at the end of the book. If there are several books cited by Weber that were published in 1984, the list is given with letters, e.g. 1984a, 1984b etc.

Example 2: "The constructive terms of sociology are not only ideal externally, but also internally" (Weber, 1984, p. 40).

Direct quote with a different sentence:

Sometimes it happens that you change something in the quoted sentence.

Example 1: Max Weber (1984, p.40) writes that ideally “the constructive Concepts of sociology not only external but also internal ”(emphasis added by the author).

Here the word “constructive” is written in bold, although it is not in the original. In such a case you have to indicate this: "Emphasis by the author"

Indirect quote:

You don't quote directly, you just give the opinion in a corresponding way.

Example: Max Weber (1984, p.40) is of the opinion that constructive terms in sociology are not only external but also internal.

Here you have not copied the sentence from the book, but simply reproduced the sentence accordingly. Here, too, the source must be given, as is the case with direct quotations.

Abbreviation of a quote:

Sometimes quotations are shortened.

Example: According to KHNG §17 Paragraph 1 Clause 1, the care rates are: "[...] on the basis of the pre-calculated cost of an economical and efficient hospital" ..

For abbreviations use the following symbol: "[...]"


Comparisons are also important. You make comparisons when you write an opinion that has already been described by other authors.

Example: The definition of quality thus depends on the observer's goal (cf. Eichhorn, 1987, p.38).

Quotes from the Internet:

You can of course also quote from the Internet. These are then as follows:

Example: The public space and the expectations that are directed towards the child are determined by the social environment (Spellerberg, 2005).

Since there are no page references on the Internet, you don't have to write this on it. How the website appears in the literature list comes further down in the foreseen area.

DANGER: Under no circumstances should you quote WIKIPEDIA. This just shows the researcher's sloppy work. In addition, WIKIPEDIA is extremely dubious, as anyone can change the text with one click.

Quoting your own texts:

If you have already written something on the same topic, it is important to make a comparison with the earlier text. This shows again that you are familiar with the topic. Also, readers might otherwise think that the author is selling the same text as two different articles. To avoid this, one should always refer to past texts.


In the past, people used to write the source information (e.g. (1984, p. 40)) in the footnotes. In the meantime (luckily) you don't do that anymore. Footnotes are only intended for comments that, if written in the actual course of the text, would distract the subject.


Every source used in the text must appear in the literature list. There is no particular order of the dates. Every author has his own preferences. I recommend the following order:

Author: Title. Publisher: place, date

Example 1: Max Weber: Basic sociological terms. J.C.B. Mohr: Tübingen, 1984

If from a Anthology it works like this:

Example 2: Radtke F.-O .: Mechanisms of ethnic discrimination in primary schools. In: Kersten R ,. Doron K., Sargut S. (Ed.): Education instead of exclusion. Young people of foreign origin in school, training and work. Frankfurt / Main, 1996, pp 121-131

What was done here? It was quoted from a text by Radtke. This text can be found in an anthology by Kersten, Doron and Sargut on pages 121 and 131.

When you get out of a magazine quoted it looks like this:

Example 3: Gomolla M .: Institutional discrimination in schools. In: Das Argument, Volume 40, H.1-2, 1998, pp.129-143

The magazine is called "Das Argument". It is the 40th volume, issue 1-2, published in 1998, on pages 129 to 143.

Unpublished manuscripts are also given as a source:

Example 4: Sahinöz C .: Muslims, Islam and the media. Unpublished manuscript. 2006

If you are quoting from a book, that at a publishing house is printed, but has not yet been published:

Example 5: Sahinöz C .: lateral entrants. Allocation of children and young people with a migration background to primary and secondary level I. A quantitative empirical study of schools in Bielefeld from 1995 to 2006. Bielefeld, 2006 (in press)

Above it was shown how the Internet is quoted. In the literature list it must then be written like this:

Example 6: Spellerberg A .: Experiences of space in modern childhood., 2005. Status: May 13, 2005

The information "Status" is very important, as Internet addresses change regularly.

But now have fun quoting!

Cemil Sahinoz