What is Information Systems Functional Area
“A system is a targeted and organized whole. It consists of elements [...]. Relationships exist between the elements of a system, the entirety of which is called the structure of the system. The given goal determines the structure of the system ”(Riemann 2001).
A general distinction is made between:
- Static and dynamic systems
- Open and closed systems
- Deterministic and stochastic systems
Definition of information system / IS
Information and communication systems (ICS) are "socio-technical systems, which include human and machine components as task carriers, which
- are interdependent
- interlock and / or
- work together.
The focus is on supporting the fulfillment of operational tasks. The term information makes it clear that the primary purpose of these systems is to satisfy the demand for information from public authorities [...].
ICS is largely understood to be synonymous with IS (Fink et al. 2000), since communication is usually inherent in the system.
A modular system is a system that is made up of Head- and Subsystems consists. The subsystems (modules) are under the aspects
- the interchangeability (e.g. of data)
- the work organization and / or
- the flexibility or adaptability
of the system.
The individual subsystems can be used independently of one another. This allows the overall system to be introduced in partial steps over a longer period of time, if desired. However, there is both one Data- as well as Program- and Process integration in front.
Non-integrated data processing
A characteristic of non-integrated data processing (IT) is that the different tasks of a company are carried out independently of one another with IT support. This can be traced back to the traditional design principle of the division of labor. This results in isolated IT solutions and the following disadvantages:
- It is often necessary to enter data repeatedly in the subsystems that are independent of one another. This increases the workload.
- Similar databases are often saved multiple times, which leads to redundant inventory and movement data.
- The timeliness of the data is insufficient.
- Changes can only be reacted to to a limited extent.
- The information and information options are limited to the respective IT-supported sub-task.
Integrated data processing
The aim of integrated data processing is to overcome departmental boundaries and to link the various operational sub-areas more closely with one another. This is implemented by a data processing system in which the modules are integrated with one another. Changes in a module therefore not only affect the module itself, but also all neighboring, integrated modules. Seen in this way, from the point of view of organizational design, integration represents the opposite of the division of labor.
The integration can be differentiated according to:
It offers the following advantages:
- The data acquisition effort can be reduced by avoiding multiple entries.
- A continuous flow of information is guaranteed.
- The consistency and timeliness of the data is guaranteed.
- The number of interfaces is reduced and the associated problems avoided.
Classification of information management in the company organization
Basically there are 2 ways to classify the IM in the company organization:
- For one, it can be described as a executive department the management understand what emphasizes the service character of the IM in the company.
- On the other hand, IM can be used as its own Functional area understand in the company. This is useful if the IM is of great importance in the company, e.g. in IT service companies. The problem can arise here that the internal service task of the IM takes a back seat.
For historical reasons, the IM is in some cases still subordinate to a functional area - mostly finance and accounting. This is because the IM was mainly used to support bookkeeping.
In addition, with a matrix organization or a divisional corporate structure, it is possible to use the IM as a Cross-sectional function so that it represents one department in each of the business areas.
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