Seematti branches in Kerala where Gandhi

Kerala - Kerala

Nickname (s):
God's own land, spice garden of India, land of coconuts, land of trees, the jewel of South India
Coordinates (Thiruvananthapuram): 8.5 ° N 77 ° E Coordinates: 8.5 ° N 77 ° E. 8 ° 30'N 77 ° 00'E /. / 8.5; 77 8 ° 30'N 77 ° 00'E /. / 8.5; 77
country India
Statehood November 1, 1956; 64 years ago (1956-11-01)
Capital Thiruvananthapuram
Districts 14
government
• Body Government of Kerala
• Governor Arif Mohammad Khan
• Prime Minister Pinarayi Vijayan (CPI (M))
• Legislation Single chamber (141 seats)
• constituencies Rajya Sabha (9 seats)
Lok Sabha (20 seats)
• Supreme Court Kerala Supreme Court
Area
• A total of 38,863 km 2 (15,005 square miles)
Territory Rank 21 ..
Highest elevation 2,695 m
Lowest altitude -2.2 m (-7.2 ft)
population
• A total of 34,630,192
• Rank 13 ..
• Density 890 / km 2 (2300 / sq mi)
Demonym (s) Keralite, Malayali
GSDP (2019-20)
• A total of 8.75 pounds sterling ($ 120 billion)
• Per person ₹ 225,484 (US $ 3,200)
languages
• Officially Malayalam
• Additional civil servant English
Time zone UTC + 05: 30 (IST)
ISO 3166 code INCL
Vehicle registration KL
HDI (2018) 0.779 (high) 1 ..
Literacy (2018) 96,2%
Gender ratio (2011) 1084 ♀ / 1000 ♂
website kerala .gov .in

Kerala ( English: / kɛ r ə l ə /; Malayalam: [ke: ɾɐɭɐm] hear ( Help · info ) ) is a state on the southwest coast of Malabar of India. It was established on November 1, 1956, following the enactment of the State Restructuring Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions of the former regions of Cochin, Malabar, Southern Kanara and Travancore. Kerala extends for 38,863 km 2 and is The twenty-first Indian state in terms of area. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With a population of 33,406,061, Kerala is the thirteenth largest Indian state by population according to the 2011 census. It is divided into 14 districts, with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and also the official language of the state.  

The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom in Kerala. The Ay Kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE). The region had been around since 3000 BC. A major exporter of spices. The importance of trade in the region was noted in both Pliny and Periplus around AD 100. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonization of India. At the time of the Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala: the state of Travancore and the Kingdom of Cochin. They merged in 1949 to form the state of Thiru-Kochi. The Malabar region in the northern part of Kerala was part of Madras Province in British India, which later became part of Madras State after independence. According to the States Reorganization Act of 1956, today's state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of the Madras state (with the exception of Gudalur taluk from the Nilgiris district, Lakshadweep Islands, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti) and the Taluk from Kasaragod ( now Kasaragod district) in South Canara (Tulunad) and in the former state of Thiru-Kochi (with the exception of four southern taluks of the Kanyakumari district and Shenkottai taluks).

The economy of Kerala is the 10th-largest in India with ₹ 78.2 trillion (US $ 110 billion) in gross state domestic product (GSDP) and a per capita GSDP of ₹ 204,000 (US $ 2,900). Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India at 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI): 0.784 in 2018 (0.712 in 2015); the highest literacy rate: 96.2% in the 2018 Literacy Survey of the National Bureau of Statistics, India; the highest life expectancy 77 years; and the highest gender ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. Kerala is the second lowest impoverished state in India according to the Reserve Bank of India's 2013 annual report. Kerala is the second largest state in the country with 47.7% urban population according to the 2011 Indian census. The state in which the country exceeded the sustainable development goals according to the annual report by NITI Aayog published in 2019. The state has experienced significant emigration, especially to the Arab states in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf boom of the 1970s and early 1980s Years and its economy depends largely on remittances from a large Malay expatriate community. Hinduism is practiced by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arabic and European cultures that has been developed over millennia under influences from other parts of India and abroad.

The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national production. Coconut, tea, coffee, cashew and spices are important in agriculture. The state lies between the Arabian Sea in the west and the Western Ghats in the east. The state's coast stretches for 595 kilometers, and around 1.1 million people in the state depend on the fishing industry, which accounts for 3% of the state's income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers published in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. Kerala is one of the most famous tourist destinations in India with coconut-fringed sandy beaches, backwaters, hill stations, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as the main attractions.

etymology

The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. A folk etymology directs Kerala from the Malayalam word Kera 'Coconut tree' and Alam 'Country' from; hence "Land of Coconuts", a nickname for the state used by the locals due to the abundance of coconut palms. The word Kerala is first used as Ketalaputo ("Son of Chera [s]") in a rock inscription from the 3rd century BC. Recorded by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BC), one of his welfare edicts. This contradicts the theory that Kera comes from the 'coconut tree'. At that time, one of three states in the region was called classical Tamil Cheralam : Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of the Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil Malayalam word for "lake".

The earliest Sanskrit text in which Kerala is known as Cherapadha is mentioned, is the late Vedic text Aitareya Aranyaka. Kerala is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics. The Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of Thachudaya Kaimal, which is referred to as Manikkam Keralar , synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam can be from classic Tamil Cherive-Alam "Slope of a hill or a mountain slope" or Chera Alam "Land of the Cheras" originate. The Greco-Roman Trade Card Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Kerala as Celobotra .

Kerala became alternative Kerala as Called Malabar . Until the arrival of the East India Company, the term was used Malabar along with the term Kerala as a common name for Used in Kerala . Since the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century AD), Arab sailors called Kerala as male . However, the first element of the name is already in that written by Cosmas Indicopleustes Topography proven . This mentions a pepper trading center called times , which clearly gave its name to Malabar ("the land of Male"). It is believed that the name times from the Malayalam word Mala ('Hill') comes from. Al-Biruni (973-1048 AD) must have been the first writer to visit this country Malabar called . Authors such as Ibn Khordadbeh and Al-Baladhuri mention Malabar ports in their works. The Arab writers had this place Malibar , Manibar , Mulibar and Called Munibar . Malabar reminds of the word Malanad, What the land of hills means . According to William Logan, the word Malabar comes from a combination of the Malayalam word Mala (Hill) and the Persian / Arabic word Barr (Country / continent).

history

mythology

According to the Sangam classic Purananuru , the Chera King Senkuttuvan conquered the land between Kanyakumari and the Himalayas. Having no worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. After the Malayalam plant Keralolpathi from In the 17th century, the areas of Kerala were rescued from the sea by the ax-wielding warrior Sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence Kerala is also Parasurama Kshetram Called 'The Land of Parasurama'). Parasurama threw his ax over the sea and the water receded as far as it could reach. According to legend, this new area extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land that rose from the sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for settlement; so Parasurama called on the serpent king Vasuki, who spat sacred poison and turned the soil into fertile, lush green land. Out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes have been appointed protectors and guardians of the land. PT Srinivasa Iyengar suggested that Senguttuvan may have been inspired by the Parasurama legend brought by early Aryan settlers.

Another much earlier Puranic character who was associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an asura and prototypical righteous king who ruled the earth from Kerala. He won the war against the devas and exiled them. The devas pleaded with Lord Vishnu who made his fifth incarnation as Vamana took and pushed Mahabali into the underworld to appease the devas. It is believed that Mahabali returns to Kerala once a year during the Onam Festival. The Matsya Purana, one of the oldest of the 18 Puranas, uses the Malaya Mountains of Kerala (and Tamil Nadu) as the backdrop for the story of Matsya, the first incarnation of Vishnu, and Manu, the first man and king of the region.

The legend of Ophir

Ophir, a port mentioned in the Bible or a region known for its wealth, is often identified with some coastal areas of Kerala. Legend has it that King Solomon received a charge from Ophir (1 Kings 10, 22) every three years, which consisted of gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, monkeys and peacocks. In one Published in 1863 Dictionary of the Bible from Sir William Smith becomes the Hebrew word for parrot Thukki mentioned , which from classic Tamil for peacock Thogkai and Cingalese Tokei derived is Hebrew Bible. This theory of Ophir's location in Tamilakam is further supported by other historians. The most likely location on the Kerala coast that is believed to be Ophir is Poovar in the Thiruvananthapuram district (although some Indian scholars also suggest Beypore as a possible location). The books of kings and chronicles tell of a joint expedition to Ophir by King Solomon and the Tyrian King Hiram me from Ezjon-Geber, a port on the Red Sea that brought back large amounts of gold, precious stones and 'algum wood' and one later failed expedition of King Jehoshaphat of Judah. The famous "Gold of Ophir" is mentioned in several other books of the Hebrew Bible.

The legend of Cheraman Perumals

The legend of Cheraman Perumals is the medieval tradition that began with the Cheraman Perumals (literally the Chera kings) of Kerala. The validity of the legend as the source of history once sparked much debate among South Indian historians. The legend was used by the chiefs in Kerala to legitimize their rule (most of the great main houses in medieval Kerala were based on the legendary assignment by the Perumal). According to legend, it fell Rayar , the overlord of Cheraman Perumal in a country east of the Ghats, during the reign of the last Perumal in Kerala. In order to push back the invasion forces, the Perumal called the militia of his chiefs (like Udaya Varman Kolathiri , Manichchan and Vikkiran von Eranad) together. The Cheraman Perumal was from the Eradis (Chief of Eranad) assures you that she is one of the Rayar take the built fortress would . The battle lasted three days and the Rayar eventually evacuated his fort (and it was confiscated by Perumal's forces). Then the last shared Cheraman Perumal the kingdom of Kerala or Chera under its chiefs and mysteriously disappeared. The Kerala never heard from him again. The Eradis by Nediyiruppu, who later came to be known as his Zamorins from Kozhikode, who were at odds with the assignment of the land, who were granted Cheraman Perumal 'S sword (with permission to "die, and kill, and seize"). According to the Cheraman Juma Mosque and some other tales "received Cheraman Perumal, probably called Ravi Varma, walking in the palace with his queen when he witnessed the split of the moon. Startled, he asked his astronomers to write down the exact time of the split. When some Arab merchants visited his palace, he asked them about this incident. Their answers led the king to Mecca, where he met the Islamic prophet Muhammad and converted to Islam.

It is believed that the first recorded version of this legend is an anonymous Arabic manuscript known as Qissat Shakarwati Farmad is known . The Arabic work Tuhfat Ul Mujahideen from the 16th century, written by Zainuddin Makhdoom II from Ponnani, as well as the medieval Malayalam work Keralolpathi also mention the departure of the last Cheraman Perumal from Kerala to Mecca. The Maharajas of the Travancore Kingdom of India before independence said when they were sworn in: "I will keep this sword until the uncle who has gone to Mecca returns."

prehistory

A significant part of Kerala may have been under the sea in ancient times. Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanassery, which supports the hypothesis. Prehistoric archaeological finds include dolmens from the Neolithic Age in the Marayur area of ​​the Idukki district. They are known locally as "Muniyara", derived from Muni (Hermit or sage) and Era (Dolmen). Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad date from the Neolithic around 6000 BC. Archaeological studies have identified Mesolithic, Neolithic, and megalithic sites in Kerala. The studies indicate the development of ancient Kerala society and its culture from the Paleolithic to the Middle Stone Age, Neolithic and Megalite Holders. Foreign cultural contacts supported this cultural education; Historians suggest a possible relationship with the Indus Valley Civilization during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

Ancient time

Old map of the silk road with the trade routes of that time. The spice trade took place mainly along the waterways (blue).

According to Sumerian records, Kerala has been around since 3000 BC. A major exporter of spices and is still referred to as the "Garden of Spices" or "Spice Garden of India". Kerala's spices lured in the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC. Ancient Arabs, Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians on the Malabar coast. During this time the Phoenicians established trade with Kerala. Arabs and Phoenicians were the first to set foot on the Malabar coast to trade spices. The Arabs on the coasts of Oman and the Persian Gulf must have made the first long voyage to Kerala and other eastern countries. You must have brought the cinnamon to the Middle East from Kerala. The Greek historian Herodotus (5th century BC) reports that in his day the cinnamon spice industry was monopolized by the Egyptians and Phoenicians.

The Land of Keralaputra was one of the four independent kingdoms in South India in Ashoka's time, the others being Chola, Pandya and Satiyaputra. Scholars consider Keralaputra to be an alternate name for the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty to rule Kerala with its capital in Karur. These areas once shared a common language and culture in an area known as Tamilakam. The region around Coimbatore was ruled by the Cheras during the Sangam period between the 1st and 4th centuries AD and served as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap, the main trade route between the Malabar coast and Tamil Nadu