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History of Liverpool - History of Liverpool

Extension of the borders of Liverpool in 1835, 1895, 1902, 1905 and 1913

The History of Liverpool can be traced back to 1190 when the place was known as "Liuerpul", possibly meaning a pool or stream of muddy water, although other origins of the name have been suggested. The district was founded in 1207 by King John by royal charter and consisted of only seven streets in the shape of the letter "H". Liverpool remained a small settlement until trade with Ireland and the coastal regions of England and Wales was overtaken by trade with Africa and the West Indies, which included the slave trade. The world's first wet dock opened in 1715 and Liverpool's expansion into a major city continued over the next two centuries.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century there was a great deal of trade going through Liverpool. In 1830 the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was opened. The population grew rapidly, particularly with Irish migrants; In 1851 a quarter of the Irish city population was born. As the city grew, it became known as the "second city of the empire" and was also known as "New York of Europe". During World War II, the city was the center for planning the decisive Battle of the Atlantic and suffered lightning bolt that ranked second after London.

From the mid-20th century, Liverpool docks and traditional manufacturing industries declined significantly, and with the advent of containerization, the city's docks became obsolete. The unemployment rate in Liverpool rose to one of the highest in the UK. During the same period, beginning in the early 1960s, the city became internationally known for its culture, particularly as the center of the "Merseybeat" sound, which became synonymous with the Beatles. Liverpool's economy has recovered in recent years, partly due to tourism and significant investment in regeneration programs. The city was the European Capital of Culture in 2008.

origin of the name

The name comes from the old English liver which means thick or muddy, and pole , which means pool or stream, and is first used around 1190 as Liuerpul recorded . According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names "the original reference referred to a pool or tidal stream that is now filled and into which two streams drain". The adjective Liverpudlian first recorded in 1833.

Early history of the region

The ancient Neolithic Calder Stones are on display in the Harthill Greenhouses

In the Iron Age, the area around what is now Liverpool was sparsely populated, although there was a seaport in Meols. The Calderstones are believed to be part of an ancient stone circle, and there is archaeological evidence of indigenous Iron Age homesteads at several locations in Irby, Halewood, and Lathom. The region was inhabited by Brython tribes, the Setantii, as well as the nearby Cornovii and Deceangli. It came under Roman influence around AD 70, advancing north to quell the Druid resistance in Anglesey and to end the internal strife between the ruling family of the brigands. The main Roman presence was in the fortress and settlement at Chester. According to Ptolemy, which was Latin hydronym for the Mersey Seteia estuary which derives from the Setantii strain.

In 2007 evidence of Roman tile work was found in the Tarbock Island area of ​​the M62 and various Roman coins and trinkets were found in the Liverpool area.

After the withdrawal of the Roman troops, the land in the region continued to be cultivated by native British. The Hen Ogledd (Old North) was the subject of battles between four medieval kingdoms: the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia eventually defeated its rival Northumbria, as well as the Celtic kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys, with the Battle of Brunanburh possibly taking place in nearby Bromborough. The Walton Settlements ( Wealas do Meaning 'homestead of the Wealas') and Wallasey ( Wealas-eg Meaning 'island of the Wealas') were mentioned with at this time Wealas its old English for 'foreigner' with reference to the native Celtic and Romanized residents.

The pseudo-historical Fragmentary Annals of Ireland seem to record the Nordic settlement of the Wirral in their report of immigration from Ingimundr, near Chester. This Irish source establishes this settlement after the Vikings were driven from Dublin in 902 and an unsuccessful attempt to settle on Anglesey soon afterwards. After these setbacks, Ingimundr is said to have settled near Chester with the consent of Æthelflæd, the co-ruler of Mercia. The Norse settlers eventually joined another group of Viking settlers who peopled West Lancashire and at times had an independent Viking mini-state with Viking place names appearing all over Merseyside.

Origins of the city

W. Ferguson Irvine's conjecture map of the original 7 streets of Liverpool
West Derby Castle showed where it used to be. (around 1200)

Although a small moth and castle had been built earlier in West Derby the origins of the city of Liverpool usually date from August 28, 1207 when the patent was issued by King John advertising the establishment of a new parish, "Livpul", and inviting settlers to come and settle there. It is believed that the king wanted a port in the district that was free from the control of the Earl of Chester. It was originally used as a dispatch point for troops sent to Ireland shortly after Liverpool Castle was built around 1235 and removed in 1726. St. Nicholas Church was built in 1257, originally as a chapel in the parish of Walton-on-the-Hill. In the 13th century, Liverpool was an area of ​​only seven streets.

With the formation of a market on the site of what would later become the town hall, Liverpool established itself as a small fishing and farming community that was administered by citizens and a little later by a mayor. There were probably some coastal businesses around the Irish Sea, and there were occasional ferries across the Mersey. However, for several centuries it remained a small and relatively unimportant settlement with no more than 1,000 inhabitants in the mid-14th century. At the beginning of the fifteenth century a period of economic decline set in and the nobility of the county increased their power over the city. The Stanley family fortified their home by building the Stanley Tower on Water Street. This sparked a feud between the Stanley and Molyneux families, as the Molyneux family had permission to live in nearby Liverpool Castle at the time. The resulting rivalry nearly led to rioting in 1424. By the mid-16th century, Liverpool's population had dropped to about 600, and the port was considered a subordinate of Chester until the 1650s.

Elizabethan Era and Civil War

In 1571 the Liverpoolers sent a memorial to Queen Elizabeth praying for relief from a subsidy they found unsustainable, calling themselves " Her Majesty's poor dilapidated city of Liverpool At some point towards the end of that reign, Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby, stayed at his home, the Tower, en route to the Isle of Man; at which the Company built a beautiful hall or seat for him in the church where he honored her several times with his presence.

Towards the end of the 16th century, the city began to take advantage of the economic revitalization and silting of the River Dee to attract trade mainly from Chester to Ireland, the Isle of Man and elsewhere. In 1626, King Charles I gave the city a new and improved charter.

In June 1644 Prince Rupert of the Rhine came to Liverpool with 10,000 men to conquer Liverpool Castle. Then there was a sixteen day siege of Liverpool. In order to defend the city, the parliamentary army dug a huge moat in large parts of the city center. Prince Rupert eventually seized the castle to be evicted again to seek refuge in the Everton neighborhood. Hence the tower found on what is now the Everton Football Club badge is called Prince Rupert's Tower.

Transatlantic Trade

The first cargo from America was registered in 1648. The city's development accelerated after the restoration of 1660 with the growth of trade with America and the West Indies. From that time on, the rapid progress of population and trade can be followed until Liverpool became Britain's second metropolis. First, cloth, coal and salt from Lancashire and Cheshire were exchanged for sugar and tobacco. The city's first sugar refinery was established in 1667.

In 1699, Liverpool was made parish on its own by law of parliament, separated from Walton-on-the-Hill, with two parish churches. At the same time it was given a customs authority separate from Chester.

Slave trade, privatization

In 1699 the first known slave ship left, the name and number of victims of which were unknown. The last recorded slave voyage from Liverpool was in 1862 of a total of 4,973 such voyages. One example is that Liverpool Merchant who sailed for Africa on October 3, 1699, the same year Liverpool was granted independent parish status. It came to Barbados with a "cargo" of 220 Africans and returned to Liverpool on September 18, 1700. By the end of the 18th century, 40% of the world's and 80% of Britain's activity in the Atlantic slave trade was in slave ships sailing from the docks in Liverpool. In the peak year of 1799, ships from Liverpool carried over 45,000 slaves from Africa.

Liverpool merchants such as Foster Cunliffe and his apprentice William Bulkeley co-owned travel for slaves, for Greenland whaling, and, especially during the Seven Years' War, privateering. They also traded in tobacco and other goods. James Stonehouse recalled the furnishings on his father's ship: "I was taken aboard many times. In their hold there were long shelves with eye bolts in rows in several places. I ran along those shelves, not thinking about the horrific scenes that would be staged, the fact is that [they] are for the African Handel, in which she made many successful journeys, but was converted into a buccaneer in 1779. My father might not be thought very respectable at present, but I assure you that he was so respected at the time. So many people in Liverpool were ... "tarred with the same brush" that these professions ... were not viewed as derogatory at all. "

Huge profits turned Liverpool into one of the greatest cities in Great Britain. Liverpool became a financial center rivaling Bristol, another slave port, only surpassed by London. The world's first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool and completed in 1715 with a capacity of 100 ships. Commercial growth led to the opening of the United States Consulate in Liverpool in 1790, its first consulate around the world, and many other social changes: "As a little boy I saw it was only ranked third. Great seaport. Its streets winding and narrow, with sidewalks in the middle, edged with mud or dirt during the season. The sidewalks are rough with sharp stones that make it miserable made to walk on them. I have seen houses with little low spaces, enough for the dwelling of the merchant or wealthy merchant. The former lived contentedly on Water Street or Oldhall Street, while the latter had no idea his little business to leave with his bay or square window to look after himself at night ... The most enlightened of its inhabitants could not boast of much intelligence at this time, while the lower orders were immersed in the deepest vice, ignorance and brutality ... so barbaric were they in their amusements, bullbaiting and cock and dog fights, and combative encounters. What To Expect When We Didn't Open A Book For The Young ... drew our wealth from two great sources - the slave trade and privatization ... raving about prizes-washed seafarers, residents in general were unlikely to read a book would take tone from what they saw daily and deliberated quietly? ...

As a man, I have seen the old narrow streets widen - the old houses crumble ... and the influence of the sea subsided before any improvement, education, and enlightenment of any kind. The three-bottle and punch drinker is now the exception and not the rule of the table. "

Liverpool Politicians and Slavery

Richard Pennant was freely returned as one of two MPs for Liverpool in a by-election in 1767. He then won two consecutive parliamentary elections in 1768 and 1774. He was defeated in the 1780 general election when Bamber Gascoyne (the younger) was brought back instead. Pennant received an Irish nobility and became Lord Penrhyn. In the general election of 1784 he was brought back as MP for Liverpool. Between 1784 and 1790, when he resigned and was replaced by Banastre Tarleton, Penrhyn is said to have made more than thirty speeches, all in vigorous defense of Liverpool trade or the West Indies. From 1788 to 1807 he was also chairman of the London Society of West India Planters and Merchants. In May 1788, Penrhyn and Bamber Gascoyne (the younger) were the only two members who dared to justify the slave trade. Penrhyn spoke frequently in defense of the slave trade "to deny the facts presented and to appeal against their condolences to the prudence and politics of the House". On May 12, 1789, he informed the House that if they passed the abolition vote they would in fact hit seventy million properties, ruin the colonies, and give up dominion of the sea by destroying a vital nursery by sailors with a single look ' . Bamber Gascoyne was an MP in Liverpool until 1796.

Banastre Tarleton succeeded Lord Penrhyn as MP in 1790 and remained as MP for Liverpool for up to a year until 1812. He was a frequent speaker in the House of Commons, debating "spirited and lively". In 1791 he visited Paris and was expelled from the Jacobin Club for his consistent and outspoken defense of the slave trade. His rhetoric was eclectic; In 1794 he turned down William Wilberforce's offer to veto the export of slaves abroad as an attack on private property. In 1796 he thwarted another offer to abolish the slave trade and thwarted the bill for the slave transport. In 1803, his opposition to the abolition of the slave trade was based on the danger of Napoleon, adding in 1805 that Liverpool's growth and prosperity depended on trade. Until 1806, he believed that the United States would benefit more from the abolition, and was "sorry to see that the ministers were much more active in violating the country's trade than they were in defending it."

An abolitionist sentiment was even expressed in Liverpool. The Liverpool-born politician William Roscoe was a member for Liverpool from 1806-1807 and was able to vote for the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. This legislation imposed fines that did little to deter participants in the slave trade. 29 known slave voyages left Liverpool in 1808, but none in 1809, two in 1810 and two more in 1811. In 1811, Henry Brougham introduced the Slave Trade Felony Act 1811, which punished slave traders with effective penalties, including promotion, for up to fourteen years. Although the trade continued illegally, only one more slave journey from Liverpool is recorded in 1862. Many traders managed to ignore the laws and continued to engage in the slave trade and supply the markets that remained open in Brazil and elsewhere.

Slavery in British colonies was finally abolished in 1833 and replaced by "apprenticeship posts" which lasted until 1838 when they were also abolished.

Industrial revolution and commercial expansion

19th century liverpoolCentury
The dock system in 1832

The city's international trade grew based on slaves in a wide variety of goods - especially cotton, for which the city became the premier world market, supplying the textile mills of Manchester and Lancashire.

During the eighteenth century, the city's population grew from about 6,000 to 80,000, and land and water communications with the hinterland and other northern cities steadily improved. Liverpool was first connected by a canal to Manchester in 1721, to the St Helens coal field in 1755 and to Leeds in 1816. In 1830, Liverpool established the world's first intercity rail link to another city, Manchester, via Liverpool and Manchester Railway and the maiden voyage of Stephenson's The Rocket train.

Liverpool was so important that there were a number of world firsts, including the world's first fully electric overhead line, the Liverpool Overhead Railway, which opened in 1893 and which predated this in both New York City and Chicago.

The built-up area grew rapidly from the 18th century. The Bluecoat Hospital for poor children opened in 1718. When the castle was demolished in 1726, only St. Nicholas Church and the historic street plan - with Castle Street as the backbone of the original settlement and Paradise Street along the pool line - opened. stayed to reflect the city's medieval origins. City Hall, with a covered merchants' stock exchange designed by architect John Wood, was built in 1754. The first office buildings including the grain exchange were opened around 1810.

Liverpool's trade and population continued to grow rapidly throughout the 19th century. The growth of the cotton trade went hand in hand with the development of strong trade ties with India and the Far East after the Honorable East India Company's monopoly ended in 1813. About 0.57 km 2 new docks with 16 miles km) quay space, were opened between 1824 and 1858.

Map of Liverpool from 1880

In the 1840s, Irish migrants arrived by the thousands due to the great famine of 1845–1849. Almost 300,000 arrived in 1847 alone, and by 1851 approximately 25% of the city was born in Ireland. Irish influence is reflected in the unique place Liverpool occupies in the political history of Great Britain and Ireland. It is the only place outside Ireland where a member of the Irish Parliamentary Party is elected to the UK Parliament in Westminster. TP O'Connor represented the constituency of Liverpool Scotland from 1885 to 1929.

As the city became a leading port of the British Empire, a number of important buildings were erected, including St. George's Hall (1854) and Lime Street Station. The Grand National Obstacle Race was first run in Aintree in 1837.

Between 1851 and 1911, Liverpool drew at least 20,000 people from Wales every decade, which peaked in the 1880s and Welsh culture flourished. One of the first Welsh language magazines to Yr Amserau , was founded in Liverpool by William Rees (Gwilym Hiraethog) and there were over 50 Welsh chapels in the city.

Early regular transatlantic passenger traffic in Liverpool began in the 1810s with American lines such as the Black Ball Line (transatlantic package) and Collins Line, and in the 1840s with the Liverpool-based companies' Cunard Line and White Star Line, established in the 19th century Century.

When the American Civil War broke out, Liverpool became a hotbed of intrigue. Given the crucial place cotton occupies in the city's economy, Liverpool was "the most confederate place in the world outside of the confederation itself," according to historian Sven Beckert, during the American Civil War. The ship of the Confederate Navy, the CSS Alabama , was built in Birkenhead on the Mersey and the CSS Shenandoah surrendered there (the final surrender and the end of the war).

Liverpool was granted city status in 1880 and its university was established the following year. By 1901, the city's population had grown to over 700,000 and its borders had expanded to include Kirkdale, Everton, Walton, West Derby (1835 and 1895), Toxteth, and Garston.

20th century

1900-1938

By 1957, the once large tram system in Liverpool had been reduced to just two routes, 6A to Bowring Park and 40 to Page Moss Avenue. These routes were finally closed in September. Everyone was in a rundown and rundown state, sad to see. Here is a 'Baby Grand' 4 wheel tram on the Bowring Park route.
Liverpool Corporation tram lines in 1947
Queens Drive, Walton, Liverpool, pictured in 1909

In the first half of the 20th century, Liverpool continued to expand, attracting immigrants from Europe. In 1903 an international exhibition was held in Edge Lane. In 1904 construction began on the Anglican Cathedral, and in 1916 the three Pier Head buildings, including the Liver Building, were completed. This period was the height of Liverpool's economic success when it considered itself the "second city" of the British Empire. The formerly separate hamlets of Allerton, Childwall, Kleiner Woolton and Much Woolton were added in 1913, and the parish Speke added by the local authority in 1932, with large housing developments mostly built over the next few years.

Adolf Hitler's half-brother Alois and his Irish sister-in-law Bridget Dowling are known to have lived on Upper Stanhope Street in the 1910s. Bridget's alleged memoir, which surfaced in the 1970s, stated that Adolf stayed with them between 1912 and 1913, although this is very controversial as many believe the memoir to be a fake.

The maiden voyage of the Titanic originally scheduled to depart from Liverpool in April 1912, as Liverpool was the port of registration and home to the owners of the White Star Line. However, it was changed to depart from Southampton instead.

Aside from the large Irish community in Liverpool, there were other areas of cultural diversity. The area of ​​Gerard, Hunter, Lionel and Whale Streets on Scotland Road was considered to be Little Italy called . Inspired by an ancient Venetian custom, Liverpool was married to the sea in September 1928. Liverpool was also home to a large Welsh population and was sometimes referred to as the capital of North Wales. Eisteddfods were held in Liverpool in 1884, 1900 and 1929. The city's population peaked at over 850,000 in the 1930s.

Economic change began in the first half of the 20th century when the decline in global demand for the Northwest's traditional export goods contributed to the city's stagnation and decline. Unemployment was well above the national average as early as the 1920s, and the city became known nationwide for its occasionally violent religious sectarianism.

When Everton FC won the Football League First Division title in 1928, center-forward Dixie Dean scored a Football League record of 60 goals that same season.

The Great Depression hit Liverpool hard in the early 1930s when thousands of people in the city became unemployed. This has been combated by a large number of homes, mostly built by the local council, creating jobs, mainly in the construction, plumbing and electrical industries. About 15 percent of the city's population was relocated in the 1920s and 1930s. More than 30,000 new meetinghouses were built to replace the city's slums.

The increasing popularity of motor vehicles caused congestion in the city, and in 1934 the city received its first direct road link with the Wirral Peninsula when the first road in the Mersey Tunnel was opened. The Queensway, as the new tunnel was called, connected Liverpool to Birkenhead on the other side of the Mersey. Many other buildings were built in the city in the 1930s to alleviate the Depression and became local landmarks. Lots of buildings with American-inspired architecture.

1939-1945: Second World War

During World War II, Liverpool was the control center for the Battle of the Atlantic. There were eighty air raids on Merseyside, with a particularly concentrated series of raids in May 1941 that disrupted operations at the docks for almost a week. About 2,500 people were killed, nearly half of the homes in the metropolitan area were damaged, and about 11,000 were completely destroyed. Over 70,000 people were left homeless. John Lennon, one of the founding members of the Beatles, was born on October 9, 1940 during an air raid in Liverpool. All four members of the Beatles were born in the city during the war and became famous in the early 1960s.

Thousands of Chinese sailors were enlisted to aid the war effort and came to Liverpool, many of whom developed relationships with local women. After the war, however, most of them were forcibly returned.

1946-1979

Significant renovations took place after the war, including massive housing developments and Seaforth Dock, the largest dock project in Britain. However, the city has suffered from the loss of numerous employers since the 1950s. By 1985 the population had fallen to 460,000. Declines in production and port activity have hit the city particularly hard. In 1956 the Liverpool Overhead Railway and its fourteen stations were closed and demolished, and in 1957 the Liverpool Corporation trams closed after the last tram ran in Liverpool.

In 1955, the Labor Party, led by Jack and Bessie Braddock, came to power on the city council for the first time.

In 1956, a private bill sponsored by Liverpool City Council was brought before Parliament to develop a water reservoir from the Tryweryn Valley. Development would include the flooding of Capel Celyn. Gaining authority through a law of Parliament would mean that Liverpool City Council would not need building permits from the relevant Welsh local authorities.

In the 1960s, Liverpool became a center of youth culture. The city produced the unmistakable Merseybeat sound, especially the Beatles and the Liverpool poets.

From the 1970s, the Liverpool docks and traditional manufacturing industries continued to decline sharply. The advent of containerization meant that Liverpool's docks were no longer a major local employer. Liverpool Central High Level train station was closed in 1972, as were the Waterloo, Victoria and Wapping tunnels. In 1974 Liverpool became a metropolitan district within the newly created urban county of Merseyside. In 1977 Liverpool Exchange station closed, and in 1979 the North Liverpool Extension Line also closed. In 1972 the Canadian Pacific Unit CP Ships was the last transatlantic line to operate from Liverpool.

1980s

In the 1980s, Liverpool's fortunes plummeted to its post-war lowest point. Although the 1970s, along with the rest of Britain, brought economic difficulties and a steady rise in unemployment, the situation in Liverpool worsened in the early 1980s with endless factory closures and some of the highest unemployment rates in Britain. An average of 12,000 people left the city each year, and 15% of their land was empty or dilapidated.

In July 1981 the infamous Toxteth Riots took place where, for the first time in the UK outside Northern Ireland, tear gas was used by police against civilians. In the same year, the Tate and Lyle sugar factory, which used to be a mainstay of the city's manufacturing economy, closed. By then, the docks had already shrunk dramatically, depriving the city of yet another important source of employment.

Until 1985, unemployment in Liverpool was over 20%, about twice the national average. It was around this time that the scourge of heroin, always present in port cities, began to rise.

The Liverpool City Council was founded in the 1980s by the far right militant group under the factual Dominated by Derek Hatton leadership (although Hatton was formally only Vice Chairman). The city council went into debt when the city council ran a campaign to prevent the central government from cutting funding for local services. Ultimately, this resulted in 49 city councilors being removed from office by the district auditor for refusing to cut the budget, make up the deficit and force the city council into virtual bankruptcy. Hatton's behavior and militant tendency had even come under the control of Labor Party leader Neil Kinnock, who wanted to remove the militant tendency from the party in order to make it eligible again. At the same time, Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government in Liverpool was deeply unpopular, as the Conservative vote in most local and general elections in the 1980s was consistently low.

On April 15, 1989, 96 Liverpool FC fans (mainly from Merseyside and neighboring parts of Cheshire and Lancashire) died in the Hillsborough disaster at an FA Cup semi-final in Sheffield. This had a traumatic impact on people across the country, particularly in and around Liverpool, and resulted in legislative changes in the way football fans have been accommodated since then, including the mandatory all-seater stadiums in all of England's leading clubs from the mid-1990s Years. Many clubs removed their fencing almost immediately after the tragedy, and such action on football fields in England has long been banned.

This created a strong feeling in Liverpool in particular, as it was widely reported in the media that Liverpool fans were to blame. The sun sparked particular controversy for having published these allegations in an article four days after the disaster. Sales of the newspaper in Liverpool plummeted and many newsagents refused to store it. Three decades later, many people in the city still refuse to The Sun to buy, and some newsagents still refuse to sell it. Other media including Daily Star and Daily Mail, printed similar stories in which the behavior of Liverpool fans was said to have been a major factor in the tragedy.

There was further controversy over the March 1991 tragedy when a death sentence was recorded for the 95 people who died in Hillsborough (the 96th victim only died in 1993), much to the horror of the bereaved in the hope that a verdict of unlawful killing or a open judgment is recorded; and for criminal charges against the South Yorkshire Police. That verdict was eventually replaced by an unlawful killing on re-examination 25 years later.

It has since become clear that the South Yorkshire Police made a number of mistakes in the game, despite the fact that the executive responsible for the event retired soon after.

Liverpool FC's success was a compensation for the city's economic misfortune in the 1970s and 1980s. Founded in 1892, the club had won five league titles by 1947, but saw its first consistent success between 1959 and 1974 under the direction of Bill Shankly, winning three other league titles as well as the club's first two FA Cups and its first European trophy in the form of the UEFA Cup. After Shankly's resignation, the club dominated English football for almost 20 years. By 1990 Liverpool FC had won more major trophies than any other English club - a total of 18 league titles, four FA Cups, four Football League Cups, four European Cups and two UEFA Cups. The club's iconic red jersey was worn by some of the biggest names in British sport of the 1970s and 1980s, including Kevin Keegan, Kenny Dalglish (who also acted as manager from 1985 to 1991 and 2011 to 2012), Phil Neal, Ian Rush , Ian Callaghan and John Barnes. The club has since won its first Premier League title and three more FA Cups, three League Cups, a UEFA Cup and two European Cups, and has created a new wave of stars including Robbie Fowler, Michael Owen, Jamie Carragher and Steven Gerrard.

Everton FC, the city's original senior football club, also enjoyed success in the 1970s and 1980s. The club had had consistent success in the interwar years and again in the 1960s, but after winning the league title in 1970, they went without a major trophy for 14 years despite retaining the top division spot that had belonged to them since then 1954. Then, in 1984, Everton won the FA Cup under the direction of Howard Kendall, who was once a player at the club. In 1985 he won the championship title, along with the club's first European trophy - the European Cup Winners' Cup. By 1986, the city's two clubs were firmly established as the leading club teams in England when Liverpool ended the league champions and Everton runners-up. The two clubs also met for the FA Cup final, which Liverpool won 3-1. The Everton team in the mid-1980s comprised some of the top-rated footballers in the English League at the time; Goalkeeper Neville Southall, winger Trevor Steven, strikers Graeme Sharp and Andy Gray and Gray's successor Gary Lineker.

Everton have had an unbroken run in the top division of English football since 1954, though their only major trophy since the 1987 league title came in 1995 when they won the FA Cup. Everton added another league title in 1987, with Liverpool finishing second.

Another All-Merseyside FA Cup final in 1989 saw Liverpool beat Everton 3-2. That match was played just five weeks after the Hillsborough disaster.

1990s

A similar national outpouring of grief and shock to that of the Hillsborough disaster occurred in February 1993 when James Bulger was killed by two ten-year-old boys, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson. The two boys were found guilty of the murder later in the year of the murder and sentenced to unlimited imprisonment.

In the 1990s, the city that had started in the 1980s was further regenerated. This will happen in 2020.

Recent history

A general economic and civic revival has been underway since the mid-1990s. Liverpool's economy has grown faster than the national average and the crime rate has remained lower than most other metropolitan areas in England and Wales. In Merseyside, crime per capita is on par with the national average - unusually low for an urban area.

In recent years, the city has been highlighting its cultural attractions. Tourism has become a major factor in Liverpool's economy, benefiting from the popularity of the Beatles and other Merseybeat-era groups. In June 2003, Liverpool won the right to be named European Capital of Culture in 2008, beating other British cities such as Newcastle and Birmingham for the coveted title. The city's riverside was also declared a World Heritage Site in 2004.

In October 2005, Liverpool City Council publicly apologized for the flooding of Capel Celyn in Wales.

In October 2007, Liverpool and London resumed wildcat strikes following the end of official CWU strikes that had raged since June in a dispute with the Royal Mail over pay, pensions and working hours.

See also

References

further reading

  • Belchem, John (2007). Irish, Catholic, and Scouse: The History of the Liverpool Irish, 1800-1939 . Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

External links