Israeli M50 155mm self-propelled howitzer
The M109 self-propelled howitzer was developed by the Americans and has been variously developed since its inception in the 1960s and exported to various other countries.
If someone should find different data, or new findings, or more photos, I would be very happy to receive an email to this effect: [email protected]
thanks to Charles Janier and Claude Balmefrezol of www.maquetland.comwho wrote this text and the research into it.
Special thanks to Clemens Niesner and www.41afdva.netwho provided me with the majority of the M109 photos!
You can't talk about the M109 without looking at its closest relatives. The closest relationship is with its older sister, the M108, while the M107 and M110 can at best be viewed as cousins, as they emerged from a different conception. Of course the 4 vehicles are based on the same concept as self-propelled artillery cannons, but the M107 and M110 are cannons on an open chassis, a bit like the AMX10F3, while the M108 and M109 have the cannons in a closed turret, like the AMX30 AUF1. In addition, the calibers are different 170 to 203mm for the M107 and M110 105 to 155mm for the M108 and M109. Chronological consideration of the weapon systems:
The construction of the weapon systems began at the height of the Cold War and even more specifically during the Korean War, when it was decided to replace the M44 with a 152mm caliber with a new system family. The US Army has specified specifications for the construction of two artillery systems on the same frame: one with a large and one with a smaller caliber. The light should be between 110 and 156mm and was later set to 105 and 155mm, as the US Army still had large stocks of ammunition of this caliber. In addition, NATO had to standardize weapons and ammunition. The M107 and M110 should then accommodate heavier calibers.
The manufacturer Cadillac was chosen for production and this was later taken over by Chrysler.
M108 and M109:
The standardization of these two vehicles involved from the beginning to use the same chassis and turret, which were taken from the T195 prototype with the 110mm cannon. To reduce weight, the armor was reduced to a minimum. Although they are not amphibious, they do have a certain ability to swim. They can also be transported in a C130.
The future M108 (T196) production was to start in 1959. Immediately there were problems with the suspension and the diesel engine that needed to be resolved. This delayed mass production until 1962. After the start of production, the US Army found that the caliber was too small and withdrew all produced units from the front, where they were only just being used in Vietnam (June 17, 1966 in Pleiku the 3 / 6th Artillery as the M109 in Xuan Loc with the 23rd Artillery Group in the 2 / 35th Artillery. A second M108 battalion, the 1 / 40th Artillery, was stationed in Dong Ha in October 1966.).
The M108 was decommissioned when it was sold to NATO allies such as Belgium (18 units), Brazil (72), Spain (48), Taiwan (117), where they were converted into T68 turrets and Turkey (26).
Another difference in the hull was the lack of ground spurs on the stern.
The first M109 was completed shortly after the M108 in October 1963 with a 155mm caliber (cannon 11126 A1). The first deployment took place in Vietnam in the Armored Cavalry Squadrons, which had 6 vehicles per company. In September 1966 there were 3 companies in the 11th Armored Cavary Squadron. 5 battalions with M109 and 2 battalions with M108 were stationed in Vietnam, which is 57 M109 and 36 M108. They were used in prepared positions where they could optimally use their 360 ° swiveling tower and were protected against the RPG of the Viet Cong. The US Marine Corps has used these vehicles in their 4 / 11th and 5/12 marine units. The M108 was withdrawn from Vietnam in mid-1970 and the M109 in late 1971.
Today the M109 is in use all over the world (USA, Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, Egypt, Korea, Israel, Taiwan, Iraq, Iran, etc.) and is still in production. More than 8000 vehicles were built, including 950 paladins.
The M109 received its baptism of fire in Vietnam, where its weaknesses were obvious: It should only be used in prepared terrain.
The first major military deployment took place in the Yom Kippur War, where the Israelis used it intensively after testing the M109 between 1967 and 1973. To compensate for the weak armor on the M109 while it was in motion, they were protected by Merkava tanks. Firepower was improved during this war, especially during Operation Galilee in 1982. In addition, new ammunition such as the RAP (Rocket Artillery Projectile) was introduced.
The M109 from 1962 was converted into the M109 A1 which was replaced by the M109 A2 in 1978 and the existing M109 A1 was converted into the M109 A3. The latest M109 model is the Paladin, which is used by the US forces in Iraq. In my opinion, the Paladin is the ultimate model of the M109.
The cannon is built into a rotating turret, which is placed at the rear end of the hull. The whole vehicle was made of aluminum dural. The driver sits in the front left in the tub and the engine is in the front right with a large rectangular fan. The Christie style chassis has 7 rollers per side with the drive wheels at the front and the tensioning and idler wheel at the rear.
The IR system of the first vehicles was improved with more powerful systems such as residual light amplifiers.
The tower is more or less rectangular with two hatches on the tower roof. The cannon has a caliber of 155mm and has been continuously improved. It now rises above the chassis by 1/3 and has a huge muzzle brake. A smoke extractor is located in the middle of the pipe. The tower also has two side doors. There is a battery on each front of the tower and a large optic on the tower.
Basic data of the M109:
Weight: 21-27 tons
Engine: V8 Detroit with 456PS
Gearbox: Alison X.I411
4 forward and 2 reverse gears
Top speed: 56 km / h
6 fog throw cups (3 on each side)
|M108||US Army, 285 pieces||M103 105mm caliber, crew: 5, 425 hp|
|M109 Adats||US Army||For firing ADATS missiles|
|M109||US Army, 3786 pieces||Production from 1962 to 1969|
M126 cannon, 28 shells
|M109 A1||US Army, 2741 pieces||Production from 1970|
M126 A1 cannon with an extended barrel
|M109 A2||US Army, 1501 pieces||Production from 1978 to 1985|
M185 cannon, 36 shells
|M109 A3||US Army||Revision of the A2 variant from 1980|
|M109 A4||US Army, 737 pieces||Installation of NBC protection equipment from 1984|
|M109 A5||US Army, 135 pieces||M284 cannon from 1993|
|M109 A6 paladin||US Army, 965 pieces||From 1999: M284A1 cannon, 39 shells, improved protection level, better engine and chassis. Improvement of the periscope, fire control computer and navigation system|
|M109 A7||US Army, 558 pieces||From 2013: completely redesigned hull including chassis, new 600 HP motor, 75kW Common Modular Power System, 43 projectiles carried, electrically operated attachment device for the ammunition, M2 MG with side shield|
|M992 FAASV||US Army||Ammunition tanks, 93 shells|
|M992 CPV||US Army||Command tank|
|M992 FDCV||US Army, 119 pieces||Fire control armor|
|M992 MAV||US Army||Recovery and repair vehicle|
|M992 MEV||US Army||Ambulance|
|M108||Spanish army, 34 pieces|
|M108T||Turkish Army, 26 pieces|
|M109 A2BE||Belgian Army, 127 pieces|
|M109 A4BE||Belgian Army, 64 pieces|
|VBCL||Belgian Army, 45 pieces||Conversion to a command vehicle|
|M109 CDN||Canadian Army|
|M109 A2CDN||Canadian Army|
|M109 A3CDN||Canadian Army|
|M109 A4||Canadian Army, 76 pieces|
|M109 PzHb66 / 74||Swiss Army||155mm L / 47 cannon|
|M109 PzHb88 / 95 Kawest||Swiss Army||155mm L / 47 cannon, modified loading device, 40 grenades, NAPOS, night vision devices, fire suppression system|
|M109 A1NL||Dutch army, 138 pieces|
|M109 A2||Dutch army|
|M109 A2 / 90||Dutch army|
|M109 A3NL||Dutch army, 91 pieces|
|M109 A3G||Norwegian Army, 126 pieces|
|M109 A3GN||Norwegian Army, 14 pieces|
|M109 A3GNM||Norwegian Army, 9 pieces|
|M109 G||German Army, 609 pieces||Launched from 1966, short barrel, new breech, new muzzle brake, smoke device, Detroit diesel engine with 420 HP, 28 grenades|
|M109 A3GEA1||German army||Introduction from 1986, equipped with AURORA, 34 grenades, ballistic hood for panoramic periscope, IFAB|
|M109 A3GEA2||German army||Introduction from 19 ??, additional storage boxes, German lighting, earth spurs removed and new storage boxes instead, new tower storage boxes, SEA on vehicle front, semi-automatic loader|
|M109 A3UK||Austrian Army|
|M109 A5OE||Austrian Army, 54 pieces|
|M109 8||Austrian Army||Computing center armor|
|M109 DK||Danish Army|
|M109 A3DK||Danish Army|
|M109 UK||British Army||Introduced in 1965, Clansman radios, British machine guns, British fire extinguishers, reel for telephone cables|
|M109 A1UK||British Army||1978 Installation of longer pipes|
|M109 A2UK||British Army||1979 new acquisition|
|M109 A3UK||British Army|
|M109 L||Italian Army, 280 pieces|
|M109 A2 L||Italian army|
|M109 Rochev||Israeli army, 60 pieces||45 rounds, a 12.7mm MG, 25 tons|
|M109 Doher||Israeli Army, 369 pieces||45 rounds, two 12.7mm machine guns, 28 tons|
|XT69||Taiwanese Army, 225 pieces||Open tower|
|XT69A1||Taiwanese Army||longer tube|
|M109 A5E||Spanish army||Renovation in 1995|
|M109 A2||Pakistani Army, 150 pieces|
|M109 A5||Pakistani Army|
|M109 A6||Chinese army, 225 pieces|
|K55||South Korean Army, 1040 pieces|
|K55 A1||South Korean Army, 1180 pieces||Digital computer, GPS, APU|
|M109 A2||Thai Army, 20 pieces|
|M109 A5||Thai Army, 20 pieces|
|SP122||Egyptian Army, 124 pieces||D30 cannon|
|M109 A2||Egyptian Army, 279 pieces|
|M109 A5||Egyptian Army, 201 pieces|
|M109 KAWEST||Chilean Army, 24 pieces||Ex-Swiss M109|
|M109 A3||United Arab Emirates Army, 85 pieces|
|M109 A1B||Saudi Arabian Army, 28 pieces|
|M109 A2||Portuguese Army, 6 pieces|
|M109 A5||Portuguese Army, 18 pieces|
|M109 A1||Peruvian Army, 12 pieces|
|M109 A1||Moroccan Army, 44 pieces|
|M109 A2||Moroccan Army, 84 pieces|
|M109 A5||Moroccan Army, 60 pieces|
|M109 A0||Libyan Army, 18 pieces|
|M109 A1B||Kuwaiti Army, 5 pieces|
|M109 A3||Kuwaiti Army, 23 pieces|
|M109 A1||Jordanian Army|
|M109 A2||Jordanian Army|
|M109 A1||Iranian Army, 390 pieces|
|M109 A1B||Greek Army, 33 pieces|
|M109 A2||Greek Army, 132 pieces|
|M109 A5||Greek Army, 12 pieces|
|M109 A3||Brazilian Army, 40 pieces||Ex-Belgian M109|
|M109 A1||Tunisian army, 11 pieces|
|M109 A1||Ethiopian Army, 17 pieces|
|M109 A0||Omani Army, 15 pieces|
|M109 A5||Philippine Army, 5 pieces|
If you have photos of M109 that are not yet shown here, you are welcome to send them to me by email. I will then install them here accordingly.
Thanks for photos to: Clemens Niesner, Pedro Laborda, Werner Kampfhofer, www.41afdva.net, www.mheaust.com.au, Noel Luff, Peter Müller (Historyfacts.biz), Kees van der Pols (http://tanxheaven.com), Andreas Koch , Elmar Glaubitz and Wikipedia
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