Who invented radio Tesla or Marconi
Who invented the radio? When Popov invented the radio
For 119 years, society has not been able to decide in any way who invented the radio. The fact is that almost at the same time this brilliant discovery was made by several scientists from different countries. Alexander Popov, Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Henry Hertz, Ernest Rutherford - all of these people are somehow connected to radio. It is not so important which of them was visited by a brilliant thought first, all scientists made an invaluable contribution to the development of science.
The discovery of the electromagnetic field
If you ask a Russian and a European who invented the radio, the answers will be completely different, the first will say it's Popov and the second is Marconi. Who is right and who is wrong? The concept of the electromagnetic field was introduced by Michael Faraday in 1845, it was one of the most significant discoveries made by mankind. Twenty years later, James Maxwell created the electromagnetic field theory and derived all of its laws. The scientist has proven that electromagnetic radiation can propagate in space at the speed of light.
The opening of the radio took place largely thanks to Henry Hertz. This brilliant scientist in 1887 created a generator and a resonator of electromagnetic vibrations. Literally a year later, he showed the public the presence of electromagnetic waves traveling in free space at the speed of light. Some historians insist that the radio was invented by Faraday, Maxwell, and Hertz. The first and second discovered the presence of electromagnetic waves, and Heinrich created the device.
The problem is that Hertz's design was only a few feet apart, only a spark could be seen in the receiver, and even then in the dark. The device was not ideal and needed improvement. The ingenious engineer and experimenter did not need to improve their invention. Unfortunately, Hertz died at the age of 37 in 1894, shortly before the discovery of Marconi and Popov.
The similarity of the experiments of Marconi and Popov
If you look at it from a technical point of view, Popov and Marconi didn't discover anything new, just used the inventions of other scientists to create an improved instrument. To the Hertz design, the scientists added the grounding and antenna, and for better reception of the signal, a Coherer was installed - a glass tube with metal shavings inside. This device was invented by Edward Brangly and perfected by Oliver Lodge. Scientists were not interested in the practical application of the Coherer, but Marconi and Popov used it instead of a spark to activate the bell. It turns out that the Russians and the Italians do the same thing, but who of them thought of this first is still unknown. Of course in Russia they believe that they created Popov Radio.
Alexander Stepanovich Popov was born in the Urals on March 16, 1859 in the family of a priest. At first he completed the general educational courses of the theological seminary, but since he was attracted to electronics, the young man went to Petersburg, where he entered the university for the physics and mathematics faculty. At first he worked as an ordinary electrician, and in 1882 Popov wrote and defended his thesis on dynamo-electric machines.
After graduating from the university, Alexander Stepanovich was ready to receive a professorship. In 1883 the scientist began teaching the officer's class in the Ministry in Kronstadt. In parallel, Popov carried out educational work at the Technical College of the Maritime Department. After 8 years, Alexander Stepanovich was invited to the St. Petersburg Electrotechnical Institute to work as a professor at the Institute of Physics. In 1905 Popov became the director of this institution. The great scientist died on January 13, 1906, the cause of his imminent death from a cerebral hemorrhage.
Benefits of Popov
Alexander Stepanovich actively worked with the Navy, and it was for the Navy that he invented the radio. Popov was always interested in Hertz's experiments, so in 1889 he read a series of lectures with accompanying demonstrations on the subject of research on the relationship between electrical and light phenomena. The scientist indicated at meetings that this knowledge can be applied in practice, which has caused interest from the leadership of the Navy.
Alexander Stepanowitsch can certainly be called the first person in Russia who not only understood the value of the Hertz experiments, but also found practical application. May 7, 1895, when Popov invented the radio and demonstrated a constructed device at a meeting of Russian physicists, nothing was known about the creation of Marconi. It is on May 7 in Russia is considered the day of the creation of radio.
The whole of 1895 Popov devoted himself to improving the radio, he conducted experiments on the reception and transmission of electromagnetic waves at a distance of 60 m. On January 20, 1897, the Russian scientist had to defend his right to invent the invention. In the newspaper "Kotlin" an article appeared "Telegraphing without wires", after learning about Marconi's experiments, Popov wrote it. The first radio was invented by Alexander Stepanovich, he showed it in the spring of 1895 and wanted to continue working on his work, but he did not document his device in any way.
Functional principle of the first radio receiver
Many inventors could not find applications for their inventions, and only brilliant people with special skills and extraordinary thinking can turn the scientific idea into reality, it is for these geniuses that belongs to Alexander Popov. Radio, created by a great scientist, is made up of the discoveries of various engineers and physicists. So Popov used a Coherer as a conductor, he thought of using this device as a call and an incoming signal recorder. Alexander Stepanovich put together a coherer, bell and antenna and built a device for receiving waves and lightning discharges. With the help of a radio receiver, a scientist was able to transmit meaningful text with special signals.
Why in Europe is the founder of radio Marconi?
Scientists still cannot come to a single agreement on who invented the radio. Alexander Popov showed his invention on May 7, 1895, and Guglielmo Marconi applied for a patent only in June 1896. At first glance, it seems that everything is clear, the palm should be given to the Russian scientist, but not everything is so simple. The fact is that Popov did not try to tell the public about his research, but only a narrow circle of people - scientists and naval officers - informed them about it. He understood how important this work was for his homeland, so he did not rush with printed publications and participated practically.
Guglielmo Marconi grew up in a capitalist country, so he did not seek to consolidate a historical or scientific priority, but a legal one. He didn't initiate anyone, but it wasn't until the invention was ready that he applied for a patent. Of course, the story has nothing to do with the legal side, but some historians still take sides with Marconi. The patent was issued on July 2, 1897, two years after Popov demonstrated his invention. Even so, Marconi had a document that established his priority, and the Russian scientist limited himself to only a printed publication.
Performance of the Americans
In the 1943 debate about who invented the radio, Americans intervene because they also had a craftsman in their country who created the receiver. The United States was outraged by the fact that Europeans and Russians share first place because that is their compatriot Nikola Tesla, the famous electrical engineer and scientist who was the first to make such a great discovery. The correctness of this statement has been checked in court.
Tesla patented a radio transmitter in 1893 and a radio receiver two years later. An American scientist's device could convert an acoustic sound into a radio signal, transmit it, convert it back into an acoustic sound. That said, it worked like modern devices. Popov and Marconi's designs lose noticeably because they can only send and receive radio signals with the Morse code.
Who should give the palm of your hand?
Who was the first scientist to invent radio? The answer to this question is not so important, the main thing is that the best minds of humanity have worked to create a new adjustment, to put their work and knowledge into it. Marconi, Popov and Tesla are in no way related to each other, they lived in different countries and even on different continents, so no one did not steal ideas. It turns out that the idea of creating a radio scientist came around the same time. This combination of circumstances reaffirmed Engels' law: when the time for discovery has come, then that discovery is surely made by someone.
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