What is a framed structure under construction

Horizontal cracks in walls of RCC Framed structure

The brick walls of RCC framed structures are also known as fill panels or panel walls. You have an important role in the performance of the houses. The guidelines of the codes and standards improve the quality of construction. Horizontal cracks in the walls of the house are greatly influenced by drying shrinkage, creep, elastic loading and the length-to-height ratio of the brick slab.

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Whether the cracks are horizontal or vertical, it costs, money and time for homeowners. The mere thought of cracks in walls increases the tension on homeowners, and they start to think.

What is happening to my house?

Are these cracks normal or abnormal?

Is My House Falling Apart?

Will my house suddenly collapse?

No panic. We already have the causes affecting the cracks and horizontal cracks in walls of the load bearing structure. In this post we discuss the factors that affect the horizontal cracks in the walls. We will also discuss the preventive measures to reduce the horizontal cracks in walls of RCC framed structures.

Horizontal cracks in walls due to elastic stress, creep and shrinkage:

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Horizontal cracks appear due to the development of stress in the masonry of the RCC framed structure. The main factors that develop tension in masonry are elastic loading, creep and shrinkage.

It is not easy to completely get rid of cracks in brick walls, as it is difficult to get rid of phenomena. But homeowner must follow general measures to reduce cracking.

Here are the general precautions to help minimize the horizontal cracks in RCC Framed Structures Infill Brick Panels:

  • Use low shrinkage and low slumped concrete for building RCC structures.
  • Don't set a very fast pace of building.
  • Do not remove the formwork early.
  • Do not decrease the hardening time for the concrete to harden
  • In our opinion, you follow the IS code, which sets or follows certain minimum activity duration / duration for the respective construction activity.
  • In the case of masonry laid on adjacent RCC pillars, move the masonry as much as possible.
  • At a time when plastering works, masonry and RCC allow work to undergo shrinkage and creep.
  • Before doing any plastering work along the junction of the RCC and masonry, fix the chicken wire gauges in place.
  • Put 8 to 12 mm groove at the intersection of the RCC and masonry.
  • Extend the formwork removal time for the RCC element such as cantilever and slab, which are generally more distracting under loads.

01.Bending horizontal cracks in external brick walls in RCC structures:

Elastic deformation, creep and drying shrinkage result in a shortening of the column in the RCC structure. In addition, heavy loads bend the top beam larger than the bottom beam, creating a compressive force on brick slabs. The compressive force pushes the tile sheet, and therefore bending horizontal cracks appear in the center of the filler tile sheets of the RCC structure.

The following are the preventive measures to stop wall cracks in Brick Walls of RCC structure:

  • Make a horizontal movement connection between the top of the brick walls and the joist floor.
  • Careful support of the brick panel walls at the top using constraints such as telescopic anchoring. It allows movement in the vertical direction as well as take horizontal shear from the wind, etc.

  • Complete the RCC framework before starting the masonry work and starting the brick walls from the top story down (this is usually not done).

02. Horizontal cracks in half-brick thick walls:

Holding brick thick walls are also known as partitions. Horizontal cracks in brick partitions appear due to the excessive deflection of the supports. The location and pattern of the horizontal cracks in the brick walls depend on the length-to-height ratio and the position of the door / window opening.

We have already discussed cracks in half-brick thick walls and measures.

03. Horizontal cracks in partitions of concrete blocks:

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Sometimes vertical and horizontal cracks appear when the partition walls are built with dense concrete blocks or light concrete blocks or sand-lime bricks. The horizontal cracks develop due to the drying shrinkage of masonry systems. In addition, cracks will be more noticeable if the partitions are very long or large. In addition, they are also more noticeable if the partitions are built with rich mortar.

The preventive measures for stopping wall cracks in partitions of concrete blocks are as follows:

  • Follow the precautions we discussed about cracks in half-brick thick walls and gauges. It will help minimize the horizontal cracks in partitions of concrete blocks.
  • Use standard materials for construction work. Follow standard building practices and guidelines to minimize drying shrinkage.

Horizontal cracks in free-standing walls:

01. Horizontal cracks in brick walls below the masonry:

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Composite walls, garden walls or parapet walls are the different shapes of the free-standing walls, which are basically self-supporting walls. Horizontal cracks appear below the coping stone in the free standing walls due to the bowing of the coping. The bow of coping occurs when the wall is built between two heavy structures that act as rigid constraints. It also occurs at a regular interval in the brick walls due to the lack of expansion joints.

Adopt the following preventive measures to limit horizontal cracks in free standing walls:

  • Provision of expansion joints in the wall at regular intervals.

02. Horizontal cracks in the bed Joint of Brick Walls:

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Sometimes horizontal cracks also appear in the bed hinge from free-standing walls due to the sulfate attack. Sulphate can be confirmed by chemical test on the mortar and stones.

The preventive measures to stop wall cracks appearing in the bed joints in free standing walls are as follows:

There are no other effective cures for these types of horizontal cracks in brick walls. When sulfate attacks happen, the only solution to the problem is to remove and rebuild the damaged part of the walls.

Weather, the horizontal cracks in the walls are thin or wide, repair work consume the homeowner's time. In addition, repair costs for cracked walls are also high. So always remember, prevention is better than cure.

Also read:

Common Causes, Prevention, and Cure of Separation Between Masonry and Door Frame Hinges
Types & summary of the cracks in the reinforced concrete column
Why are modern buildings more prone to cracking compared to old buildings?
Why does the component crack?
Posted in Frequently Observed Damage