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5900 BC Chr.

The history of beer goes back a long way in human history: Beer is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages. It is believed to have been known to mankind since people began gathering grain in the area of ​​the fertile crescent around 10,000 years ago and accidentally discovered that cereal porridge left to stand for a few days began to ferment. At about the same time as fermented barley juice, the fermentation of honey (mead) and the fermentation of fruit juice (wine) were discovered. The earliest records of beer come from the Mesopotamian region.

3500 BC Chr.

The name perfume is derived from the Latin "Per Fumum" and means "through the smoke", since for a long time the coveted fragrances could only be dissolved by the heat of the fire.

The history of perfume begins in the ancient civilizations of Egypt and India. In the countries whose craft tradition, spirituality and medicine were so developed early on that the precious fragrances could be processed. The diverse uses of aromatic substances have always been considered a great source of inspiration - to inspire means to breathe. In Egypt, the golden age of the pharaoh Hatshepsut brought a turn to the living body. What for a long time was only sacrificed to the gods and given to the dead on their journey, was now used to perfume the living body. The fragrance mixtures were made by the priests who specialized in handling resins, balms and ointments. Turning to the living body, which was seen as an expression of the aesthetic ideals of beauty of its time, is an important step in the development of cosmetics and perfumes. This expression of desired inner and outer harmony, which is reflected in the portrait bust of Nefertiti, has been preserved to this day and the importance of fragrance - means and medium of transcendence, according to the Egyptians, expression of life - has become an integral part of cleansing rituals of the culture image.

The famous Kyphi, a mixture of frankincense, Styrax amber, cinnamon bark, opoponax, myrrh and other plant substances, mixed with fatty oils, some of which had to be transported over long distances. The fragrant cosmetics known as Kyphi to the Egyptians in Luxor five thousand years ago, were later adopted by the Arabs and even used by the Romans. In India, the land of inexhaustible sources of fragrant raw materials, where everything grows from the Himalayas in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south that can be used for smoking rituals and perfumed ointments and oils, the fragrant plant components were used early on, especially for medicinal purposes and for cleaning of the body used.

With the Kama Sutra, not only the art of a fulfilled love life has been handed down, but also the handling of aromatic substances, the use of which every educated person should adopt. Fragrant creams for the body, perfumed wax on the lips and thoroughly brushed teeth, clothes and hair adorned with flowers. The prerequisite for this was the rapid development of artisanal techniques with which the first forms of perfumed ointments by soaking flowers and blossoms in oils.

Occidental culture only became familiar with the fragrant raw materials and mixtures of the Orient through the Crusades. Until then, simple lavender water was known and Charlemagne had an arrangement that allowed the cultivation of aromatic plants for use in medicine and cuisine

Fragrance was also understood as an expression of health. After Venice became an important trading center, large quantities of new herbs, spices and other goods came to Europe.

The oldest remains of beer were discovered in Godin Tepe in what is now western Iran.

3,400 BC Chr.

Are finds from Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt were found, in which the different types of beer were also reported.

3100 BC Chr.

It is believed that the earliest drinking straws date from the time of the ancient Sumerians. A seal from 3100 BC BC shows two men drinking beer from a mug with drinking straws. In addition, golden drinking straws were found in a Sumerian grave.

3,000 BC Chr.

Written documents from Mesopotamia name over 20 different types of beer. The Sumerians, who at that time populated Mesopotamia, developed the beer culture. These highly developed people already knew four different methods of making beer from fermented bread dough. For example, Sumerian women preferred beer made from emmer, the first cultivated type of wheat in human history that is very similar to spelled. But also in the land of the pharaohs and pyramids, in Egypt, people loved the forerunner of today's beer. Wall paintings and characters testify to this.

2104 BC

The Greeks used the drinking straw to enjoy their famous wine. Since then, the straw has been continuously developed and can now look back on 4000 years of history.

2000 BC Chr.

Beer is also mentioned in the Gilgamesh epic, one of the oldest works in world literature, which was written in Babylonia. There it says: "Now eat the bread, O Enkidu, because that is part of life, also drink the beer, as it is the country's custom".

1000 BC Chr.

In China, rice wine is used to make black powder.

900 BC Chr.

Al Razi affirms that alcohol is a vehicle for medicinal products for the human body.

830 BC Chr.

Al Kindi distills an edible elixir with Gebers Alambik.

800 BC Chr.

Drinking beer also became a custom among our Germanic ancestors. This is proven by numerous finds of beer amphorae. Incidentally, brewing beer fell within the remit of women among the Germanic tribes.

The distillation for the production of arrak, a palm wine distillate made from palm juice or wine from fermented rice mash, is mentioned for the first time in India.

776 BC Chr.

The Arab alchemist Abu Masa Jabir ibn Hayyan (also known as Geber) uses an alambic to extract essential oils.

The invention of the alambic is thus attributed to the Arabs. The name is derived from the Arabic alanbiq, which in turn is composed of the Arabic article al and the Greek word ambikos for vessel or bowl. The "distillatio" was one of the basic processes of medieval alchemy. In the Hermetic Scriptures, the alambic, which was used to distill the elixir, the ether or the essence of a substance, was seen as a miniature cosmos in which the distilled substances ascend from earth to heaven.

The process of distillation was already used by the Egyptians and in ancient Greece for the production of essential oils. Originally, parts of plants were heated in an open kettle over which wool was spread out in several layers on a lattice. The rising vapors condensed in the wool layers and the water-oil mixture could now be pressed out and separated.

The Arabs refined this process with the invention of the alambic by attaching a helmet-like lid with an inner gutter for the condensate over the kettle. The steam rising from the heated liquid condensed on the walls of the attachment, the condensate collected in its lower edge and flowed off through the beak-like spout into a collecting vessel.

432 BC Chr.

Christian monks, including the Irish national saint St. Patrick, began to evangelize the land of the Celts. They brought the knowledge and equipment for making medicines and perfumes to Ireland and Scotland. According to legend, they were the first to distill a water-clear liquid. The knowledge necessary for this spread in the following centuries with the emergence of the monasteries, which at that time were the center of many settlements and operated their own inns.

Since the beginning, Scots and Irish have been arguing about who made the first whisk (e) y. Irish legend says that the patron saint of the island of St. Patrick brought the technology of distillation from the Mediterranean to Ireland. The Scots, on the other hand, take the view that St. Patrick was born in Dumbarton, Scotland and learned the technique here and therefore refer to themselves as the creators of whiskey. However, the term whiskey is of Gaelic origin and was introduced to Scotland by Irish immigrants.

The word whiskey is derived from the Gaelic word "Uisge Beatha", which in turn was derived from the Latin "Aqua Vitae". Aqua Vitae means "water of life" and the word Uisge Beatha became, as the English had a hard time with Gaelic, more or less the corruption "whisk (e) y". In honor of the deceased national saint Patrick, the memorial day "St. Patrick's Day" is held annually on March 17th.

384-322 BC Chr.

The simplest apparatus design of the distillation used the shaft as the basic form. If you closed it with a lid, as long as it remained cool, the vapors that developed when the contents of the tiger were heated condensed in the form of fine droplets, which were collected from time to time by wiping with a feather flag or the like.

The first detailed statements on the basic principles of distillation, evaporation and condensation, come from Aristotle. He described the distillation of sea water to make drinking water. It was thanks to a coincidence that more than 2500 years ago Greek navigators on the high seas extracted the fresh water they needed for survival from seawater by distillation.

The use of the so-called "wool condenser" in distillation was widespread in antiquity and known until the beginning of the modern era; a working method which already shows a certain progress compared to the one just described. This method of condensation of vapors on wool or similar materials with a large surface has been widely used to obtain potable fresh water from seawater.

AD 198-211

The Greek philosopher Alexandros of Phrodisias in Caria, who defended the teachings of Aristotle against Plantonism and Stoicism between 198 and 211 our time in Athens, said in his "Commentari in Aristotelem":

“Sailors boil sea water at sea and hang large sponges from the opening of the bronze vessel, which soak up what evaporates. If you squeeze it out of the sponge, you find it to be fresh water ”.

320 AD

The Chinese alchemist Ko Hung reports wine that has been fermented nine times. Possibly evidence of distillation.

500 AD

Taliesin was a historical poet and singer in Britain who sang about distillation. He is considered to be the author of the earliest surviving works in the Welsh language. It is believed that Taliesin held the position of bard at at least three British royal courts of his time. History counts him among the first known poets of the British Celts. In the Cymrian language, he probably wrote numerous poems that are collected in the Llyfr Taliesin ("The Book of Taliesin") from the early 14th century. These songs and poems are dedicated to historically verifiable kings, such as those of Powys and Elmet.

700 AD

Burners in Poland and Russia separate water from alcohol by freezing.


820 AD

In the early Middle Ages, the art of brewing beer was further developed, especially in the monasteries. A chronicle from the year mentions the Swiss monastery of St. Gallen as the first brewery under the management of monks. The monks brewed on a large scale, competing with the smaller bourgeois breweries. The friars planted hop gardens and constantly refined the taste of the beer. But they also worked hard to make a particularly nutritious and strong beer. That was important to them in order to be able to circumvent the strict restrictions of the meager fasting period, because "what is liquid does not break a fast", was the rule.

A legend says that the beer-brewing monks sent a sample of their special beer over the Alps to Rome as a precaution. The Pope should make sure that they were really allowed to drink this drink during Lent. The brew did not survive the long journey unscathed and came as a sour broth in front of the Pontifex Maximus. He saw in the dubious consumption of this broth a penance rather than a joy and gave his blessing. The papal release of course pleased the monks. The monastery beer business flourished and many monasteries became wealthy and famous for their art of brewing.

With the opening of international trade routes, the era of the great merchants, rich craftsmen and guilds began. Of course, beer brewers also benefited from the economic boom.

850 AD

The Arab scholar Rhazes first used alcohol for medicinal purposes.

900 AD

Start of perfume production by distillation in Jerez.

C 1000-1144

With the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the Moors brought the distillation process to France and Spain. Scholars from all over Europe are called together.