Word laiba in the Koran how often

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The holy book of the Muslims

"Al-Quran al-karim" (the noble Koran) is the holy book of the Muslims, the word of God ("Allah") cast in Arabic script. According to Muslim belief, the original of the holy scriptures is on tablets in heaven with "Allah", the earthly copy is the copy of this text: According to this, the Koran was given to the prophet Mohammed between 610 and 632 AD by the Archangel Gabriel ("Jibril") has been revealed. According to the Old and New Testaments, it is the last, only valid book of revelation for Muslims and expresses God's will.

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Koran editions are often designed in a very complex and valuable way.

Revealed in Mecca and Medina

The Koran contains 114 sections, called suras, which in turn are divided into verses ("Ayat"). After the first sura, "al-Fatiha" (the opening), one of the most frequently quoted prayers in Islam, the other suras are almost continuously sorted according to their length - from the longest to the shortest. All suras, except sura 9, “at-Tauba” (penance), begin with the prayer formula “Basmala” - “bi-smi llahi r-rahmani r-rahim” (In the name of the merciful and gracious God, trans. N . Paret). All suras have names which, however, do not necessarily summarize the content of the following section.

With the words "Iqra bi-smi rabbika lladi chalak" (Carry on in the name of your Lord who created. Sura 96.1, transl. N. Paret), Archangel Gabriel is said to have himself in a cave in 610 AD approached on Mount Hira and dictated God's first revelation to his heart. In the course of Muhammad's life until his death, the Muslim prophet repeatedly had revelation experiences that he passed on to his followers. Depending on the place of revelation, a distinction is made between Meccan and Medinan suras. Usually in copies of the Koran the place of origin is given together with the name of the sura and the number of verses in a list.

Ornate Koran recitations as a godly act

The first edition of the Koran goes back to the third right-wing caliph Uthman. He combined various passages of text and editions of the Koran into a single version. To do this, each verse had to be confirmed by two witnesses. Only six verses have been confirmed solely by Muhammad's confidant, his former servant, Said. Even before that, immediately after Muhammad's death in 632 AD, the first right-wing caliph Abu Bakr had collected all the pieces of text in order to save them from oblivion. However, these were still written in different Arabic dialects. With Uthman's version, the Quraishitic dialect, the Arabic of the Prophet, established itself as the template for today's Standard Arabic.

The Arabic script knows a few letters that only differ in terms of dots, the diacritical marks. Vowels are also sometimes not reproduced in the script. Therefore, at the beginning of the Quran tradition, oral transmission was of great importance. The written text was more of a reminder. Although the diacritical marks were added in the 10th century and the uniqueness of the words thus enshrined, it is still considered godly to be able to recite the Koran by heart. Koran recitations are also very popular on sound carriers in the Islamic world. Especially in Ramadan there are many Koran recitations and even competitions on television and radio.

Untranslatable scriptures

Koranic Arabic is seen as particularly beautiful and demanding in terms of language, which for Muslims proves the divine origin of the text. Therefore one may only touch the Koran in a ritually pure state (more on this in the article "Wudu"). Copies of the Koran are usually lavishly decorated, they must be honored and must not simply be thrown away. The Koran must also be received in its original Arabic, it cannot be translated for religious purposes. On the one hand, the linguistic expression is valued as part of divine revelation; on the other hand, translations are considered to be interpretations and thus falsifications.

Koran translations:

  • Friedrich Rückert: The Koran. Anaconda, 576 pages, 7.95 euros.
  • Rudi Paret: The Koran. Kohlhammer, 440 pages, 19 euros.
  • Hartmut Bobzin: The Koran. Beck, 640 pages, 17.95 euros.
  • Koran translations (Wikipedia entry)

However, the Koran has been translated into other languages ​​numerous times. German-speaking scholarship recognizes the translation by Rudi Paret (1966), which remains fairly close to the original text, as a standard work. Paret completes his translation with a commentary and a concordance. More poetic is the text by Friedrich Rückert (1888), who tried to translate the linguistic beauty of the Koran into German, but is now considered out of date. The latest translation was submitted by Hartmut Bobzin, Professor of Semitic Philology and Islamic Studies. Illustrated by Shahid Alam, this work also tries to depict the beauty of the Koran in the German edition.

The Koran as a source for law and science

The Koran contains the principles of belief and numerous religious and legal regulations. Some passages refer to events of the time, others tell stories about biblical figures such as Adam, Abraham, Moses and also Jesus, who are also considered prophets in Islam.

Together with the "Sunna" (custom), which is passed down as sayings and reports from the Prophet Mohammed in the hadiths, the Koran forms the basis for Muslim rules of life and Islamic jurisprudence, the Sharia, but also for various branches of science. In addition to its quality as a reference work for the Arabic language, the comprehensive science of Koran exegesis ("Ilm at-Tafsir") developed around the Koran, since the Koran is difficult to understand without further interpretation, even for native speakers.

Review article on Islam

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