Oefen newhome 800 df dom manual

Old German vocabulary dictionary

Transcript

Peter Paul Schweitzer Old German Vocabulary A linguistic history dictionary 1998 HADAMAR 2002 PP Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary Hir maht thu lernan Guld bewervan Welog inde wisduom Sigilof inde ruom Here you can learn to acquire gold Wealth and wisdom Victory prize and fame Inscription at the Cologne Cathedral School 9th ​​century: © All rights from the author. Available via e-mail [email protected] - re: vocabulary The Internet version can be used freely, but only on the condition that the source is given in the event of further use, even in part. 2 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German Vocabulary Foreword In my homeland on the middle Lahn and the adjacent parts of Westerwald and Taunus, the Lahngau in the early Middle Ages, people have lived and settled since time immemorial. Their languages ​​have faded away; however, remnants of ancient languages ​​have been preserved here and there under the names of bodies of water, landscapes, corridors, places, but also under those of people - even if their meaning is incomprehensible to us today. We feel the same way when we hear the old dialects, as they were preserved above all in the village communities; in everyday use, as terms for work, for farm equipment and facilities, in handicrafts, for the times of the day and relatives, for festivals and customs, words are still used, in the original sense of which we can no longer empathize. Even the homeland researcher finds words again and again when reading old texts that he cannot explain. He comes across inexplicable expressions in documents, but above all in surviving files, in old directories and on inscriptions. In such situations, my lexicons were of great help to me, but soon it turned out that in addition to the ones that could be found there, there were a large number of words left that could not be easily explained. An example: In the neighboring town a street is called Im Gäuchen after an earlier field name; an explanation added to the street sign interprets the name: In the small Gau and explains the meaning of the Germanic Gaue, just like a modern lexicon does. Now this field name goes back neither to the Germanic language nor to a Germanic settlement name; it is rather a medieval arable land name colored by the local dialect. As the better known term morning refers to a field to be plowed one morning, the term yoke refers to an area that could be plowed with a yoke of oxen in one day. But it was called the Old Lower Franconian and also the Old Saxon form of the word Joch juc, from which the medieval field names juche (UK 1222), in the juchen (1322) arose. This is the word yawning? The change j> g at the beginning of the word can be observed more often in the local Platt (Gehannstraube, Giesuwiden, - Johannistraub, Jesuit); it is Middle Franconian and can be traced back to the 14th century (annually - judicially 1379). In the course of the New High German Diphtonging, the u must have become a eu (sound equal to äu), according to my observations at the earliest in the middle of the 16th century, so that the original field name was in the geuchen. The modern landlord map author then misunderstood this as a diminutive of Gau and wrote it over-correctly In dem Gäuchen.1 No lexicon explains Gäuchen, and even this old German vocabulary cannot replace the study of grammatical and linguistic-historical contexts. But it does contain a large number of historical words in remote traditional dialect forms (e.g. juch, in the juchen) and also hints as to which sounds are more frequently changed in local Platt (e.g. g < j).="" dazu="" orientiert="" diese="" sammlung="" den="" benutzer="" auch="" weniger="" über="" einen="" literarischen="" wortschatz="" als="" vielmehr="" über="" den="" des="" alltags="" der="" bauern="" und="" händler="" und="" handwerker,="" über="" den="" der="" einstigen="" rechtspflege,="" der="" verwaltungen="" und="" der="" kirche.="" von="" besonderer="" bedeutung="" sind="" für="" die="" erklärung="" alter="" namen="" die="" mehr="" als="" 8000="" jahre="" alten,="" noch="" vorindoeuropäischen="" (‘vaskonischen’)="" wurzeln="" der="" alteuropäischen="" gewässernamen,="" die="" wiederum="" auf="" viele="" unserer="" flur-="" und="" ortsnamen="" abfärbten.="" deren="" früheste="" erwähnung="" verrät="" oft="" ihre="" sprachliche="" herkunft="" und="" damit="" ihre="" geschichte="" und="" ursprüngliche="" bedeutung;="" denn="" alle="" namen,="" so="" dunkel="" sie="" uns="" heute="" auch="" vorkommen,="" ursprünglich="" hatten="" sie="" einen="" verständlichen="" sinn.="" 1="" vgl.="" mhg="" §§="" 80="" und="" 118="" 3="" p.="" p.="" schweitzer,="" altdeutscher="" wortschatz="" aus="" dem="" indoeuropäischen="" spracherbe="" sind="" uns="" einige="" wenige="" vorkeltische,="" aber="" zahlreiche="" keltische="" wörter="" in="" namen="" und="" sachbezeichnungen="" erhalten="" geblieben,="" wenn="" auch="" oft="" nur="" als="" wortwurzeln,="" die="" meist="" nur="" fachleuten="" bekannt="" waren.="" neuere="" französische="" veröffentlichungen="" haben="" nun="" die="" zahl="" der="" für="" die="" erforschung="" heimatlicher="" namen="" wichtigen="" keltischen="" wörter="" deutlich="" vermehrt="" und="" auch="" in="" linguistischer="" hinsicht="" besser="" verwertbar="" gemacht.="" ein="" besonderer="" schwerpunkt="" der="" sammlung="" entstand="" durch="" die="" gezielte="" suche="" nach="" der="" sprachlichen="" hinterlassenschaft="" der="" fränkischen="" epoche,="" die="" den="" hiesigen="" kulturraum="" besonders="" geprägt="" hat.="" hier="" lohnt="" –="" da="" frühe="" heimische="" textüberlieferungen="" so="" gut="" wie="" ganz="" fehlen="" –="" ein="" blick="" in="" den="" weiteren="" westen="" und="" osten,="" in="" die="" nieder-="" und="" ostfränkischen="" überlieferungen="" der="" ältesten="" klosterschreibstuben.="" da="" aber="" wörterbücher="" des="" alt-="" und="" des="" mittelfränkischen="" kaum="" erreichbar="" sind,="" wird="" dieses="" wörterverzeichnis="" sicher="" dem="" einen="" oder="" anderen="" nützlich="" sein="" können,="" den="" frühgeschichtliche="" und="" mittelalterliche="" sprachzustände="" und="" verhältnisse="" interessieren.="" auch="" werden="" manchem="" die="" zahlreichen="" aus="" urkunden="" und="" texten="" des="" mittelalters="" gesammelten="" wörter="" der="" rechtssprache="" willkommen="" sein,="" ebenso="" die="" mittelalterlichen="" gassen-="" und="" häusernamen,="" gerätebezeichnungen,="" maße="" und="" geld-gewichte,="" aber="" auch="" die="" namen="" von="" tieren,="" pflanzen="" und="" krankheiten,="" von="" speisen="" und="" getränken,="" von="" kleidungsstücken="" und="" hausrat.="" ohne="" einige="" kenntnis="" jedoch="" der="" veränderungen="" der="" wörter="" im="" laufe="" der="" regionalen="" sprachgeschichte,="" der="" historischen="" lautwandelgesetze,="" wird="" die="" anwendung="" des="" hier="" verzeichneten="" auf="" die="" gegenwärtigen="" formen="" der="" wörter="" schwierigkeiten="" bereiten.="" die="" heimatliche="" dialektgeographie="" ist="" nämlich="" recht="" verzwickt:="" für="" das="" mittlere="" lahngebiet="" und="" die="" angrenzenden="" teile="" des="" westerwaldes="" und="" des="" taunus="" -="" besiedelt="" seit="" menschengedenken,="" zu="" den="" mitteldeutschen="" dialektgebieten="" zählend,="" nicht="" niederdeutsch,="" nicht="" hochdeutsch,="" vom="" mittel-="" und="" moselfränkischen="" geprägt,="" dem="" rheinischen="" und="" kölnischen="" ebenso="" wie="" dem="" mitteldeutschen="" verbunden,="" aber="" als="" verkehrsraum="" seit="" eh="" und="" je="" besonders="" mit="" dem="" rhein-main-gebiet="" und="" dem="" land="" an="" der="" oberen="" lahn="" verflochten="" -="" muss="" man="" zur="" erklärung="" seines="" historischen="" wortschatzes="" die="" frühen="" dialekte="" all="" dieser="" genannten="" gebiete="" heranziehen.="" nicht="" aufgenommen="" wurden="" wörter,="" deren="" geschichte="" in="" den="" allgemein="" verbreiteten="" wörterbüchern="" des="" alt-="" und="" mittelhochdeutschen="" und="" lateinischen="" leicht="" zugänglich="" oder="" durch="" ein="" etymologischeswörterbuch="" unschwer="" zu="" erschließen="" sind.="" doch="" was="" heißt="" das:="" zu="" erschließen="" sind?="" erschlossen="" werden="" können="" immer="" nur="" frühere="" bedeutungen,="" ältere="" sprachmuster,="" wanderwege="" eines="" wortes,="" bedeutungswandlungen="" im="" laufe="" der="" geschichte.="" ein="" ‘ursprünglich’="" gab="" es="" und="" gibt="" es="" nicht;="" auch="" wenn="" wir="" das="" so="" sagen="" und="" schreiben,="" kann="" das="" immer="" nur="" heißen,="" so="" weit="" wir="" zurückschauen="" können="" in="" der="" sprachgeschichte.="" aber="" davor="" lagen="" schon="" viele="" tausend="" jahre,="" in="" denen="" menschen="" sprachen="" und="" wörter="" erfanden="" mit="" ganz="" verschiedenen="" bedeutungen,="" von="" denen="" keine="" aufzeichnung="" erhalten="" ist="" und="" keine="" erinnerung="" fortlebt.="" auch="" das="" ‘wort="" an="" sich’,="" den="" namen="" für="" dinge="" und="" menschen,="" für="" verhältnisse="" und="" abstrakte="" begriffe,="" der="" gleichsam="" deren="" wesen="" umfasst,="" wie="" das="" in="" altertum="" und="" mittelalter="" allgemein="" geglaubt="" wurde="" und="" zu="" vielen="" magischen="" vorstellungen="" und="" praktiken="" führte,="" sollte="" man="" nicht="" suchen.="" man="" sagt="" zwar="" :="" eigentlich="" bedeutet="" das="" wort="" …,="" doch="" damit="" kann="" nur="" ausgedrückt="" werden,="" was="" die="" engländer="" mit="" strictly="" oder="" literaly="" meinen,="" also="" strenggenommen="" oder="" buchstäblich="" im="" gegensatz="" zu="" im="" übertragenen="" sinne.="" denn="" wörter="" und="" sprachen="" sind="" codes="" mit="" bestimmten="" bedeutungen,="" zeitgebundenen="" und="" vergänglich="" sowohl="" als="" zeichen="" wie="" in="" ihren="" bedeutungen="" –="" und="" es="" macht="" gerade="" den="" reiz="" der="" betrachtung="" der="" alten="" sprachzustände="" aus,="" dieses="" wechselnde="" spiel="" von="" zeichen="" und="" bedeutungen="" zu="" betrachten="" und="" aus="" ihm="" auf="" die="" sich="" darin="" spiegelnden="" zeitzustände="" zu="" schließen.="" so="" sind="" alte="" wörter="" und="" alte="" sprachen="" wirklich="" alte="" schätze="" –="" und="" diese="" sammlung="" mag="" dazu="" anregen,="" solche="" wort-="" und="" sprachschätze="" zu="" finden="" und="" zu="" bewundern.="" -="" pps="" -="" 4="" p.="" p.="" schweitzer,="" altdeutscher="" wortschatz="" quellen,="" literatur="" und="" abkürzungen="" quellenangaben="" afr="" aus="" altfränkischen="" texten="" gesammelt="" aeht..="" alteuropäische="" hydro-="" und="" toponomie="" -="" vgl.="" bes.="" hans="" krahe,="" unsere="" ältesten="" flußnamen,="" wiesbaden="" 1964;="" theo="" vennemann,="" linguistic="" reconstruction="" in="" the="" context="" of="" european="" prehistory,="" london="" 1994="" und="" hans="" bahlow,="" deutschlands="" geographische="" namenwelt,="" frankfurt/main="" 1985="" ahd="" aus="" althochdeutscher="" literatur="" gesammelt="" ahs="" st.="" sonderegger,="" althochdeutsche="" sachwörter="" aus="" der="" schweiz,="" archivalia="" et="" historica,="" zürich="" 1958,="" 203f="" an="" normannen="" alphabet,="" 825="" nach="" chr.="" as="" aus="" altsächsischer="" literatur="" gesammelt="" atp="" althochdeutsche="" poetische="" texte,="" stuttgart="" 1992="" b="" wort="" und="" begriff="" bauer,="" hrsg.="" wenskus="" et="" alii,="" göttingen="" 1975="" cv="" capitulare="" de="" villis,="" karl="" der="" große,="" 795="" f="" die="" franken,="" katalog="" der="" mannheimer="" ausstellung="" 1996,="" 2="" bd.;vor="" allem="" i,="" s.="" 559="" ff="" frkl="" frankolateinisch,="" meist="" aus=""> LS 5th / 6th century FPSG From Lower and Middle Franconian psalms and glosses of the 9th and 10th centuries: after Kyes, Dictionary of the Old Low and Central Franconian Psalms and Glosses, Tübingen 1983 FT Fuldaer Tradition - in the scriptorium of the Benedictine monastery Fulda created ahd. / Aofr. Written material from the earliest epoch, today often scattered and published in different ways HB Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179), Physica, Freiburg 1993; Heilwissen (Causae et curae) Freiburg 1994 K Celtic, based on: Pierre-Yves Lambert, La langue Gauloise, Description linguistique, commentaire d’inscriptions choisies, Editions Errance, Paris, undated 2 KL Imperial Land Peace Regulations MGH LL. Sect.IV LC 802 Lex Francorum Chamavorum, 802, MGH LL. Bd.V LR 633/4 Lex Ribvaria, 633/34, MGH III, II LS 5th / 6th century Lex Salica, 5th / 6th century, MGH IV, I MFR Middle Franconian, 9th century Cologne, 10th century Bingen, MHD Collected from Middle High German texts MK Nikolaus von Kues, 14./15. Century, Moselle Franconian MRH Heinrichslied, around 1000, Middle Rhine Franconian OFF Fulda, 9th century, East Franconian RFL Ludwigslied, 881-882, Rhine Franconian SP Heike von Repkow, Sachsenspiegel, between 1220 and 1230, Middle Low German; Reprint Leipzig of the edition Heidelberg 1848: Robert Sachße, Sachsenspiegel or Sächsisches Landrecht, compiled with the Swabian after the Cod. Pal. 167, comparing Cod. Pict. 164 T Tilemann Elhen von Wolfhagen, Die Limburger Chronik, 1370-1398, MGH, Dt. Chroniken, 4,1, Munich 1980, also words from individual documents of his Limburg notary's office TC 818 Trier Capitular, donation law according to royal law 818, from Old Saxon ins Old Moselle Franconian transferred, Trier, 10th century. UE documents of the Eberbach monastery and the Grangie In der Erbach in Limburg, HSTAW UK Joseph Kehrein, collection of old and central German words from Latin documents, Nordhausen, 1863. UH Old German words and names handed down in documents, the home area regarding UL Ludwig the German., King's document from Frankfurt, 832 VK Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni, 9th century. 5 PP Schweitzer, Old German Vocabulary Bibliography 14 AHDG Wilhelm Braune, Old High German Grammar, Tübingen 1987, (edited by Hans Eggers) AHTWB Gerhard Köbler, Pocket Dictionary of Old High German Language, Paderborn 1994 AFW Ferdinand Holthausen, Old Frisian Dictionary, Heidelberg 1985 ASWB Ferdinand Old Saxon dictionary, Münster / Cologne 1954 BMZ Benecke / Müller / Zarncke, Middle High German dictionary, Leipzig 1854-61, 3 volumes / 4 parts, (3rd reprint edition Hildesheim 1986) BVN Lutz Mackensen, The big book of first names, Frankfurt / M 1987 DGN Hans Bahlow, Germany's geographical world of names, Frankfurt / M 1965/1985 DNL Hans Bahlow, Deutsches Namenlexikon, Munich 1967/1980 DTVS Werner König, dtv-Atlas on the German language, Munich 1978 DTVN Konrad Kunze, dtv-Atlas onenology, Munich 1998 DRA Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer, Leipzig 18994v., 2Bde, (Reprint Darmstadt 1965) DWB Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German Dictionary, 33 Bde., ( Reprint Munich 1984 of the originals from 1954-1971) EWB Friedrich Kluge, Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, Berlin 1989, (arr. von Elmar Seebold) EWD Wolfgang Pfeifer, Etymological Dictionary of German, Munich 1995 GDM Jacob Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, 3 vol., Photomechanischer Reprint Graz 1968 of a reprint of the 4th edition Berlin 1875/78 GDS Jacob Grimm, History of the German Language, 2 Vol., Leipzig 1853 GHS Adolf Bach, German historical studies, Bonn 1964 GND Dieter Berger, Geographical Names in Germany, Mannheim 1993 GWW Hellmuth Gensicke, Landesgeschichte des Westerwaldes, Wiesbaden 1958 GWF Großer Westerwaldführer, Montabaur 1980 HJVH Herrmann / Jockenhövel, The Prehistory of Hessens , Stuttgart 1990 HFNA Hans Ramge, Hessischer Flurnamenatlas, Darmstadt 1987 HSTAW documents and files of the Hessian State Archive, Wiesbaden HWH Haberkorn / Wallach, auxiliary dictionary for historians, 2 vols., Munich 19775 IEWB Julius Pokorny, Indo-European Etymological Dictionary, Bern / Stuttgart 1989, 2 vols LG Pierre-Yves Lambert, La Langue Gauloise, Paris undated MHG Paul / Wiehl / Grosse, medium high d eutsche Grammatik, Tübingen 1989 MLG Habel / Gröbel, Mittelllateinisches Glossar, Paderborn 1989 NA Nassauische Annalen, Wiesbaden, Jg. NEO Falk / Torp, etymologisk ORDBOG over det norske og det danske sprog, Oslo 1994 NNB Joseph Kehrein, Nassauisches Namenbuch, Weilburg 1864 ODEE CT Onions, The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford 198512 ONN Wilhelm Sturmfels, Die Ortsnames Nassaus, Rüsselsheim 1928 ONWW Werner Metzler, Die Ortsnames des Nassauischen Westerwaldes, Diss. Marburg 1966 RHEN Leo Weißgerber, Rhenania Germano.Celtica, Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Bonn 1969 RHFN Heinrich Dittmaier, Rheinische Flurnamen, Bonn 1963 RÖS Werner Rösener, farmers in the Middle Ages, Munich 19873 VIN Joseph Kehrein, vernacular in the Duchy of Nassau, Weilburg 1862 WKS Stokes / Bezzenberger, vocabulary of the Celtic language unit, Göttingen 1973 WPF Heinrich Marzell, dictionary of German plant names, 5 vols., Leipzig 1943, (photo reproduction Cologne 2000) 2 22 2 2 2 6 2 5 PP Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary The following were also used: 2 Adolf Bach, Die Deutschen Personalennamen, Heidelberg 1953 9 Adolf Bach, Geschichte der deutschen Sprache, Wiesbaden oJ 17 Braune / Ebbinghausen, Old High German Reading Book, Tübingen 1994 18 Braune / Ebbinghausen, Gotische Grammatik, Tübingen 1973 3 Brunner / Johnston, An Outline of Middle English Grammar, Oxford 1970 Codera / Kubica / Bzdęga, Concise Dictionary Polish-German, Berlin o. J. Drosdowski / DUDEN, The large dictionary of the German language, 6 vols., Mannheim 1976 ff Hans Eggers, Deutsche Sprachgeschichte, 2 vols., Hamburg 1986 Hermann Grotefend, pocket book of the calculation of the German Middle Ages and the modern times, Hanover 5 1922 (reprinted Berlin 1984 ) Handbook of the historical sites of Germany IV Hessen, ed. by G.W. Sante, Stuttgart 1960 2 Beate Hennig, Small Middle High German Dictionary, Tübingen 1995 Renate Herrmann-Winter, Small Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Dictionary, Leipzig 1995 Renate Herrmann-Winter, Small Low German Dictionary for the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 3 room, Rostock 1990 3 Claus Jürgen Hutterer, The Germanic languages, Wiesbaden 1990 9 Irmscher / Lohne, Lexikon der Antike, Leipzig 1987 Kark Kessler, Pre- and Early History of the Westerwaldkreis, in Archives for German Home Care, Volume 48, Cologne 1978 Rudolf Knappe, Medieval Castles in Hessen, Gudensberg 1994 Bruno Krüger, The Germanic Peoples, History and Culture of the Germanic Tribes in Central Europe - A 4 Handbook in Two Volumes, Berlin 1983 34 Matthias Lexer, Middle High German Pocket Dictionary, Stuttgart 1976 Lösch / Petzold / Reinhold / Wiegand, Small Thuringian Dictionary, Leipzig 1995 August Lübben / Walther , Middle Low German Concise Dictionary, Norden / Leipzig 1888 (Reprint Darmstadt 1995 2 W. Pape, Greek ch-German concise dictionary in 3 or 4 volumes, Braunschweig 1849 A.J. Clever, The Etruscan Language, Graz 1968 (Reprinted Wiesbaden 1998) 2 Edward Schröder, German onenology, Göttingen 1944 2 Rudolf Schützeichel, Old High German Dictionary, Tübingen 1974 2 J.M. Stowasser, Latin-German School Dictionary, Porag / Vienna / Leipzig 1900 Stefan Sonderegger, Old High German Language and Literature, Berlin 1974 7 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German Vocabulary Abbreviations and Characters Oj. Ablative adv. Adverb, circumstance ae. Old English = Anglo-Saxon aeht ... Names of the Old European Hydro- and Toponomy AEHT .. derived from modern and historical names, by which Vennemann understands the post-glacial designation of the water and soil conditions in Central Europe. This is detailed in Appendix V with regard to the Lahn area. aeu. Old European: The language period preceding the Indo-European, from which the oldest European names of waters and places presumably come. The oldest layers of these terms, which were only partially preserved in historical names, are likely to go back to the early periods of our current interglacial period; their most recent layers touch in the 6th millennium BC with the pre-individual language period of Indo-European. afrz. Old French, Old High German: With the 2nd, the Old High German, early High German (before 800) and Old High German (8th-11th centuries) formed from 500/600 AD. Accusative, Wen-, Wasfall an. Old Norse: North Germanic or Old Norse preceded the individual Scandinavian languages ​​and has been handed down in runic inscriptions from the 5th century onwards. angs. Anglo-Saxon: Old English or Anglo-Saxon is the name of the language of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, whose tribal groups settled on the English island around 450 AD, handed down in writing from the 7th century. The Ags joins around 1100. ins> Me. aofr. Old East Franconian: Ahd.dialect that particularly influenced the Fulda scriptorium tradition. aprov. Old Provencal as. Old Saxon: The Old Saxon (800 - 1150), the main dialect of Old Low German, did not take part in the second sound shift that led to the formation of the Ahd. His most valuable text is the Heliand, written in Fulda (around 840), which also contains many old language elements. The ace. followed by Middle Low German> mnd. > mhd.> hd. Ba. Soil type Bb. Soil quality Bg .. Soil shape; FN n.d.Bg ..: Field name according to the shape of the ground BN Name of a tree species BR Name of an occupation Bt. Determining part: In the case of compound nouns / nouns, a distinction is made between the word stem and the determining part. Thus, front door consists of the root of the word - door, which determines the gender and the grammatical derivations, and the Bt. House, which determines this root of the word. Dat. Dative, Wemfall e. English FN field name for feminine, female fr. Franconian: Overall, the Franconian dialects spread from around 500 onwards from the Lower Rhine and in the encounter with Gallo-Roman and Latin the West Franconian (Leges), in the Trier area the Altmosel Franconian, in the Aachen-Cologne area the Ripuarian and in the Netherlands the Old Lower Franconian pronounced. Due to the spread of the fr. Rulership came to the Rhine and South Rhine Franconian on the middle Rhine. The East Franconian was formed around Würzburg. These developments are completed by 1000 AD. Middle Franconian is the name given to the Middle German dialect of the High Middle Ages that developed from Franconian. French 8 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary g. Germanic: The Germanic language must be derived almost entirely from the younger g. Individual languages ​​are developed so that many g. Words have only been handed down as roots and are therefore indicated with an *. The oldest larger g. Scripture complex - the Gothic translation of the Bible by Wulfila - dates from the 4th century and is East Germanic. - The discussion about the point in time at which Upper Germanic tribes developed the Ahd language has recently flared up again. While traditionally the time from 5.-8. post-christian Century indicated, new research2 has shown that this transition must in any case be set before 55 AD. This means that the linguistic separation between today's High and Low German dates back 2000 years. Initially, the Upper Germanic dialects, including the extinct Lombardic, separated from the Lower Germanic dialects, including the extinct Gothic. In other words: the so-called second (Old High German) sound shift occurred as early as the 1st century AD. gall. Gaulish: Gaulish was the language of the Celts living in Gaul, part of the extinct mainland Celtic. If a Celtic influence is suspected in our country, this is likely to come from Gallic, which - given the fragmentary tradition of Gallic - can often enough only be explained through the other, indeed mostly only through the modern Celtic languages. In Appendix V, Gaulish words are highlighted. Gen. genitive, Wesfall Gg. Property size; FN n.d.Gg .: field name after the size of the property Gf .. property shape; FN n.d.Gf ..: Field name after the plot form GN Water body name: The oldest linguistic material in the region was included in water body names. In order to decipher it, the important question is whether it is a pre-individual language primary formation from an ancient word root, as is the case with the river names of the aeu. Hydronomy, which is dated back to before the Bronze Age, or a linguistic secondary derivation from an older name that has existed up to modern times. We can certainly see primary formations in the Rhine, Main and Elbe, while in Wörsbach and Eisenach, clearly recognizable older names are explained with -bach and -ach (= -aha) as the names of the waters. Gothic. Gothic: Gothic is the only surviving language of East Germanic; its most important testimony, the translation of the Bible by Wulfila (311-383), was preserved in the Codex argenteus from the 6th century. GreekGreek: Classical Greek influenced the Franconian Empire primarily through the church of Gaul, which was evangelized by Ostrom and through the monastic church of Ireland, which in turn was dependent on it, and created traces in our language, especially through the sacred area. - Unfortunately, for technical reasons, the rendering of Greek words had to remain without the upper sign. hd. High German: In contrast to Low German in the north (Platt), Upper German = High German, especially in the south of Germany. HN house name, e.g. ‘Zum Roten Ochsen’ HlN saint name Hpfl. Name of a medicinal plant ieu. Indo-European (Indo-European): Indo-European is the name given to those from the ieu. Languages ​​tapped common roots; they presumably come from a common language that began to dissolve into individual languages ​​around 5000 years ago. It used to be thought that their original home could have been an area north of the Black Sea, whereas today Anatolia, that is the south-east of Turkey, is believed to be. Wandered the speakers of the Ieu. About 7000 years ago we entered a Europe in which people have> aeu. since the end of the last ice age. languages? Or spread the yeu. from his original home in parallel with agriculture, which was conquering Europe at the same time? In a steadily advancing and developing process of cultivation and settlement and language changes? A younger generation of linguists and ancient scholars is currently looking for an overview of the abundance of scattered individual results of modern archeology and linguistic research. Imp. Imperative, form of command; go! read! write! Instr. Instrumentalis (‘with the help of.’) Inj. Interjection, exclamation Italian, Italian jur. legal technical term, Wort der Rechtssprache 2 Theo Vennemann, Dating the division between High and low Germanic - A summary of arguments - in Toril Swan, Language change and language structure…, Berlin 19994, 271-303 9 P. P. Schweitzer, Altdeutscher Wortschatz kelt. Celtic: The Celtic language tradition is very fragmentary for antiquity, mostly only inscriptions with a few words have survived, which not only causes considerable difficulties in word interpretation, but above all makes it difficult to understand grammar and syntax. In many river, place and field names their remains, which are incomprehensible today, can be found. Modern linguistics, however, has achieved astonishing successes, whereas earlier it was only possible to draw conclusions about the older vocabulary from Old Irish and the more modern branches of the Celtic languages. From the 5th / 4th BC century with celt. Calculate names in our area that mostly come from the Gaulish language. The Irish-Anglo-Saxon Mission also had some celts in the Frankish period. Leave words here. A list of Celtic words is added as Appendix IV, which also indicates which of them come from Gaulish. Kj. Conjunction, connective word; and, or, then comp. comparative, first step of the adjective, e.g. good, better; old, older Latin. Latin: In addition to Greek, Latin was the main language of communication in the (West) Roman Empire and remained so for the judiciary and the church until the Middle Ages. One subdivides: Latin ... to 200 AD; late lat. ... until 600 AD; mlat. ... until 1500 AD. LN Country name: Name of a country, a landscape; Switzerland, Nassau, Taunus Lok. Dative as locative (‘at the place’, ‘at’) Lü. Loan translation: At a Lü. a foreign-language word is incorporated by translating its linguistic components into the receiving language, examples> beinreche, vicwur (z) Lw. Loan word: A loan word is incorporated into the receiving language from a foreign language with some phonetic adjustments, but otherwise unchanged, examples :> agleya,> paffe m. masculine, masculine ma., ma. Medieval, Middle Ages: This is the name of the time between antiquity and modern times, between the collapse of the Roman Empire during the time of the Germanic migrations and the beginning of the Renaissance, i.e. from around the 4th to the 15th century AD. me. Middle English, from 1100 about me. Central Irish mmed. In the ma. Medicine of Hildegard von Bingen so common or judged: These details cannot be considered as folk medicine nor as typical for the ma. apply, but they are instructive for Hildegard's spiritual way of thinking, which she transfers to her medicine. Suitable as medical advice only in very rare cases! md. Middle German: Middle German is a series of dialects that mix elements of Upper and Low German. In Central German, the second sound shift is only incomplete. From the 8th century onwards, our homeland belongs to the md. Area. As a native md. Linguistic monument is the vocabulary of the Limburg Chronicle (1380 - 1398) evaluated. mfrk. Middle Franconian: The Middle Franconian> fr. was involved in the formation of languages ​​as part of Central German. Most important writer in the Mfrk. was Hildegard von Bingen. The Mfrk. has developed a whole series of special features in our area: dat, wat, et, allet = that what, it, everything - remained unchanged. i and e are often used as length symbols after vowels: shiit for shît (log); huis for hûs (house); haet, hait for hât (has) g in the beginning often instead of j, ch in the end instead of g: Gehanstrauben = Johannisstrauben; dach = day p instead of Upper German pf: punt, appel, stoppe instead of pfunt, apple, stuff -ehe- becomes ieu or i, later to ê: flien ig (I plead), sien (see), shined (happened), sescein (sixteen) Middle High German: From 1050 (early Middle High), through the period of courtly poetry (1150-1250) and in many cases until 1350, the Middle High German language period lasted, which was then replaced by Early New High German. Mhd. Means the language of the southern German language area that follows Old High German. In the north, it is opposed to Middle Low German (> mnd.). mlat. Middle Latin: the Latin of the Middle Ages, 600 - 1500 mnd. Middle Low German: From the As. Middle Low German developed in the central Low German language area from 1150 onwards, the most important representatives of which in medieval literature are Eipke von Repkow's "Sachsenspiegel" and the "Saxon World Chronicle". The first in particular, as a collection of Low German law, also influenced the language of our area. mosfrk. (old) -mosel-Franconian> frk. n. neuter, neuter 10 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary wet. Nassau: What is meant is the Nassau dialect, as it was in the area of ​​the former Duchy of Nassau in 18.20. Century was spoken, lexically best tangible in Christian Ludwig Schmidt, Westerwäldisches Idiotikon, Hadamar / Herborn 1800, and Joseph Kehrein, vernacular in the Duchy of Nassau, Weilburg 1862, and in the same author Nassauisches Namenbuch, Weilburg 1864 nd. Low German> hd.,> obd. ndl. dutch nfrk. (old) -lower Franconian> frk. Almost all the words listed come from psalm translations and glosses of the 9th / 10th. Jhs., Which Robert L. Kyes has compiled in an English-language lexicon. > FPSG north. nordic:> an. obd. Upper German, in contrast to Low German> nd. ofrk. (old) -East Franconian> frk. ON Place name PflN Plant name Pfx. Prefix; e.g. to lose, possess, surprise, plural plural, plural PN Personal name prep. preposition, circumstantial pret. past tense, past; went, saw, wrote prov. Provencal refl. used reflexively; set refl. sit down, settle down, take possession of rip. (old) -ripuarian: language of the Cologne area rom. Romansh Sfx. Suffix, ending; e.g. Thür-ingen, Wei-mar, Eis-Leben, Lehr-er Sg.Singular, singular SN Settlement name late Lat. late Latin, about AD 200 - 600. StN street name noun noun, noun sup. superlative, second stage of the adjective; good, better, the best; old, older, oldest TN animal name ug. ancient Germanic: As ug. one denotes the all g. Languages ​​preceding common language. V. Verb, word of action cf. compare! Vkl. Diminutive, diminutive; e.g. little house of house VN first name wfrk. West Franconian: On what is now French soil, the encounter of the Germanic Franks with the local Gauls and the ruling Romans led to a fusion of Germanic, Gallo-Roman and Latin language elements, as can be observed in the Malloberg glosses on the West Franconian legal texts (Lex Salica). due to West Germanic: From around 400 AD the wg. Languages ​​with the doubling of the vowels before j, w, r and l and thus separate from East Germanic (> Gothic) and Nordic (> an.). WN name of a desert literally literally; in literal translation; the faded word in its today's etymological correspondence, which however no longer has to correspond to the former meaning Ws .. Word stem: In the case of compound nouns, a distinction is made between the word stem and the determinative part. Thus, front door consists of the stem of the word - door, which determines the gender and grammatical derivatives, and the> Bt. House - which defines this stem more precisely. wslaw. West Slavic: In the Middle Ages there were in the east and northeast of the md. Numerous contacts with Slavic settlements in the linguistic area, which were followed by significant trade and language traffic, especially through the church missionary work and the eastern settlement of Saxony, Franconia, Swabia and Bavaria, which began in the early Middle Ages. Wslaw. Origin are inter alia. many names for agricultural products (quark, cucumber, certain types of fish). 11 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary WW Water word: Name for a certain type of water> see! compare! ¬ ‘. -. ’¬‘. -…. ’Means: original example 1 - original ex. 2 ’¬ ratio 1 - ratio 2 ÷ from ... developed ...: z. Example: hus ÷ haus = from hus, haus * developed word root @ from the elements: Denotes the components German or Ahd. B. Baldwin @ bald = bold and win = friend 12 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German Vocabulary Dictionary Texts in runic script The Fulda runic alphabet of the Vikings ABECEDARIUM NORD Alphabet of the North (men) f f F 1 2 f feu forman | f cattle first | 3 wrqt u ur after | wrqt W R EA T = writing (piece)? u ur second | T thuris thritten stabu | o os is (t) hemo oborom | T Thurse (giant) as third staff | 5 o Ase follows this | 6 r rat endos (t) uurita (n) | S cha (on). thanne (cliuot) r ride last scratched | 7 S ulcer follows (sticks) then 8 j h hagal n nau (t) habet | j h hail n keeps distress | \ i is A ar i Eis 11 A year 12 s endi so (l) | | (tir) s and sun | 13 t Tyr (Ziu) 14 b birch with 15 m and human | 16 l of water, the clear 17 k yew tree concludes the whole thing | 18 b brica midi m endi man | l laga the leohto. k yr al bihab (et) | 13 3a 4 9 10 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German Vocabulary The original made in Fulda in the 9th century, today in the Abbey Library of St. Gallen3, contains the runes and the words in the left column in lowercase letters. The right column shows a repetition of the respective rune and a translation of the original. In the original, our lines 1, 2, 3-6, 7-13, 14-18 each form a handwritten line; between these lines there are further, partly alternative runic characters, which - as far as the printing types allowed this - were added in lines 3a and 9, while the runic character for m for line 16 and the character above line 18 could unfortunately not be reproduced here. In the original, the sound values ​​of the runes, which are printed here in bold, are not emphasized. Particularly interesting are the characters in line 3a, which perhaps reproduce the word wreat = writing, document (cf. mnd. Wrît), probably the former heading of the template for the Fulda runic alphabet, which was copied misunderstood. The missing rune at the beginning of the last line and the omitted word where, according to other alphabets, can only have been t Tyr (Ziu), is just as striking; here the pious scribe has resisted the pen to write down the name of the pagan god of heaven, things and war. As far as the tradition of runes goes back, runes could always have a double meaning; On the one hand, they were a symbol, a pictorial abbreviation for a certain name, object, term - and were called that themselves - on the other hand, they were used as letters for writing inscriptions and texts - and often both in the same text. Since not many rune texts have survived, in Germany only a few inscriptions on jewelry, weapons and memorial stones, one can speculate and argue about the symbolic meaning of the individual runes, but the meaning of the letters of individual runes is often controversial, as there are different rune forms and different Alphabets existed. Our Fulda rune ABC largely follows the so-called Younger Futhark (according to the sound value of the first 6 runes), as it was often used by the Vikings and in Denmark. But the names of the runes, which come from Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, Old Low and High German, tell us that it would be wrong to see narrow regional borders here. The text of the Fulda runic alphabet is a poetic version that should make it easier to remember the rune names and their order. In the content, terms from the environment and the religion of the pre-Christian Teutons change.4 Two domestic examples of runic texts bEsE wraet runa 1 TiS dawina. gElida inscription on a bow brooch from Freilaubersheim / Rheinhessen5, 2nd half of the 6th century, African. B O S O W R A E T R U N A. Th (I) K D A Th I N A G O L I D A Older Futhark alphabet; Boso carved runes. Dathina greeted you (with it) 6 TvrvThild inscription on a disc fibula, 2nd third to the end of the 6th century, from a grave in Friedberg Th U R U Th H I L D Older Futhark-Aphabet; PN @ g. Divine names Th U R = Thórr, Thonar from g. þunaraz = thunderer and g. hild = fight formed 3 Here reproduced from APT 46 4 Text and representation according to APT, 47 ff, 259 ff, there more detailed explanations; generally oriented about runes reliable and comprehensive R.I. Page, Reading the Past - RUNES, British Museum 1987, London 5 After APT, 48 f, 261 6 Pictured in Roth / Walmers, Hessen in the early Middle Ages, Sigmaringen 1984, 277 f, as well as the second Hessian disc brooch from Griesheim described there 2nd third of the 6th century, which the g. Names KOLO and AGILATHRUTH. 14 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary The inscription scratched on a horn reads: ‘ek hlewagastiz holtijaz horna tawido’ ¬ i Hlewagastiz the Holting the horn made 7 graphemes and prefixes â- FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. Prefix weg-, aus-, without abir- FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Prefix after-, after- FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. weg-, fort-, abâl (e) -, ald (e) (en) - ahd. mhd. mnd. Prefix alt-, altenant- FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. weg-, gegen-, gegen- e- mhd. is not uncommon in the late Mhd. as an expansion sign, vluer = corridor -g- mfrk. is in the Mfrk. often for j; see geuche> juche ga-, ge LS 5th / 6th century Prefix for generic terms: e.g .: garafio as foreman of a> róf = aeu. Row, number, crowd> grafio -imhd. Is also used in the late Mhd. As an expansion sign, voit = ​​Vogt ir- T md. 1380 prefix in Md. Er; ‘Irhup’ - raised u- mhd. Stands in Mhd. Also for v and f: uisch = fish uu ahd. Stands in Ahd. For w, also within a word; see e. double-u = w v mhd. stands in Mhd. for w, v, or u vur- T md. 1380 prefix in Md. Ver; ‘Vurderben’ - spoil vur- T md. 1380 prefix in Md. Vor-; ‘Vurkeren’ - take precautions þ g. Character for g. Dental sound ‘th’ (corresponds to ‘th’ in e. ‘The, that, thunder’), ahd. Mostly written ‘th’; placed after D in the dictionary ð g. Character for g./ahd. Dental sound ‘dh’, the lenised> þ, (corresponds in sound value to a breathy ‘d’, therefore mostly written as ie). In terms of linguistic history, this sound often preceded our 'd': helið - hero, wiðar ​​- against (against), reðion - talk, werðan - become etc. 7 Reproduced from Bodmer, Die Sprachen der Welt, Cologne 1997, 309 15 PP Schweitzer, Altdeutscher Vocabulary Suffixes and Half-Suffixes -a aeht. Suffix with the meaning of the specific article, accordingly. e. the -ac K kelt. Suffix connecting two nouns, appended to the second: and -ach, -aha g./ahd. > aha; in GN and On -aco, -ako K kelt. Suffix in ON -acti, -akti K kelt. Suffix for collective derivatives; Bibracte = place where the beavers are> bibro- = beavers -acum, -iacum kelt. Latin suffix in SN / ON with Celtic / Roman. Owner names formed; z. B. Juliacum ¬ today Jülich -affa -aha ahd. Suffix in GN, origin aeht., From which aeht. > -apa formed; z. Ex. 1039 Elsapha ¬ today Elsoff g. Suffix in GN: stream, river, often added to older GN for explanatory purposes -ana kelt. Suffix in GN -andra kelt.Suffix in GN, FN and ON to -ander -antia, -ontia galloroman. Suffix in GN, FN and ON to -anz, -enz -apa in GN, in the gall. (Cf. * apa = water (celt. Aqâ), celt. Abonâ, abannâ, abu- = river8) still as WW aeht. verifiable -âra, -ara, -aria, -arra ahd. feminine suffix that forms nomina agentis, mostly female job titles; lahhanara = doctor, salbara = ointment dealer -âri, -êre ahd. mhd. masculine suffix, the nomina agentis, mostly male job titles, forms: ahd. -âri, mhd. -ære, -êre; z. B.> scaffâri ÷ schaffære -ant-io K kelt suffix for complex collective derivatives -au, -ouwa aeht .. g. > ahwô; in GN and ON: belonging to the water; > aha -bach, -bah ahd, mhd., nhd .. Suffix in GN and ON: Bach; in GN, FN, ON, very often added to older GN for explanation; still active today -ber-, -bir-, -bur keltoligur. WW: denotes swampy, boggy places; in FN, GN, ON -beck, -bak, -beki as., anfrk., mnd. > baki = brook; in GN, FN and ON, Low German, unshifted form, from which Upper German -bach developed -berg ahd. mhd. in FN and names of settlements, mostly in an elevated position, also at a fortification or castle; z. B. 1156 Kamberk -bona K kelt. inhabited place, possibly also source; in ON -burg ahd.mhd. in SN and ON, which go back to a fortification -dorph UH md. Dorndorf in SN / ON, originally an estate, denoting a smaller farm; z. B. torndorph (770) ¬ today -dunum K kelt. in ON: fortified place, oppidum, fort; see ahd. zûn; -durum K kelt. in ON: fortified square, oppidum, forum; see ON Dorchheim, Dorndorf, but above all Dornburg -ðra g. Suffix that identifies BN: Holun-der, Heis-ter, Flie-der, Wachhol-der, see e. tree 8 Annex V contains numerous explanations, information and examples for the suffixes that go back to the AEHT, but also for the other suffixes in and on GN and ON. 16 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary -eih, -eich ahd. In FN, SN and ON, which go back to an oak9 that once served as a hallmark of the hallway or settlement; z. B. 1195 de madelbodeneich ¬ from the courthouse oak; today Malmeneich -ekia, -ecia K kelt. Suffix for collective derivatives; λουκοτεκία ¬ place where there are many mice, from> kelt. lu-kot- = mouse -ello, -ella K kelt. Diminutive suffix to Celtic nicknames as a suffix in SN and ON, often a sign of an original locative, which first consisted of a simple dative, then was reinforced by a preceding bi den or ze den and finally revealed only by the final syllables - en ; z. B. 1105 husuon (ahd. Dat. Pl.) - 1284 ze husen (mhd. Dat. Pl., Superior ze) - 1358 husen (mhd. Dat. Pl.) ¬ lit. 1276 husun apud S. Goarem = to the Houses near St. Goar10, St. Goarshausen; > bergen,> velden -felden ahd. Dat. Pl. from ahd. field = feldun = in the fields, climes, (arable) areas, in ON -hagene ahd. Dat. Sing. bei Hag, Hain, Wald des ... ; in SN / ON: e.g. E.g. emerichenhagene -haima g. Residence, home; in ON, from the 4th century in the g. Language area; in the home area until about 790 in Schwange11; often a Germanization of a previously Gallo-Roman. Name form indicating –cum. -haru> haru g. in ON on -hara and -aar - -heri> heri see -haru -hufa g. Yard, homestead, in ON on -hofen, usually in the locomotive. ‘At the homesteads’ -hûsa, -hûsen g. in ON to -hausen; ON with PN and locomotive. educational ‘in the houses of…’ - mostly from French. Expansion period, in the home area from around 790 Mode12 -i (n) ahd., Mhd. Suffix in PN, which forms a diminutive of PN through its diminutive effect; z. B. Sighart - Sigihart; Konrad - Konradin -ialo K kelt. Clearing; in ON -iacum, -iako K kelt./gall. in ON -il (l) o-s, -il (l) a K kelt. diminutive-caressing suffix in Celtic names, also GN -ina LS 5th / 6th century Chairman suffix in nomina agentis, see thungina, ablaut of thing and suffix -ina: ‘who directs the thing’ -inga, g., -Ingatûn, frk., -Ingen, -ingun ahd., Mhd. Suffix, which supposedly expresses the affiliation of one person to another, is found especially in the time of the g. Wanderings for SN and allegedly represent an important indication of a Germanic personal principle in the earliest place naming13. E.g. in> heringae (790) means: with the man of ‘heriro / herro’. Contrary to this traditional view, Bahlown developed a more differentiated method through international comparisons and Venneman through linguistic reconstruction of the AEHT, which also led to more credible results in the case of the> –ing (en) names. This is the basis for the explanation of the domestic> -ingen names> Appendix V. -ingheim F suffix in ON> -haima,> - inga, -ingatun, -ingen, -ingun 9 As long as there is no equivalent to nhd. 'der Eich' in Ahd. and Mhd., but only ahd. eihhahi, eichahi and mhd. Eichach and their equivalents in Mnd. for oak forest, I would like the generalizing Sing. Mask. at least consider it to be a relatively young phenomenon in this country, especially since the dialect does not use such a phenomenon. 10 NNB 274; all mentions of St. Goarshausen am Rhein! 11 For the annual boundary between -heim and -hausen, see Prof. Dr. EEMetzner, The name meaning and the founding time of the three districts of Hattersheim, in 850 years Hattersheim, Magistrat Hattersheim, 1982, 19 ff, esp. 23 12 see previous footnote 13 GND 12 gives a good traditional overview of the formation of place names of German origin -16. 17 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary -issa aeht. vorkelt. Suffix in PN, GN and ON,> Appendix V, -issa names; in Gaulish / Celtic mainly used as a cosmic diminutive14 -iþja g. Suffix for the formation of collectives, e.g. as. Gisustr-ithi = siblings -k, - (i) ko, - (i) ka ahd., Mhd. this Sfx. is through the hd. Sound shift to - (i) cho, (i) cha, nd. To -ke, fries. To -je -ken, -ke nd. Corresponds to obd. -chen, nd. Vkl.-Sfx. -l, -el, - (i) lo, - (i) la g. ahd. mhd. suffix in PN, which is a diminutive form of PN; Folch-olo, Cozz-olo, Wulf-ila -lar in ON: Origin disputed :. > lare (770) occurs here as ON, which is usually explained as ‘pasture, large cattle pen’15. If this interpretation were correct, Wetzlar - witflaria (1184) would have been a cattle pen on Wettiffa (9th century) 16, while others - clear for a gall. Hold WW, which means swamp floor, at least it is Kelt. (p) laro- = floor, corridor through 17 The explanatory role of the kelt./gall results from the reasons given in> Appendix V, - -lar names. Suffixes –lar, which confirms the ON Lahr (Black Forest) = gallice laris as Gallic to older names. added, which marked them as flat corridors not far from small bodies of water. -leben, -levo, -leiba g. Legacy of ...; Suffix for with g. VN formed ON; originally only in the old Thuringian empire smashed by the Franks in 531 -ley T 1380 md. Way, kind; already in the Limburg Chronicle only as a suffix: keynerley ,furley -lin obd. - linen obd. Vkl.-Sfx. -magos kelt. Gefilde, Latin campus, in ON -mar (e) aeht. In ON, contrary to contradicting attempts at explanation, the investigation of the –mar names of the Lahn area revealed that all (-) mar locations were settlements on very small streams; > Appendix V, (-) mar names -nâri, -nêre ahd., Mhd. Suffix that forms like -âri, -êre nomina agentis, mostly job titles; ahd. - (i) nâri, mhd. - (e) nære, - (e) nêr (e); z. E.g. luginâri ÷ lügenære, lügener = liar -ô K kelt occasional suffix with PN -on, -onâ, -ono K kelt. Suffix in gods and derived PN -r kelt. Derivation suffix in ON, FN and GN from WW -s- in inflected Germanic languages ​​already used prehistoric compositional term (word fugue-S), occasionally pretending to PN; > Budene-s-heim ÷ Büdesheim; in ON, FN, GN -schaf T 1380 md. Composition suffix for the formation of abstract terms: ahd. -Scaf, mhd. –Schaft, as. –Scap, mnd. - skap; md. Examples grass, pristerschaf, werschaff -se, -ze T 1380 md. Fem. suffix, in nouns agentis and names, it designates a woman as a performer; md. gulichtirze from gollieh and> –ære and –se compressed = tallow maker -stede, -steden mnd. Locomotive. (Dat. Sing. / Pl.) -Statt, -stätten: 833 nasteden = ON Nastätten -û K kelt. frequent suffix in PN 14 cf. RHEN 295 ff and 392 f 15 This corresponds to GND 9 and ONWW 99 f 16 GND. 276 ‘Wetzlar‘ 17 Cf. DGN 286 18 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary -unga, -ungen md.? Suffix in ON, traditionally considered to be equivalent to> -ingen, some as typical of WW SN18; z. Example> Vachunge (1350) ¬ today Fachingen; the AET explains the appearance as an ablaut,> appendix formed V, -ana-, -ina-, -una names / note -unia LS 5th / 6th century. Suffix for female 'Occupational' designations, corresponds to hd. Suffix -in; > horagunia -wiler, -wilre F in SN from the Merovingian period (7th century), mlat. vîllâre = homestead, Vorwerk ÷ afrk. -wilare, -wilari = settlement, hamlet (usually formed with the owner's name) ÷ ahd. -wîlâri, -wîlâr, mhd. wîler (÷ -weier!) = hamlet; first servants' houses at the manor19 were so named; > Appendix V Names of medieval foundations -z, - (i) zo, - (i) za ahd, mhd. Suffix in PN, which is a diminutive form of PN; z. B. Muozo, Wenz, Hans -zec, -zic, zoc mhd. Ten suffix: zweinzic, drîzic, ahtzic -Þurpa * g. Hurdle, guarding, homestead, see ON on –dorf 18 GND 142 f ‘-ingen’; DGN 331 f ‘Fachingen’ 19 For more details see DWB XXVIII, 814 f 19 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary A ab-, abva- aeht. * in WW in GN water, river 20 abirthiu FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Adv. Afterwards, then abulgi FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Anger, anger accus> under W: weapons and works of the Ma. ah, ah UK 1095 g. WW, in GN, e.g. Ache, Woluahe achgerplug, achgerphig UK 1296> atepluge Achtebaume UK 1297 FN. derived from a tree with reference to an eight (spell); ‘Iornales, qui vocantur a.’ ¬ Tomorrow, the a. to be named; > Achtwart eightdeil, achteil, ahteil, aichdeil UE 1220 eighths (especially the Maltese as a grain measure> Appendix I); ‘Que mensura dicitur ahteil - tritici mensuras, quae dicuntur vulgo a.’ ¬ what degree a. is called - wheat measures, which are usually a. Achtwart, -wort UK 1230 Forest pasture law are mentioned; ‘In nemore communio, quae a. dicitur ’¬ in a forest community that is a. calls21; > Echtwart arable, ackir, agger, akker UE1215 arable, cultivated field; mhd., mnd. arable; often in FN; z. B. tuschakker (1215), ruzzelakker (1217) and imPl. > ririsbureker (1274) acus FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Axis, shaft adenowe UK 975 ON to GN Adenau, west of Koblenz; Originally the name of the Adenauer Bach22, after aeht. * ad >> about adana, g .. with –ouwe become FN and SN23 adfathumian LS 5th / 6th century. frk. jur. Embrace someone with outspread arms - as a sign of adoption24 âdro FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. early adduch, aeduch, anduch UK 1304 GN, FN watercourse, ditch, conduit; ‘Aquaeductus, qui dicitur a.’ ¬ water pipe, the a. is called; probably already ahd. Lw. from Gallo-Roman. aquaeductus = water conduction, mostly for the water drainage ditch filled with stones and covered with earth25,> however also aduafaldra HB 12th century mfrk. Hpfl. apple tree, Pirus malus; mmed. Juice from leaves against clouding of the eyes, from spring branches against liver, kidney and spleen weakness; Earth from the root area warms up with shoulder and loin pain; on the word form see ahd. affoltra, mhd. affalter; > holder affaldere UK 1254 Pl. apple trees; ‘Arbores, quae vulgo a. vocantur ’¬ trees that are usually a. is called; ahd. affoltra, mhd. affalter; but see as. apuldra! afgetali FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Oblivion afgrundi FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Abyss aflât FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Excuse me, jur. Estate, ‘Ablass’ afrijôn LS 5th / 6th century jur. Leave blank 20 VM 414 21 DRA II 6 Note 1 - used as a designation for 'genuine own' 22 which GND 31 interprets as 'Bach des Ado' 23 DGN 1f has related GN under 'Adelfurt', 'Aden (bach)' etc. - on UK 975 see note on> liders, with Kehrein note 2 on p. 53 24 DRA I 666 note 1 - afr. affat (h) omire for ‘adoptare in heridatem‘ 25 HFNA 121 ‘Aduch’ 20 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary afrio F, LS 5th / 6th century. jur. I set free, free aftar AS with date with, after, after (after) after AN afterwards, as the second after FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. with date after, loud. afterdinc UK 1291 literal aftermath; Court session, ‘jus a.’ ¬ court named a .; Court at which the unfinished business on the real, unsettled thing was decided afterthiu FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. Adv. Afterwards, then afzone UK 1245 jur. Assignment, waiver; ‘Forma cessionis, quam vulgo a. intelligatis ¬ form of assignment, as you usually find it under a. understand agenboum HB 12th century Mfrk. BN buckthorn, Berberis vulgaris; mmed. not used; the sour thorn is also called Agendorn26, from ahd. agana, mhd. agen = chaff, ear tip, straw âggezzele HB 12th century mfrk. mmed. Forgetfulness; ‘Âggezzele, unde?’ ¬ Forgetfulness, where does it come from? agleya HB 12th century Mfrk. Hpfl. Columbine, Aquilegia; mmed. against epilepsy, scrofula, mucus and fever; Latin aculeus = sting ÷ mlat. aquilegia ÷ Lw. ahd. agaleia, mhd. ageleie aha ahd. 8th century, as. g. WW ÷ GN; Water, body of water, river, stream; > Appendix V -aha names ahche ofrk. 1150 farmland of a gentleman separated and taken under special legal protection; Salland of a Fronhof; mhd. âhte; > âhten ahe mhd. g. WW ÷ GN: water, bodies of water, brook, river> aha ahorn HB 12th century Mfrk. Hpfl. Ahorn, Acer; mmed. Wood powder as an anti-fever agent, heated wood as a support for gout âht KL 1235 mhd. Public prosecution âhten FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. track ahter TC 818 mosfrk. after ahtin UK 1275 jur. advise, reflect, consider; cf. ‘Accusabunt post tertiam collocutionem, quod vulgo a. Appellature ’¬ you will bring an action after the third consultation, which is usually a. is called; Postpone the judgment for the purpose of deliberation ahwô g. Water aizô F g. Attention, honor akuâ ieu. * WW, in GN: water, river al FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. all, all al APT completely, completely, completely al- aeht. * in WW and GN = flow, flow; > Annex V List of the roots of words âl T 1380 md. House corridors narrow passage and distance between two houses; ‘Alle gaßen unde alen’ ¬ alle alleys and ala> under W: weapons and tools of the ma. alant HB 12th cent. mfrk. Hpfl. alant, Helenenkraut, Inula helenium; mmed. as a pulmonary medicine, for migraines; LW Greek ‘ελενιον = herb of Helena ÷ Latin. Alan and mlat. elen, elna ÷ ahd. alan + -t = alant27 26 WPF 1, 574; According to HvB Physica, there appears a yellow tree for Berberis vulgaris, which I could not find in HB. 27 WPF 2, 1012 '‘Inula helenium' 21 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary albach UH 772 word roots ON after aeht. * al- and ahd. -bach: today Ahlbach (LM / WEL); > Appendix V List of alb UK 1196 WW according to aeht. * Alb-, in GN Alb, Elb (e); > elb (e); > Annex V List of the roots of words albuvinessneitta, albwinesneida UK 773 FN, Lok. ‘In albuvinessneitta - albwinesneida’ ¬ to the Albwin forest area; > sneida; im Bt. ahd. PN @ g. albi- = eleven and ahd. wini- = friend; Albwin = Alboin âleiva FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Relic, remains, legacy, legacy âlendi FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Island; aeh. al- and g. * landa-, actually ‘water country’; > Appendix V List of the roots of the word aliuhten FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. (er) shine all so MK (exactly) so all saman RFL 881/2 rhfk. all together alleyne T 1380 md. Adj. All at once; ‘Nyt vurentzelt… dan alleyne’ ¬ not sporadically… but all at once alleyne T 1380 md. Adv. Only; ‘Alleyne eyn bette’ ¬ only one bed alme (i) nde UK 1170 common pasture, drift; to a high degree. Forests and pastures in the old settlement marks were common as commons for the farmers living in the village and the basis of their livestock farming. In the course of the evaporation of the settlements, the a. increasingly cleared and their remains finally fell to the den communities ’.28 almensberg UK 1170 FN Berg in der Almende; > berc; > alme (i) nde alodis (-um, -ium) LR 633/4 633 AHS 8th / 9th century Full property, property, estate âlrêp, alrepe UK 1256 mnd. Eel ring, ring for catching eel; mnd. rêp = rope, rope, hoop alsaccia LR 633/4 633 jur. complete rejection of the ‘case’ = settlement of the indictment; ahd. secchia = dispute, court case; ahd.> al = completely alslouch HB 12th century mfrk. PN Aschlauch, shallot, Allium ascalonicum; mmed. not used; Lw. From Latin allium ascalonicum = leek from Askalon / Israel, i.e. FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. as, like, same altendietz UH 1312 ON, today Altendiez; > theodissa altendorph UH 790 ON today Alsdorf, desert near Würges (LM / WEL) alumb T 1380 md. from / to all sides, all around; ‘Dying went alumb ¬ dying went all around / everywhere; > umb alwere HB 12th century mfrk. adj. mmed.silly aluns UK 1338 alum, a hemostatic agent, also used as a staining and coloring agent am- aeht. * in WW, in GN river bed, ditch, canal; > Annex V List of roots UK 1100 Greek ’αµη Latin / mlat. ama = bucket of water, bucket of fire ÷ Lw. âma = measure of liquid ohm; > vroname> Appendix I ama, hama amallus LR 633/4 633 member of a court member, amana UH 750/1160 ON Aumenau LM / WEL; > Appendix V 28 A detailed description of this historical process at RÖS 22 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary ambaht FRKL noble free servant, messenger, princely. Companion ambaht-man FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Pastor ambahtunia LS 5th / 6th century Servant, upscale maid, possibly noble, but always free descent ambascia FRKL service at the (royal) court ambet, ampt, ammit, amt, ammeth Amt; ahd. ambahti, ambath; mhd. ambahte; mnd. ambacht; as. ambaht, ammaht handed down in many forms! amfenninc UK 946 Ohmpfennig; ‘Vini denarium, qui theutonice locucione a. dicitur ’¬ Weindenar, who in German a. is called; Fee for 1 ohm of wine; ahd.âma, ôma; > Annexes I, II traffic light T 1380 md. Lamp amptman UK 1259 bailiff; ‘Officiatus’; ahd. ambahtman (around 800), mhd. ambetman from as. ambahteo, germ. * ambaht (j) a- = follower of FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. in, on, again, after, on, against, against âna FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. except for ana TC 818 mosfrk. to ana FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. on, up, against, against anacleid FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. dress up anaduon FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. dress up anafallan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. storm off> fallan anagen FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Beginning, beginning anagenni FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Beginning, beginning of analuopan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. start running, rushing towards something aname T 1380 md. Nickname, nickname anara UH 959 ahd.GN on -aha; Ahrbach, Aubach, Gelbach; ON Kirchähr, Weinähr; > Appendix V pending FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. get up, get up anathennen FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. strive to make an effort, intend anatjan F, wfrk. 880 spur, necessary crumbing> crumbing FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. bend, bend, stoop with the specification given under>: 'bend against' andarn FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. free of charge other ahd./mhd. Ordinal number der., Die., The second; the numerical second has only existed since the 16th century. The ahd. forms of other are: 23 PP Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary The ordinal number other = the second singular mfn nom. 1.ander 2.anderêr 1.ander 2.ander (i ) u 1.ander 2.anderaz Akk elsean othera 1.ander 2.anderaz Dat. andersu, o otherêru, -o andersu, o Gen. other otherêra other instr andersu, -o otheru, -o nom. 1.other 2. (Other) 1.andero 2. (Other) 1.ander (i) and 2.ander acc. other other other (i) u Dat andersêm, ên Anotherêm, ên Andereêm, ên Gen. andersêro Anotherêro Anotherêro plural anderburg UK 1243 Second Castle , Neighboring castle; see the ahd./mhd. Num.> Other = the second different nergen vmb MK for no other reason; > nerghent andersß wair other advertising UH 1340 md. another time; mhd. warp, warbe = mal andheima, anthamo LS 5th / 6th century jur. Secrecy; Unauthorized marriage led to the concealment of the bride ando FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. Zeal andon FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. eifern anorn HB 12th century mfrk. Hpfl. White Horehound, Marrubium vulgare; mmed. for ear, nose and throat infections and pain in the bowels; ieu. * andh’s-nó-s - flowering herb ÷ ahd., mhd. anorn, anorn29 andrâden, andrêden FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. fear ane T 1380 md. Prep. Ane- T 1380 md. Pfx. anâne T 1380 md. without anefenger T 1380 md. Inheriting the founders, donors, UK 1267 (a verb?) Or inheriting (N.Pl.?), Probably concerning the parent heir (s), if a rural property goes undivided to a main heir, but the siblings are entitled to payment of one Have compensation; => ganerve? anehowe UK 1330 Anhau, right to share in the common forest 29 WPF, 3.58 f 'Marubium vulgare - Andorn' 24 PP Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary aneval, anevel UK 1276 Assumption of a property through inheritance, revocation of a fief when the vassal is a minor, Transfer of the heir to the award of the court; ‘Jura heridis, quae a. > hergewede vulgo appellantur ’¬ inheritance rights, which are usually a. or> hergewede are called anewande, an wind UH 1230 FN. Applied, border strip on the narrow side of a field where the plow turns; ahd. anawanta, mhd. anwannde, anwant, anwende = (plow) turning30; > apply; applying UK 1219 users, a plot of land on the long side of which the plowman was allowed to turn, whose field with the narrow side "trumped" the user. Where such rights were not established, the general principle applied, according to the neighbors, to share fire and anwandt with each other, i.e. to allow each other the space for plowing and clearing, which then led to the formation of the> wande, Gewande = border strip31; cf.> anweide anewerde UK 1310 FN Lok .: ‘anewerde’ = on the island (for which several municipalities have a right of use); > worth, m .; see anewande, anweide anfarneman FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. perceive anfarnunst FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Insight, understanding angal> under W: weapons and works of the Ma. angegin FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. against anger UK 1271 mnd. in FN grassland, pasture; ahd. angar, mhd. anger = grassland, unploughed grassland close to houses and farms for pasture, mostly not subject to the flood constraint, more often fenced32 angeeren UH 1165 nfrk. Acquisition of a right or property by statute of limitations; ‘In usucapione, quod vulgo dicitur a.’ ¬ in the case of acquisition through use, which is usually a. Angust FPSG 9th / 10th century is mentioned. nfrk. Enge anleyde, analeita UK 1220 border crossing, during which the witnesses ‘led’ the field court to the borders ’anmindelîk FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. unbearable anniche T 1380 md. an ancestor, i.e. either grandfather or grandmother; ‘A real freeborn born of all sinen vir annichen’ ¬ a real freeborn, from all of his four ancestors; ahd. ano = grandfather, ancestor; mhd. m. ane, an, ene = grandfather, great-grandfather; f. ane = grandmother; mnd. anneke-, ankevader, ankemoder = ancestor, grandfather, grandmother address, ansprake UK 1221; T 1380 md. jur. Claim, demands, indictment; ‘Omnem scrupulum gravaminis, quod vulgo dicitur ansprake, resignavit - vigentschaff, zweyunge, ufflaufff, vede und an An An An An An’ ’any concern about the complaint, mostly a. called, he eliminated - enmity, division, rebellion, feuds and demands, originating from FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. Grace, thanks to die T 1380 md. inherit; 'die grass ... what ime died from siner muder ... there ime also a good land, daz ime wa from sime wibe' ¬ the county ... he had inherited from his mother ... there he inherited another good land, there came from his Mrs; > begin to die FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. receive> catch antfengeri FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Lifting protectors FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. forbid to recognize FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. recognize 30 HFNA 8 'User, Anwand, Angewann' 31 See DWB, I, 513, 'ANWAND' and VI, 5319 ff, 'GEWANN', as well as HFNA 8 'User, Anwand, Angewann' 25 PP Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary anleide T 1380 md. Execution of judgments antlito FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Face, face, face T 1380 md. Face, face; ‘With a beautiful face, white and red’ ¬ with a beautiful face, white and red antlucci FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. Sight, face antlûkan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. open antsceini FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Face, face, see Appearance antsetten FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. discontinue antrustio LS 5th / 6th century fr .: social status: follower, a nobleman as a member of the> trustis, companion of the king or one of his greats in court; Carolingian: night watch as protection against thieves and robbers antwercgenoz UK 1284 fellow siege; mhd.antwerc = siege facility, siege machine33 give answer T 1380 md. To be accountable, to be responsible; ‘As sij iz want to give answers to the highest god’ ¬ as they want to answer to the highest god anuana kelt. Pl. Names anwanon, -onon FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. live anwaterfol, unwaterfol FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. waterless, dry on the way, impassable FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. pathless, impassable terrain UK 1299 FN pasture in the right of use by several communities; ‘To herlisheimer anweide’ ¬ At the pasture where Herlisheimers are also allowed to drive their cattle; mhd. anweide = neighbor's right to pasture; see> anewandt anwiggi FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. trackless, impassable terrain anzing (a) AHS mlat / ahd bair. Square measure, ½ acre> Appendix III appetite UK 1300 paid to the abbot> bede appo UK 1173 KF by PN Albert, Adalbert; as the name of a grove? appul F apple ar (a) n UK harvest aran manoth UK harvest month = August; Carolingian month name arbeidi RFL 881/2 rhfk. Acc.Pl. labor, suffering, plague work (h) FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Sadness, suffering hard-working HB 12th cent. Mfrk. Adj. Hardworking, busy, hard-working hard-working HB 12th century. Mfrk. Adj. Willing to work, eager to work ard FR wfrk. Fields; ahd., mhd. art = agriculture, plowing ard kelt. high, large arda UH 845 GN with aeu. * âr- and g. -Aha aar; ‘Iuxta fluvium arda’ ¬ near the river Aar arenfurt UH 1150 ON Arfurt LM / WEL, ford through the Lahn at the confluence of a stream with originally aeht. Names * ârana- = the valley; > Annex V 32 HFNA 29 ‘Anger’ 33 see DWB I, 507 26 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary argheidi FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Wickedness, wickedness arla HB 12th century Mfrk. BN Hpfl. Alder, Alnus; mmed. their fresh leaves on skin ulcers, and the ashes were also considered medicinal; ahd. elira, erila, mhd. alder, as. elis, mnd. alre, elri, else, eller; the form arl-, erl- is only proven in the Palatinate, Transylvania and Northern Bohemia34 poor FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. Arm arm FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. poor, needy armuodi FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Elend, Armut armuse UK 1310 FN after the shape of the choir cap of the clergy, from Latin almutium ÷ mhd. Lw. Almuz, armuz; ‘Juger dictus a.’ ¬ a morning, a. called arnesburc UE ~ 1217 ON Arnsburg near Lich, first castle, then daughter monastery of the Cistercians of Eberbach / Rheingau; ‘Scriptum abbatis des arnesburc’ ¬ letter from the abbot of Arnsburg; > burc; im Bt. aeht. arana = the valley> Appendix V arnestati FT 704 Dat. Lok. Arnstadt; ‘Arnestati super fluvio huitteo’ ¬ Arnstadt over the river Weisse; also originally after the aeht. WW arana = the valley formed arnestein, arinstein, arenstein UH ​​1102 ON Arnstein / Lahn Castle, also originally after the aeht. WW arana = the valley formed; > Appendix V aroen, harouueno LR 633/4 633 Robbery, penance for robbery arstannesses OFF Resurrection arthacker UK 1303 FN (ON.?) Arable field, arable land; ‘Locus uf den artheckern’ ¬ place / place ‘on the arable fields’; see aengl. earþ = plowing, harvesting and ahd.art = plowing, arable farming article MK sentence member article T 1380 md. jur. Determination, determination, contractual part arug FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. corrupted, hardened arvethen FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Torment arvidon FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Hardship, drudgery, exertion arvith FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Leiden, work asca FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Ashes ashes HB 12th century mfrk. BN Hpfl. ash, Fraxinus excelsior; mmed. the leaves cooked warm as a topping for gout; G. * askiz, askaz, ahd. asc (a), mhd. asch, ash = ash hole HB 12th century mfrk. Hpfl. ashes, shallot, allium ascalonium; mmed. to dampen sexual pleasure asckim ahd.Hildebrand's song: with spears (made of ash wood) asciburgium g./lat. Tacitus, Germania: Eschenburg am Niederrhein, ON after aeht. * asgasco, chanzasco frk. LS 5th / 6th century XXVIII Nachen, hanging boat ascobrunne 8th century ahd. ON Eschborn near Frankfurt, ON to aeht. * asgasinnegemo giche HB 12th century mfrk. mmed. Pain that makes you unconscious; < giche="" askmaþr,="" æscman="" fries.="" adalbert="" v.="" bremen:="" bootsmann="" 34="" wpf="" i,="" 217="" ‘alnus="" –="" erle’="" 27="" p.="" p.="" schweitzer,="" altdeutscher="" wortschatz="" aspa="" hb="" 12.jh.="" mfrk.="" bn="" hpfl.="" aspe,="" espe,="" zitterpappel,="" populus="" tremula;="" mmed.frische="" blätter="" als="" auflagen="" in="" der="" säuglingspflege,="" abkochungen="" der="" rinde="" gegen="" gicht="" und="" magenleiden,="" der="" saft="" zu="" salben="" gegen="" gliederschmerzen;="" ahd.="" aspa,="" mhd.="" aspe,="" mnd.="" espe="" asp,="" espe="" uk="" 1236="" bn="" ÷="" fn="" aspe,="" espe,="" zitterpappel;="" ‘nemus,="" quod="" vulgo="" asp="" dicitur’="" ¬="" hain,="" der="" gewöhnlich="" a.="" genannt="" wird;="" in="" fn;=""> aspa aspen quaking aspen; ‘Facula a. - faculae sunt ligna arida, quae vulgo appellantur a. ’¬ Torches from UK 893 quivering poplar wood - Torches are burning woods that are usually a. to be named; > aspa aspis FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Natter asserum HB 12th century mfrk. (beechwood) ash; mmed. if a donkey has a headache and coughs, let the steam of a lye from a. inhale assel T 1380 md. Armpit; ‘Over the isopods’ ¬ over the shoulders assisie UK 1276 mlat. Levy; ‘A. seu ungelti ’¬ a. or also> vngelt; Lw. From mlat. accisia = levy, tax astina UH 959 ON Esten, later Holzappel; ON according to praehist. WW ast = wastewater and swamp water35; ‘Praedia astine’ ¬ land property ‘Estonians’; the name Esterau, its suburb was Esten> Appendix V, reveals that it was once a swampy landscape; cf.> ouwe; = Land by the water; > auwe; ât FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Food, from nfrk V..âton = to feed, to dine atepluge UK 893 Plowing services as compulsory work, literally men's plowing; ‘Coruadam est ita nobis sicut ipsis arare, quae coruadae vulgo appellantur a.’ ¬ As a compulsory service, plowing is incumbent on us as well as those compulsory services that a. to be named; > achgerplug, achgerphig athe - athe TC 818 mosfrk. either - or athtas, atten, ayten UK 893 mosfrk. Farmland in bischöfl. Possession; ’Novem virgas id est novem mensuras circa a. nostras ’¬ nine rods, i.e. nine dimensions (land) for our a. > Achtwort> selguut> cunden atomeo Þi F, LS 5th / 6th century jur. Release formula I will overthrow you, release you atzung UK 1329 Right of the Lord to fodder and meal with subjects; cf. mhd. etching = to eat, feed; > azunge au-, av- aeu. * spring, floodplain; WW, common in GN and ON; > Appendix V> -au names auce> quethan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. said, spoke except MHR again, again, again augst T 1380 md. August auo TC 818 mosfrk. where, if auwe T 1380 md. GN meadowland rich in water; > ouwe âvant FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Evening âwaterfol FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. waterless, dry âweg FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. impassable, pathless terrain awele, ouwele UH 1315 ON to GN Aull near Diez an der Lahn; > Appendix V âz HB 12th century Mfrk. Feed (for pigs) azuhhe, with a. 1150 ofrk with access (srecht); cf. mhd. anc) azunge ofrk. 1150 pl. Grazing rights, division of pasture areas 35 DGN 18 ‘Astbrok’ 28 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary B babela HB 12th century mfrk. Hpfl. mallow, especially horse mallow; Malva silvestris; mmed. against stomach pain, melancholy and weak eyes; ahd. papulâ, mhd. papel, as. pappilla, mnd. poppele, probably from papp = (children's) porridge, because of its ma. use for slime, porridge and poultices bachmenza, bachiminz, bachmyntza HB 12th century. mfrk. Hpfl. water mint, Mentha aquatica; mmed. to dampen sexual desire, after heavy eating, with lung ailments; Greek µινθη, µινθα36 ÷ Latin. ment (h) a ÷ gall. mentasône ÷ Lw. ahd. minza, mhd. mint (e), as. minta, mnd. minte bacho, bachones UH 1096 mlat. Ham, loan word from ahd.bahho (9th century) = ham, back, ‘cheek’ badestobe T 1380 md. Bathing room bahc / bach / beki 9th century ahd./mhd./as. Appendix V - brook names brook, small watercourse; often in GN and ON and PN formed after; > bahchus UK 1222 Bakehouse; ‘Cambam vulgo appellamus b. et> bruhus ’¬ the fiery furnace (from mlat. caminus?) we usually call Back- und Brauhaus bainberga LR 633/4 633 greaves, greaves; ahd. beinberga bak FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Electricity baki wg. Stream, small watercourse bakjaz g. Brook, small watercourse bal, bel aeu. WW Sumpf37 bal (o) munt AHS 832 disloyal guardian, disloyal administration; > balemundio bala FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Wound baldekin, bellikin UK 1319 silk fabric (from Baldacco = Italian for Baghdad); see nhd. Baldachin baldo FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. brave balemundio LS 5th / 6th century 'Schutzfrevel' - rape of a maid (= ward) by a stranger's servant; > bal (o) munt balgon> belgan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. angry balmunt UK 1209 Misappropriation of ward goods; ‘Habeant, quamdiu vivant sine alienatione, quae dicitur b.’ ¬ they should have lifelong without alienation, the b. is called; > balemundio balo AHS ahd. masc. malice, perdition balu AS n. evil, perdition bâm afrk. as. Tree ban (1) UK 1024 ban; ‘Ius, quod banne vulgo appellatur’ ¬ law that usually b. is called; Orders, orders, prohibitions, summons, judicial authority and their scope ban (2) UK 1297 FN according to the scope of a ban> ban (1); ‘Jmme jnren banne’ ¬ in the inner ban (area); banned parcels of land were subject to separate legal relationships38 banc UK 1269 Seat of the judges, the court; ‘Inter ipsas bancas et> schuppestuel’ ¬ between those benches and jury chairs 36 As the Greek words ‘µίνθος, µινθόω = human excrement, to deal with human. To pollute feces ’show, the PfN is based on the meaning of the WW, which would explain the mint as the one that grows on feces and sludge. 37 DGN 23 ‘Balde’ 38 HFNA 12 ‘Bann’ 29 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary bancklachin UK 1341 Guild of bankers (money changers); ‘Coopertoria scampnorum’ ¬ amalgamation of money changers banderia UK 1313 banner; Lw. From aprov. bandiera = troop sign, flag, from aprov.banda = troop banmile UK 1237 ban mile, soft picture; ‘Spatium miliaris, quod b. vulgo nuncupatur - jurisdictio, quae b. dicitur ’¬ space of a mile, usually called b. denotes - legal district that b. is called; > mile banna * F 6th century Proposal, royal. Command bannecins 1150 ofrk. imposed tax or interest bannire AHS mlat. (ban) ban, order in case of punishment bannpennick UK 983 Tax of innkeepers, brewers and butchers for the right to the sole serving of beer, sale of meat, etc .; see banwin; > Appendix II bannus (-um) AHS mlat. Ban, ban money, bid under threat of punishment banphenning UK 1182> bannpennick bant F wfrk. Region> brabant banwin UK 1111 Prohibition of free wine trade when granting the right to sole wine trade to certain persons barda FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. Bard = hatchet; > under W: weapons and tools of the Ma. bare F afries. Lawsuit barenbach UH 772 ON according to GN; > Appendix V - Bach names barefoot T 1372 md. Pl. Barefooted, Franciscans, Minor Brothers ‘unse huis, located in front of the barefoot,.’ ¬ our house, located in front of the (the monastery of) barefooted ,. bar (n) loys UK 1222 childless with no heir; ‘Absque herede, quod nos appellamus b.’ ¬ without inheriting what we b. call; cf.as., mhd. barn = child barnussi FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Adoration (sonship?) Baro AHS 741 mlat suitor, vassal, baro F, LS 5th / 6th century; T 1380 md. ‘Baron’, suitor; ‘Filius comitis de dietze interfectus est in castello dern a barone de derne, et idem Fridericus baro captus et per sententiam in reckenforst decollatus est. Etglich prenominatus baro sepultus est ad minores in Limpurg. ’¬ the son of Count von Diez was murdered in Dehrn Castle by a Frei von Dehrn, and the same Friederich Frei (von Dehrn) was captured and beheaded by a court judgment in Reckenforst. And the aforementioned Frei was buried with the Friars Minor in Limburg. baro FRKL man, German, who is not Franconian, mhd. nobleman, baron baro LR 633/4 633 man baron FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. bear, give birth, expose beard UK 1291 mhd. beard, broad hatchet; also in FN after the Gf ..; ‘On you bartin’ on the beard; > barda baß, bazz T 1380 md. Comp. Of adj. Probably: better, reinforcing as adv: better, more; ‘Di bass’ ¬ the better asked TC 818 mosfrk. he asked, applied for 30 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary bathenia HB 12th century Mfrk. Hpfl. Betonie, Echter Ziest, Stachys betonica; mmed. against stupidity; false dreams, especially against love spells; Lw. From gall. βεττονικη39 ÷ lat. betonica, betonia ÷ mhd. betœne baudiz * F master bausjan * F bold, proud, angry bebo (-pe-) AHS 741 nickname, as. Bebbe beceihnon FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. (be) draw, mark bech T 1380 md. Bad luck, hellish fire becharium UK 1121 beaker; Lw. Von mlat becarius beckerschoz UK 1312 craft money from bakers, especially in cities; ‘Ungeltum pistorium ¬ handover of the baker; > schoz beda FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Prayer, please consider MK T 1380 md. Please bede, pray, bedde UK 1263. originally ‘requested’ handover of the free; ‘Exactio, excepta praecaria, quae vulgo b. dicitur ’¬ levy, extraordinary voluntary donation, commonly b. is mentioned> flichtifenninc condedingen T 1380 md. jur. agree (in court, contractually) to summon to court; mnd. be-degedingen, bededingen = (judicially) agree, include in a contract, invite to court bedefart T 1380 md. Pilgrimage, ‘Bittfahrt’ bedekorn UK1208 Grain delivery as> bede; ‘Ius frumentum b.’ ¬ Right to grain (part) called b. bedelîc, gebedelîc FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. forgiving bedon FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. pray, ask bedrach T 1380 md. Distress and distress distress; ‘And qwamen des in large b. and in noit ’¬ and thus came into large bedrogen MK adj. fraudulent beduden, beduiden T 1380 md. mean; ‘Das beduit (et) also’ ¬ that means dunked T 1380 md. to think, to think; ‘Wez si dunked, that si right - that needed the council - (nom.) After mime dunked’ ¬ what appeared to you to be correct - that it appeared to the council - in my opinion, FPSG 9th / 10th cent. nfrk. seize at the beginning of the FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. seize, understand, know skin FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. prostrate command FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. scourging, tormenting began T 1380 md. commit, escort to the grave begengniss T 1380 md. Funeral burial MK desiring begian FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. confess, acknowledge commits FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Confession, acknowledgment 39 WPF 4, 461: Scholars borrowed from Latin Bettonica, with Pliny Nat. hist. 25.84 vettonica, after the tribe of the Vettonics in Spain (‘Vettones in Hispaniam eam quae vettonica dicitur in Gallia, in Italia autem serratula, a Graecis cestros aut psychrotrophon, ante cunctas laudatissima.’) The name is probably of Celtic origin. 31 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary beginae, begînen UK 1301, UH 1350 Pl. Beg (h) inen, women living in monasteries without formal vows who took particular care of the sick and poor; ‘The poor kynde who are called begynen’40; Latinized from French béguine, which is said to go back to the beige of her gray-brown clothes or the priest Lambert de Bègue; mhd. begins at FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. begin beglidan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. slide, slide, slide begir MK desire; ‘Supreme begir’ ¬ highest desire begirde, m. MK grasp desire MK grasp grasp T 1380 md. enclose, fasten, encompass, grasp, catch, grasp comprehending MK comprehensively understood MK summarized conceptually MK explanatory conceptually MK comprehensible, ready to receive FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. girdle, surround behaldan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. save, protect, behaldan TC 818 mosfrk. kept, kept, kept kept. T 1380 md. f. jur. keeping, keeping, the reservation; ‘Keep orberunge also solicher briffe unde reversbriffe, dy also dy burger dargeyn hetten’ ¬ subject to the submission of such documents and counter-documents, which (always) the citizens would have retained from FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. backwards, fix backwards FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. seize behelan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. conceal, conceal circumstances T 1380 md. jur. Lead (ung);> hold; 'so may sij us myt spiritual courts drengen beheltniss dissez bribe, bit daz in gunůch is given' ¬ so you can force us with the ecclesiastical court by holding this document until they are satisfied behoscon FPSG 9./10 .Century nfrk. laugh at, ridicule, ridicule authorities FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. guard, guard atan> be-gîan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. confess, confess at FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. expect beidon, beidodun RFL 881/2 rhfk. they wait, they wait for UK 1201 boars; ‘Unum verrem id est b. pascere ’¬ a boar, that is a b., graze; beil, beul, bile in FN> buhil Beinbreche UK 1307 to FN Mergelgrube; ‘At the beinbruch’¬ at the marl pit; Lü. of the Latin lapis ossifragus, a friable, fibrous type of marl which was used to heal broken bones beingewant T 1380 md. Legwear 40 As this quote from a Limburg document dated 13.X.1350 shows, in Limburg in the middle of the 14th century. Beghinen resident. They are mentioned in the city book of 1548. 32 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary confess FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. know, recognize bekentinijs MK characteristics bekeren FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. turn away, turn, turn around, turn around bekerine, ce b. TC 818 mosfrk. to change, to convert, to reverse get T 1380 md. sue, cause distress, grieve ’; ‘With the right court umb lip unde gut b.’ ¬ suing for life and property in front of the competent court bekorung MK temptation bekunnon FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. try to check, escort KL 1235 mhd. Give protective escort belegrave UK 1209 mnd. FN ‘fossatum, qui dicitur b’ ¬ ditch, which one b. is called; in the Bt. possibly the BN belle = (white) poplar41 or a WW? > bal belgan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. angry belkin T 1380 md. silk towel belûkan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. lock, lock, lock, bên OFF leg, bones benda K kelt. Peak, peak bendi, giving FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Band, fetter (cf. beunde) bennenburn UK 1307 basket (-wagen, -reuse) FN; ‘At bennenburnen’ ¬ at the source with basket holder; to benne, Lw. from gall. bennâ = bennic wagen, bennichwayn UK ​​1328 wicker basket wagon on two wheels; ‘Currum feodalem b.’ ¬ braided wagon (called) b. w .; see gall. bennâ; > bennenburn benzite UK 1307 FN cane, -ried; ‘In benzenrit’ ¬ Im Binsenried; > rid, rit; im Bt. ahd binuz, mhd. bin (e) z, mnd. benz = Binse beran, geberan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. give birth, generate berehtero OFF radiant dates. berfredos, berchfred, bercfrit UK 1278 keep, castle keep, main tower berg FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Berg uphill, gebergan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. hide, hide, 'recover'> ge-berg bergfrit T 1380 md. Fortification tower, strongest tower in a castle: Bergfried berna UK 1338 a commodity, possibly Lw. From mlat. perna = ham bernhardesroth UH 959 ON according to PN and -rod: clearing of the Bernhard; im Bt. PN @ ahd. bero- = bear, boar and hard = strong, bold, bernhart UK 1305 FN Bärenwald; ‘Vinea dicta der b.’ ¬ vineyard, called the ‘bear forest’; after mhd. bër, Gen. bëren = bear, boar and mhd., ahd.> hard 1 = forest, forest pasture, trift reuwisi FPSG 9th / 10th century. nfrk. atone beriuwan FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. repent, atone 41 HFNA 126 ‘Belle, Poplar’ 33 P. P. Schweitzer, Old German vocabulary bertingestelle UK 1231 FN; ‘In bertingestelle’ ¬ at the bearded man's agricultural facility; after mhd. stelle = constellations (especially hurdles, fence crossing, stables, land) and mhd. bertinc = bearded man (especially the Cistercian called frater barbaris) bertram HB 12th century Mfrk. Hpfl. Bertram, Anacyclus pyrethrum; mmed. with pleurisy and mucus; Greek πυρεθρον = fiery, heated ÷ Latin. pyrethrum ÷ ahd. berhtram; the burning tasting root was the cause of the Greek name berurtz HB 12th century. Mfrk. Hpfl. Bärwurz, bear fennel, Meum athamanticum; mmed. against hot fever, gout and jaundice; ahd. berinwurz inseminate T 1380 md. gather bescedewen FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Verdundeln, shadowing, FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. destroy pod T 1380 md. protect protect T 1380 md. protect protect FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. shield, protect bescirmeri FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Protector bescoffon FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. mock, laugh at bescorginga FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. Doom, crash, cure the abyss FPSG 9th / 10th century nfrk. fell down especially UH 1163 SN / FN 1163 donated, lost during the Reformation, Beselich women's monastery near Obertiefenbach LM / WEL; after Lw. kirchengiech./lat. basilica = basilica, from βασιλευς = king ÷ βαςιλικη = (king) hall with double colonnades ÷ basilica; >