What is cross-category special education

Project-oriented teaching - a personal way

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1 Intercantonal University for Curative Education Zurich Department 1 School Curative Education Study course Scientific work: Master's thesis Submitted by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch Supervisor: lic. phil. Barbara Baumann Submission date: until week 2/2010 Project-oriented teaching - a personal path Image: The teacher and the personal path to the implementation of project-oriented teaching Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch

2 Abstract Individualization is an attitude. If the teacher also has certain personality traits, then it is very likely that they will implement project-oriented lessons. How do changes in the teaching behavior of the teacher take place using the example of project teaching? This question was researched in the present master’s thesis using the Mayring qualitative social research method. The comparative case study with the survey method problem-centered interview and the evaluation method qualitative content analysis according to Mayring was the strategy. Changes in teaching are triggered by personal dissatisfaction, memories of positive experiences and role models from childhood, as well as the strong need to transform one's own content-oriented didactics into an action-oriented learning field through further training. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch

3 Contents 1 THANKS PERSONAL CURRENT SITUATION AND INTEREST PROBLEM DEFINITION, NOTES AND GROUNDS OBJECTIVE CONDITIONS OF RESEARCH RESEARCH METHOD AND STRATEGY THEORY PROJECT EDUCATION, PROJECT METHOD THE ORIGIN OF TERMS PROJECT AND METHOD OF TERMS DEFINITION OF TERMS project method project teaching project oriented teaching WHERE DOES THE PROJECT METHOD? REFORM EDUCATIONAL CURRENTS Reform pedagogy in Germany Pragmatism in the USA Work school concepts in Russia From the 1960s and 1970s to the present day THE CONNECTION TO TODAY'S CONCEPTS THE PROJECT WORK ACCORDING TO ACHERMANN Achermann's four steps Project implementation Project teaching according to Gudjon's methodical implementation Completion, performance appraisal, evaluation THE PROJECT METHOD ACCORDING TO FREY The curriculum process Meaning of the four elements: The project sequence The seven components CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE PROJECT LESSON THE PROJECT LESSON AND SOCIAL, LEARNING PSYCHOLOGICAL, EDUCATIONAL PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF GRADUARY PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF GRADUARY PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF PUBLIC AND EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF MASTERS OF HUMAN AND PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 3

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5 14.1 HYPOTHESES FURTHER QUESTIONS CONCLUSION FINAL WORD DIRECTORY: LITERATURE DIRECTORY: DIRECTORY INTERNET LIST OF FIGURES Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch Page 5

6 1 Thanks It is important to us to personally mention all people who have supported us during the creation of this work. Barbara Baumann has always accompanied us, committed and competent. We greatly appreciated your help and support and thank you very much for it. The two scientific employees Mireille Audeoud and Christina Seewald passed on valuable information to us in the research workshops. They stood by us in an advisory capacity and helped us with anything that was unclear. Many thanks to you too. We would like to thank all five interview partners for their help and willingness to provide information about their personal and professional careers. We would like to express our special thanks to our families. With their support and consideration, they have contributed significantly to the development of this work. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 6

7 2 Personal starting point and interest Project teaching - or project-oriented teaching 1 - is a special form of teaching. Both authors made this experience as part of their training during the teaching project (PU). Working at different levels, namely the first class and the small class, they found out how well the project-oriented lessons proved to be in spite of the extremely different fields of practice. This became the starting point of their work. He gave the impetus to look for possible connections between the teacher and their development path up to the implementation of the project-oriented teaching. The starting point was the conviction of many teachers that individualized lessons cannot be implemented in large classes. Both students had recognized through their own experience that its implementation does not depend on the class size. 3 Problem definition, explanation and justification Project teaching is a well-known form of teaching and learning for many teachers and in many schools. This open form of learning takes into account the interests and learning needs of all students. The project lessons contribute to the meaning of school learning content and have a motivating effect. It promotes the self-efficacy, independence and social skills of the learner 2. Nevertheless, it is not implemented regularly by many teachers or reduced as a project week to a special week with the aim of manufacturing a product. In this thesis, starting with the teacher, it should be examined which conditions of success are required for the implementation and regular application of project teaching. This research work is intended to provide insight into the conditions for success. Teachers can be supported more specifically with this knowledge. If, as a result, project teaching is increasingly used by teachers, the goal of integrative teaching, integrative school, moves closer. Taking into account the individual learning needs and learning conditions of the children or adolescents also means responding to an important curative educational concern. 4 Question The two authors assume that the teacher needs motivation, individual development and a personal path for the didactic implementation. The following assumptions exist: Individualizing is an attitude. It therefore takes changes in attitudes, actions and the social environment so that this development can be initiated and this form of individualized teaching can arise. A certain moment, a situation in the biography of a teacher presumably triggers this development. For the implementation, the teacher needs several development steps. The following research question arises based on these assumptions: 7 1 Terminological clarification see page 8. 2 See project concepts Achermann, Gudjons and Frey, pages 15 to 27. Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch, page 7

8 Main question: How do changes in the teaching behavior of the teacher take place using the example of project teaching? Sub-question 1: Which factors in your biography contributed to project teaching or project-oriented work? Subquestion 2: What moment or what triggered the change towards project teaching or project-oriented work? Sub-question 3: What were - from this triggering moment on - the further development steps up to project teaching or project-oriented work? 5 Framework conditions of the research work This master thesis thesis was created over the course of one semester. The authors were supported and advised by a lecturer. Two research assistants imparted additional knowledge in the research workshop on the research procedure and helped with open questions. Five test persons who regularly work with project lessons were interviewed between July and August. The authors divided the two chapters theory and research. They then brought their findings together and worked together on the following chapters. In terms of content and form, the work corresponds to the criteria for scientific work at the University of Curative Education in Zurich. 6 Research method and strategy This empirical research work follows the qualitative research approach. The method is qualitative social research according to Mayring. The comparative case study is used as a corresponding qualitative strategy. Five test persons were questioned using the data collection method problem-centered interview according to Mayring. The data was then processed using the literal transcription technique. The qualitative content analysis was carried out from this data and was finally linked to the theory in the chapter on interpretation. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 8

9 7 Theory 7.1 Project teaching, project method This chapter is intended to clarify the terms project method, project teaching, project work and project-oriented teaching in their past and present meaning. The development of the method as well as the content, philosophical and pedagogical aspects of their historical models and their decisive influence on today's form are shown. The three examples, project work according to Achermann, project teaching according to Gudjons and project method according to Frey, are presented in their sequence and characteristics and shown as current project forms. 7.2 The origin of the terms project and method According to the etymological Duden (1989, p.553), the term project goes back to the Latin root word proiectum or, according to Laubis, to the Latin root word pro-icetum (1997, p.15), which leads back to the front Thrown means. In the German language, the word project describes a plan, draft or a company. The term is used in many areas such as research, technology, business and education. In German, school pedagogy uses the terms project method, project lesson or project-oriented lesson. The word method comes from the ancient Greek µέϑοϑοϛ. Methodologically expresses the way of the investigation, or in other words, what one undertakes or has undertaken to approach. (Frey, 2007, p.14). If one follows this origin, then project method means making a plan or draft, making it and finally tackling it. 7.3 Terminological definition of the expressions The terminological definition of the terms is based on the content descriptions of Achermann, Gudjons and Frey project method Frey's description is: The term means the path that teachers and learners take when they want to educate themselves. The project group carries out a project. This is the concrete learning company that a group negotiates, plans, tackles, perseveres or even breaks off (2007, p.15). Frey always uses the term project method project teaching Achermann's definition is: project teaching, as a form of open teaching (methodological openness, thematic openness, institutional openness) opens up a wide field for a learning group. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 9

10 these possibilities are limited during the project work for the individual child [for the individual adolescent, note d. Ed.] Through the demands and needs of the entire learning community, which in turn is part of a very specific school and society. (1995, p.106) Achermann also describes project teaching as project work, but means the same thing. Gudjons also calls his method project teaching. The process is similar to Achermann's method, but the content and didactic aspects are described in much more detail. 3 Frey and Gudjons refer to the colloquially often used terms project teaching, project work or project method and explain that in most cases it is project-oriented teaching.Project-oriented teaching If only a few elements of the project method, project teaching, project work are fulfilled, one speaks of project-oriented teaching Lessons (Frey, 2007, p.15 or Gudjons, 2008, p.75). 7.4 Where does the project method come from? The history of the project method had a significant influence on the project concepts used today. It is shown for a better understanding of today's content and concepts. The term progetti first appeared in Italy in the 16th century and projets in France at the beginning of the 18th century at the Academie Royal d`architecture. With the beginning of industrial and scientific development, universities and schools included architecture and technology in their canon of subjects and in the course of these changes created space for a first model of the project method. Before this first model, important educators such as Comenius (), Rousseau (), Pestalozzi () and Froebel () wrote down important idea sketches in their works and thus provided the foundation stones for the project method. Your ideas are of great importance for today's project method forms. Comenius 4 observed that the individual, while teaching in a larger group, enters a large field of stimulation. Rousseau 5 called for teachers and educators to be guided by the learning needs of students. Pestalozzi discovered two things: firstly, how important the social forms of life are for the educational community and, secondly, that interactions between social changes 10 3 See descriptions of the individual methods from page 17 4 Knoop and Schwaab (1999, p. 34) use their pedagogical portraits to show different epochs the problems of today's educational sciences, which were carried over to us from past times. 5 Knoop and Schwaab (1999, p.48) Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 10

11 and educational attempted solutions. The following quote emphasizes the importance and topicality of his ideas in relation to the project method 6: that the Stans letter can by no means be regarded as a document of historical interest only. Rather, it contains central questions and approaches worth discussing as well as solutions in need of discussion for the task of moral and social education as it presents itself to us today: as education for humanity, for honest communication and interaction, for the responsible ability of young people to act based on experience and insight in the field of interpersonal relationships . (Pestalozzi quoted from Klafki, 1997, p.39) Froebel 7 recognized that work, teaching and play belong together. This creates insight, joy and energy. He drew attention to the unity and interaction between doing and thinking, representing and recognizing, ability and knowing as well as doing and representing yourself. In addition to these findings, there was also the influence of reform pedagogical currents. The term project, which was originally only linked to the technical area, lost its content-related connection. The definition of project, plan, design expanded and still existed at the end of the learning process, regardless of concrete or abstract results. Gudjons writes: Frey writes: There are two forms of project understanding: one more socially conservative and technological and one more socially reformist and political. It is extremely interesting to see that both orientations - even if not always consciously - determine the discussion to this day. The social reform variant expressly understood learning by doing, and thus learning on the craft project, as deeply democratic, because a) it gave the practically gifted young people the chance of economic advancement and because b) the characteristics of pupil, reality and product orientation, i.e. independent thinking and cooperative action were finally established. (2008, p.73). With the increasing professionalization and schooling of the skilled trades, it spread [the project method, editor's note. V.] spread across the continent and into the United States. The project method is thus part of an international movement, but it takes on different contents and forms depending on the ideas and needs of its representatives. (2007, p.31) This international movement consisted of the four reform pedagogical currents. Their influence on the current form of the project method, the project teaching, is shown in the next chapter. Pestalozzi about his institution in Stans. With an interpretation and a new introduction by Wolfgang Klafki (1997, p.39). 7 Knoop and Schwaab (1999, S) Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 11

7.5 Reform pedagogical currents Reform pedagogy in Germany Reform pedagogy in Germany (approx. Until 1933) criticized the useless school knowledge. The reviews also referred to the culture and society of the time. The critics no longer wanted to accept the separation between the school and the rest of the world. This gave rise to the demand for new forms of teaching and learning. Eight German educators Otto, Gaudig, Lietz, Petersen, Kerschensteiner, Karsen, Haase and Reichwein 8 have developed and practiced essential elements of project methodical learning. According to Frey, they did not work out the project method as their own educational approach.However, these pedagogues established new, important forms of teaching and learning with education through lively life instead of school wisdom and artificial individual knowledge, the integration of students of different ages in joint action, personality development through the realization of the wishes of the individual students (2007, p.32) and thus brought about new, important forms of teaching and learning Significant changes in German reform pedagogy Pragmatism in the USA Between 1880 and 1900 Woodward and Richards 9 transferred the term project to the university and developed the two basic forms of the project method as we still know them today. The technically oriented form was implemented thanks to Woodward at Washington University in St. Louis, the socially educational form was practiced by Richards at Teachers College, Columbia University in New York his student William Heard Kilpatrick () on the project method that exists today. Both were representatives of pragmatism 11. This movement developed in the USA ordered the theory or science of activity or practice, consequently pragmatics, under Berthold Otto, Hugo Gaudig, Hermann Lietz, Peter Petersen, Georg Kerschensteiner, Fritz Karsen, Otto Haase and Adolf Reichwein Woodward () / Richards (no information can be found) 10 The two project forms mentioned by Gudjons are shown here again (see reference to page 9, footnote 6) 11 The term pragmatism (from Greek pragma designates action, thing same development) Colloquially, behavior or actions that are based on the known circumstances and do not require a theoretical analysis and precise justification of the effects. Pragmatic action is not tied to unchangeable principles. In philosophy, it is used to describe a school of thought that was founded by Charles S. Peirce and William James and followed up by John Dewey in particular. According to pragmatism, it is the practical consequences and effects of a life-world action that determine what constitutes the meaning or the truth of concepts, statements and opinions. Human practice is also understood as a foundation of theoretical philosophy (especially epistemology and ontology), since it is assumed that theoretical knowledge also arises from the practical handling of things and remains dependent on them. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 12

13 The sense of practical action decides whether it is good or bad. Doing or practicing as educational target terms mean something like, fulfilled life in society (Frey, 2007, p.36). According to Gudjons, Dewey's understanding of the project finally contributed to the fact that the project concept was no longer understood as a method of predominantly manual work. He emphasizes three aspects in Dewey's political, philosophical and educational concept: 1. The social relevance to practice The project idea is a reaction to rapidly changing social conditions (enormous increase in industrialization, mass production, a wave of foreigners in the country, the need for social Integration of migrants, breaking traditional life patterns) (2008, p.74). Combined with this social dimension, the project idea proves that it is not just a fashion trend. Through the changing times and constantly changing society, he shows the need for young people to learn to address and solve problems that arise. This is where one of the most important features of the project method is presented, the relevance to social practice. 2. The project method and the democratic understanding The project idea is embedded in a basic understanding of democracy (2008, p.74). Dewey's main work is called Democracy and Education. He too assumes a connection and interaction between man and the environment - a parallel to Pestalozzi 12 - and sees experience as the basis of knowledge. Experience is both the way and the goal of human development. Dewey records two sides of this process: personal development through upbringing. and political advancement through democracy. Upbringing is understood in the sense of a higher development of the individual, democracy in the sense of a higher social development. Dewey and Kilpatrick were under the strong and vibrant spirit of human and civil rights in the United States. Their basic idea was: The individuals [have, note d. Ed.] The right to take their cultural, social, political and economic circumstances into their own hands and with mutual help (2008, p.74). This educational philosophy is a core element of the project method. Gudjons emphasizes that project teaching without the free, self-determined, non-hierarchical problem definition simply shrinks to a mere method and can thus be easily integrated into the classroom. With the following quote he points to a current problem in today's school landscape: Significantly, the methodological aspects of project teaching have largely determined the history of the discussion, but the implications of a democratization of the school have been neglected. Therefore, it is not only more modest, but also more factual, if see page 11 Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch page 13

14 it is not uncommon to speak of project-oriented teaching instead of project-oriented teaching. (2008, p.75) 3. Recognize and do: Through personal experience and the subsequent reflection on one's own experience, people deal with their surroundings. Knowledge enables people to change themselves and the world. Anyone who carries out projects according to Dewey or who deals with situations or problems in a learning manner also creates reality. He not only takes over reality in the form of the knowledge of others (Frey, 2007, p.36). Recognizing and doing, also known under the abbreviated educational philosophy of learning by doing, belong closely together. It is a central basis in the project method. According to Dewey, the complete act of thinking should specify the problem, design the solution, simulate the solution, understand it as logical, try it out and test it experimentally. (Frey, 2007, p.37). Kilpatrick, on the other hand, uses the formula of wholeheartedly willed, deliberate activity for the project (ibid.). He is of the opinion that especially socially problematic and subjectively strongly perceived situations stimulate action-relevant learning (ibid.). His focus in project learning was the realization of individual existence (ibid.) The work school concepts in Russia Blonskji () and Makarenko () developed important and exemplary forms of teaching and learning for the project method. Frey describes the following characteristics of her work and ideas as outstanding: productive activity as a formative element, training in the realities of the present, attempts to approximate mental and manual labor. In his pedagogical writings, which on the one hand called for a classless society and work according to the Marxian term 14, Blonskjis also harshly criticized the school system that existed at the time, because it separated culture and work. In his work he also refers to the ideas of Comenius, Pes Gudjons and Frey speak of project-oriented teaching if only a few elements are fulfilled. Frey sees his method independent of any institution. Gudjons refers to teaching. (Editor's note) 14 General definition: Work as a social-scientific-philosophical category encompasses all processes of conscious, creative interaction between people and nature and society. The meaning of these processes are the people who act in a self-determined and responsible manner with their individual needs, skills and views in the context of the current natural conditions and social working conditions. Definition according to Marx and Engels: They analyzed the work under philosophical, historical, economic and social aspects. A detailed description of the work process can be found in: Das Kapital Volume I; Fifth chapter; Work process and recovery process. Under 1. work process it says introductory: The work process is ... initially to be viewed independently of any particular social form. Work is first of all a process between man and nature, a process in which man mediates, regulates and controls his metabolism with nature through his own actions. He confronts the natural substance itself as a natural power. He sets in motion the natural forces belonging to his body, arms and legs, head and hand, in order to appropriate the natural substance in a form that is useful for his own life. By acting on nature outside of him through this movement and changing it, he changes his own nature at the same time. (Marx, 1972, p. 192 Capital I, MEW 23). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 14

15 talozzis and Froebels. He describes his view of the work education of the child as planned, organized, expedient, through which objects useful for mankind are created from given objects, namely those that have a use value (2007, p.38-39). With Blonski's statement, Frey points to a central point of the project method: The learning processes should help the students to classify into the collective. They should raise awareness of the economic dependence of the individual on the collective. Each individual must learn to obey and learn to execute (2007, p.39) From the 60s and 70s to the present day Especially in the 60s and 70s, the time of innovation, the change in favor of more open took place Forms of learning. This change took place across Europe. In the book Theory of Project Teaching, the following thesis is formulated in this regard: that the concept of project teaching is always booming when social upheavals or crisis situations lead to or challenge reforms in the education and qualification system. This thesis is supported by the fact that the development and dissemination of the project concept in American reform pedagogy (progressive education) coincides with upheavals and crises in society, as does German reform pedagogy. (Bastian, Gudjons, Schnack & Speth 1997, p.90) 15 Politicians, philosophers and educators called for fundamental reforms in education. Alternative school and educational models were developed. In the 1970s the project was considered a counterfactual idea to the prevailing conditions (Bastian et. Al., P.89). The project lessons also served as a program against the calcification of institutions and the petrification of content. He [the project lesson, editor's note. Ed.] Stood as a symbol of the hope for more democracy, greater justice and greater gain for life (Frey, 2007, p. 42) Two trends emerged between 1968 and 1974: One, under the heading of project studies, intended the reform of Study and college. The other, under the heading of project teaching or the school's project orientation, was closely related to the curriculum reform 16 and the introduction of comprehensive schools.This shows Pestalozzi's insight into the mutual relationships between social changes and attempts at pedagogical solutions (see p. 9). Dewey's work on the project method and the implementation and dissemination of the method also took place during the economic crisis (see p. 11). 16 In 1967 Saul B. Robinsohn, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin, provided the theoretical basis for independent curriculum research. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the subject of the curriculum revision in 1967 became popular through his books Education Reform as a Reform of the Curriculum and A Structural Concept for Curriculum Development. Robinsohn asks whether the curricula that were current at the time were still correct, whether they should form the basis of education for the younger generation. (2009, wikipedia). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 15

16 The years 1968 to 1974 were marked by unemployment after the post-war years had brought prosperity and a boom. And it was precisely at this time that the student strikes took place. The students of the Active Strike at Frankfurt University in particular made a significant contribution to the project discussion, as they organized their learning in so-called project groups. Their demands for a comprehensive university reform were: self-organization in study groups instead of isolated and alienated work focused on the authority of the teacher; research instead of receptive learning; mutual relation between theory acquisition and social practice outside the university (Bastian et. al., 1997, p. 94). The educational political struggles over the introduction of project teaching culminated in the debate about the structure of the teaching program. In this context, Bastian, Gudjons, Schnack and Speth point to the sustainable development of project teaching in educational institutions to this day: As with project studies, it is also characteristic here that demands for a change in the learning processes and at the same time in the organizational structures of the educational institutions are initially made by the learners but could only be enforced after being taken over by others (teachers, educational planners, curriculum developers, etc.) at the price of renouncing a completely different organization of the school. (ibid.) The student movement called for project lessons in the school. Your concern describes the following statement: The teaching must be from the central point of view of promoting the students' ability and interests to work independently (Bastian et. Al., 1997, p. 94). The restriction of the compulsory subjects, the polytechnical lessons and the replacement of the previous lessons in year classes by a project system were called for. During this time, the new theory of the curriculum began to replace the traditional curriculum concept. The curriculum development consisted primarily in the development of model modules instead of closed regulations (Bastian et al., 1997, p.95). Many publications appeared at that time on project teaching practice. These were gradually replaced by reports of practical implementations. Primarily the comprehensive schools, a numerically negligible majority among the school types, published most of the articles on implemented projects. This can be seen as evidence for the thesis that learning in projects has an affinity to reform projects in the education sector (ibid.). Meaning of the curriculum according to Prof. Dr. B. Meier: Curriculum is the representation of teaching and study processes for the purpose of influencing teaching; Curricula arise through systematic development, through deliberate design, through planning; Curriculum is the output of a curriculum development process and input of a teaching system (2009). 17 The two forms of project understanding mentioned show parallels to the two currents of university - project studies, as well as project teaching - curriculum reform - introduction of comprehensive schools (see Gudjons p. 9) Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch, page 16

17 After 1975 the project work gained a foothold in all school types and subjects, as well as in vocational training. Signs of this include the inclusion of project teaching in the curriculum and the project weeks as a new organizational framework for project learning. The revolutionary impetus that had driven the reform movement had ebbed; the comprehensive schools had consolidated, which meant that the spirit of optimism had been lost. In this situation, the concept of project weeks gave project learning a new boost (Bastian et al., 1997, p.97). These project weeks were initially more of a hobby course. However, they continued to develop, took general issues into account and turned back to demanding theoretical and specialist content (ibid.). It is the project weeks that have made project learning easier to organize. During this time, various catalogs of characteristics were developed without which serious theoretical considerations on project teaching (Bastian et al., 1997, p.99) can no longer do. The phase description of the project methods, such as Kilpatrick's four-phase model or Frey 18's most popular phase model since the 1980s, has a similar effect on theory. During this time, the interrelationship between the basic forms of teaching (Bastian et al. , 1997, p.101) recognized the project teaching as a contrast to something else (ibid.). Project teaching, with all its features, can be described as a special type of teaching (ibid.) Compared to other basic forms of teaching. 7.6 The connection to today's concepts The historical course shows the emergence of many important didactic ideas and thoughts of the project method, the project teaching. These had a lasting influence on the content of today's concepts. The form and sequence of the historical variants, on the other hand, differ considerably from today's project concepts. Three current concepts are described in the next chapter. They should show how this open form of learning can be used, which focuses and content the authors place. 7.7 The project work according to Achermann Achermann's concept project work comes from his book Making Schools with Children.He begins his description of the method with the following words: The project work educates children and teachers through the conscious experience of reality, through active intervention and reflection. Perceiving, tapping into, understanding and acting are equally geared towards learning objectives of professional competence 19, social competence 20 and learning and work competence 21 (1995, p.100) see description from page Definition of terms from Buholzer, support diagnostic vision, thinking and acting: professional competence means the ability to absorb knowledge, to process it and to transform it for further use (2006, p.109). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 17

18 Achermann builds his lessons on four modules: planned work 22, project work 23, free activity 24 and expression 25. His arguments in favor of project work are: in on-site learning. Meaning: The children learn from the direct experience of reality, through active intervention and reflection. learning out of consternation. Meaning: Learning out of consternation means that learning does not happen out of compulsion or for the curriculum. the acting experience and understanding of contexts. Significance: The project work demands and promotes a high level of holistic commitment from the learners. Achermann names an important cornerstone of project work, acting experience and understanding the relationships. Individual issues are no longer in the foreground, but topics whose diverse aspects and their interrelationships make up a system that needs to be understood and observed (1995, p.105). 20 Definition of terms from Buholzer, support diagnostic vision, thinking and acting: Social competence is shown in socially insightful action and is based on a balance between person and person, group and group as well as the individual and society. Accordingly, social competence consists in the fact that neither the individual nor the group or society exerts any coercion on the other. Rather, there is free and fair interaction among those involved. (2006, S) 21 Explanation of terms from Buholzer, support diagnostic seeing, thinking and acting: learning and work competence are also used under the term self-competence [note. d. Author] Self-competence is the ability to understand and accept oneself, to build up self-strength and self-confidence and to develop one's self-identity in the awareness of one's abilities and limits in order to be able to judge and act responsibly (Lattmann quoted from Buholzer, 2006, p .163) 22 Definition of plan work: During the basic lesson plan work, the children work on basic understanding, orientation knowledge and basic skills in mathematics and German. In connection with the other lesson modules, the application, deepening and expansion takes place as thematic lessons. Embedded in a community, the child learns to plan his learning himself, to take it by the hand and to evaluate it. It works alone, with other children, with the teacher and with the whole study group. With the help of curricula, workshops, card indexes, stimulating collections of material, and through the joint discussion of the entire learning group with a question and in projects, the children work on the curriculum's learning objectives. (Achermann, 1995, p. 53) 23 Definition of project work: See S Definition of terms Free activity: Free activity includes work, play, experiment, various types of expression, etc. Activity means all possible forms of dealing with the other person. The free activity is often described as the time in class during which the children work individually and independently according to weekly plans in the traditional departments of German and mathematics. (Achermann, 1995, p.145) 25 Explanation of terms Expression: There are many means of expression available: noises, tones and silence, the body, the design of various materials, words, signs, images and structures of all kinds. The teacher works in the sense of the basic lesson in guided expression with the children in basic techniques and skills. In thematic lessons, these are linked, expanded and deepened with the other lesson modules. A third block provides space for free expression. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 18

19 maintaining the balance between technical, personal and social skills. Significance: The learning objectives of social, personal and technical competence should be given equal consideration and should be jointly identified, worked on and checked in the various phases by the learner and the teacher. learning in the community. Significance: The project is carried out as a collaborative effort with the entire study group. Classification and subordination of personal interests, commitment in favor of a community concern and openness to topics and work that not every child has on their hit list are the demands made on the individual child (ibid.). Especially through this form of learning, the child experiences that the realization of such projects is only possible in cooperation with other people and personal experiences, shared with the community, lead to greater satisfaction with Achermann's four steps project process Abbreviations used: LP = teacher L = learner PU = Project, project teaching Didactic prerequisites: Knowledge of planned work Knowledge of freelance work for the class, learners advantageous Cooperative learning Awareness and willingness of the teacher for high (temporal) commitment Location should be determined as required, for thematic, work-related and group dynamic reasons (teachers and learners). Process content 2. Choice of topic / objective Who: What: Community, LP, L Choice of topic and internal diversification, external networking Determination of the end product / action / skill Determination of learning objectives, factual, personal and social competence Determination of the position? Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 19

20 2. Planning of location determination? Who: What: Above all LP The LP supports, coaches Determination of the work steps Work form Work equipment Time schedule Project management Determination of who procures: Information, work equipment 3. Implementation Who: Above all L The LP supports, coaches location determination? 4. Evaluation What: Who: Procure information, documents, contacts Process material End PU: Presentation of the end product / action / skill LP and L End What: Review of PU Review of the objectives for the three areas of expertise, personal and social skills Look out for Establishing and writing down the consequences for future projects Project teaching according to Gudjons His system of project steps and features is theoretically based on Dewey and his philosophy of pragmatism (Gudjons, 2008, p.77). He divides his project lessons into process, methodical implementation, implementation, termination and evaluation. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 20

21 Process in four steps Abbreviations used: LP = teacher L = learners PU = project, project lesson Process steps - topic 1. 79). 27 More detailed clarification of the content: The aim is to clarify the deficits of a previously inadequately recognized situation, to develop perspectives for action from this, which are implemented in concrete action plans in order to be able to contribute to a constructive improvement of the situation (Gujons, 2008, p. 82) . Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 21

22 Process steps - Topic 2. Together, develop a plan for solving the problem. Features of the process steps Targeted project planning Clarification of the content of the characteristics LP and L: Planning the sequence of work steps and activities. This joint planning has deeply to do with democracy, is the best preparation for a democratic society and at the same time valuable in today (emphasis added by the author, Gudjons, 2008, p.83) Self-organization, self-responsibility Distribution of tasks Creation of a schedule Final product evaluation Encouragement d. L: self-organization, self-responsibility to take responsibility d. LP: to ensure self-planning of the L during the planning Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 22

23 process steps - topic 3. Deal with the problem in an action-oriented manner. Features of the process steps Include many senses Content-related clarification of the features Action-related examination of the topic through work / practice Inclusion of the areas / senses: - Head - Feel - Hands Union of mental and physical - - Feet - Eyes - ears - nose - tongue Social learning Inclusion of social Processes in the PU Practicing democratic manners - Communication with one another - Learning from one another, with one another - Mutual consideration - Interaction in the equal learning field Process steps - Topic 4. Check the problem solution developed against reality Characteristics of the process steps Product orientation Clarification of the characteristics Publication d. Results for: Acknowledgment, assessment, criticism Product presentation: Possibility to check d. Product for learners: The product presentation gives the opportunity to check the developed possibility against reality through the sequence goal, process of product creation, result and presentation (Gudjons, 2008, p: 87). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 23

24 Product orientation Intrinsically motivated work and acquisition of multimedia-stored, memory-effective, networked knowledge: The learners are motivated to work on their self-chosen topic. You gain knowledge that, according to Gudjons, has a different quality: it is constructed differently in structure (knowledge construction), is stored in multimedia, is more effective in terms of memory, is not lazy knowledge, it is networked differently in various aspects of a thing, it is not just encyclopedic knowledge or associative knowledge, but often action-relevant knowledge that facilitates the transfer to further action, it is working knowledge, the meaning and value of which is experienced by the students and, above all, is wanted (cited by the author, 2008, p.88 ). 28 Interdisciplinarity Limits of project teaching Understanding a problem / task in a complex life context Understanding and recognizing the intersections of different specialist disciplines. Systematically ordered and planned lessons if: Learning in the natural environment is no longer sufficient to convey the experiences, knowledge and skills gained in a culture (2008, p.90) Targeted instruction phases during project lessons Deepening, supplementing, and linking what has been acquired through Other forms of teaching Methodical implementation The planning has a decisive influence on the success or failure of the project. According to Gudjons, three key points are decisive (2008, p.93): 1. The introduction of the new form of teaching in the class. See also learning psychological aspects of the project method, project teaching p. 30 Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch, p. 24

25 2. The teacher's preparatory project planning. 3. The cooperative planning phase with the class. The following flow chart shows the implementation, explains goals and possible forms of implementation in detail. Key points Objectives Possible forms of implementation 1. Introduction of the new form of teaching in the class Who: LP and L How: Letter to class from LP Suggested changes for the lesson Objective: Familiarize yourself with the characteristics and forms of work Objective: Comment and discussion by / with all participants, common understanding Role play to confession for d. New simulated teacher conference form of teaching against advocates and opponents. Important for teachers. Criticism of conventional son: Write down lessons Clarification of your own goal: Collect criticism, put your attitude in order with a wall newspaper, transform it into suggestions for change 2. Preparatory project Who: LP How: LP creates a project sketch, the teacher thinks about the following: Goal: Creation of a project - with which class / project sketch to carry out the project learning group? Project frame in the back - What is the frame thread head to keep ma? - What does the organizational framework look like? from false spontaneous collection of ideas to: taneity ideology - possible content / topics - forms of action - required materials Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 25

26 / Media Brief organizational process sketch with: Phases (planning, exploration, evaluation, presentation, reflection of the project), considerations on performance evaluation, reflection on possible deepening in specialist lessons or new projects Start for cooperative project planning with learners 3. Cooperative planning Who: L, LP 1. In small groups: L associative phase with a class on the subject of all previous knowledge / interests. Objective: - Coordination of - wall newspapers / mind map thematic aspects, on which all aspects of the compiled aspects: Project question / Topic for any project topic and question - Coordination of the inte- 2. Task d. LP: Gather all student associations and ideas of the learner into sustainable, workable topic groups, then announce the topic group to class 3. L arrange topic groups in a sensitive phase, possibly swap groups, move aspects, negotiate, give in, enforce v . Conflicts, plugging v. Disappointments Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 26

27 4. Planning of the work processes in small groups: Coordination of the small group projects to finalize the overall context Assistance from the LP through - timeline - material packages: in it basic information or individual information on various aspects - intensive processing discussions - comment on the written planning proposals of the LP group formulated their expectations regarding performance evaluation to the products of the group Submission of work process report by the L - Evt. Group discussion on individual or group services Implementation Planning and implementation flow into one another. Fixed points and meta interactions are particularly important during the implementation so that an overview and coordination of the participation are guaranteed (2008, p.100). Fixed points (planned in advance or inserted during the process): The activities are interrupted. The participants take stock of the interim results and inform each other. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 27

28 Meta-interaction: Disruptions due to uncooperative behavior, tensions, disputes, marginalization of outsiders or competition with one another are possible in project lessons. This can arise due to its structures and the given cooperation. Meta-interaction therefore means the interaction via the interaction processes (2008, p.101). Process of project steps / content Form of implementation Topic 4. Implementation Who: LP, L How: Fixed points: planned in advance or inserted in the process What: Organizational switching points to ensure a brief assessment of the overview and coordination of those involved Mutual information Discussion, coordination, variants, decisions , new ideas, help with problems What for: Avoiding hectic and blind action Communication: special opportunity to expand experience in the PU (relationship aspect, verbal / non-verbal interaction with one another, activities within the framework of the topic (subject level) see metainteraction) Master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 28

29 Meta interaction Who: especially L, LP How: Change the grouping forms in Realization What: Interaction via the in-phase (individual, partner, interaction processes, small group, plenary) in the acquisition, evaluation and presentation of information: collecting, arrange, uncover background, when: research forms of processing, document project content for example in the event of tension, present targeting-appropriate and motivating dispute solving exclusion of conflicts through outsiders three-step process: competition - what is this dispute about? Disturbances caused by un- - How do the cooperative behaviors explain the condition of the individual and group egoism explain the course of the conflict? - How do we have to deal with the conflict? Separate conversations, role play to resolve conflicts, ending, performance assessment 29, evaluation At the end, the project results are presented in different forms of presentation (e.g. hanging up posters on the pin boards, oral presentations in front of the class, the parallel class, the parents, the authorities or other target groups) shown in this scheme. It is not elaborated on as it is not relevant to this work. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 29

30 The preparation of such presentations can strengthen the learners in their competencies and take them further. Due to their optical structure, presentations require mental clarity and the reduction of information to a minimum. This visual design tool forces you to think through it again and reveals possible breaks in the argumentation, gaps in knowledge, contradictions and ambiguities in the implementation (2008, p.103). The reflection on the overall project follows the presentation. The project is concluded with the performance appraisal. Process of project steps / topic Content Form of implementation Termination Who: Teacher, parallel class, How: Different people interested in presentations, position experts, parents form how: What: When: Presentation of the work results Presentations are part of the learning process in project lessons.30 The way of teaching turns lessons into a communicative process Optical structuring reduces the number of possible aspects to a minimum Visualization increases memorization and memorization of information Conscious design of pin boards with carefully designed posters (central results visualized) Oral presentations (e.g. also in combination with pin boards ) Unfortunately, the usual practice in traditional teaching is that many written work results from pupils disappear into folders that others do not pay attention to, perceive, let alone read. Complete master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch page 30

31 Evaluation Who: L, LP coaches How: Project reports Questionnaires provide information Free forms of expression (photos, images, texts) Accountability or suggestion reports for school newspapers, teacher conferences, parents' evenings Performance assessment Who: LP, L How: Self-observation Self-examination What: Forms of process evaluation: Counseling , Feedback project diary Metacommunication phases as an intermediate reflection of the work process Take into account the teacher's share of power Previous agreement for a product 7.8 The project method according to Frey Frey describes the conception and design of his project method as new, but not developed from scratch. He uses three foundations for this (2007, pp.49-50): 1. the curriculum theory 2. historical models: He sees the closest thing to Kilpatrick because of the curricular framework. 3. His own normative ideas, pedagogical goals The author bases the conception and design of his project method on his curriculum theory. It is much more extensive than didactics in the humanities, it is not just about the different educational areas in project lessons: From the outset, it is about producing results, but also the way of teaching itself, making the lessons a communicative process. (2008, p.102) 31 Frey clearly expresses his opinion on the conditions and implementation of the project method with the following quote: The project method cannot be used arbitrarily. It is not a neutral teaching technique. It needs a certain educational environment, an educational ambience, so to speak (2007, p.31). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 31

32 should come from, but says that everything can be education. Frey expresses himself as follows: the origin of education, more precisely: the way in which what one could call an educational event or, at the end, education. Or as a formula: the quality of the generation of intended teaching and learning situations (2007, p.23) The curriculum process Interaction in a previously agreed framework, situational distance, goal orientation and specific reflection are the four essential elements of the project method. They represent the ideal curriculum process. The meaning of the four elements: 1. Interaction in a previously agreed framework: The curriculum process opens up in a situation in which a person can learn something, for example the offer of teachers for a study group. The learners are already involved in the consultation of such a starting point, exchange ideas and suggestions, and interact. Frey calls this interaction after prior agreement or simplified: within an agreed framework (2007, p.23). The participants set the framework for deciding on the project initiative and then deal with the project initiative. The step from the project outline to the project plan initiates a new phase of interaction. A review of activities, successes and problems is held at regular intervals. The common learning field is discussed and the next steps are negotiated. This is the meta-interaction. Situational distance means: given facts are viewed critically, questioned and alternatives developed, or given conditions are unreservedly affirmed after the discussion. It is the second element ... that turns everyday action into educational action (2007, p.24). The situational distance highlights many human forms of expression, such as the importance of feelings, physical activity, fantasy and interpersonal manners See component 7 on page 27 (Meta = above, after; interaction = act back and forth, argue about) Such phases contribute to this that a project is not just an everyday activity. Education emerges only when you break away from the mere routine. She needs some distance to the given situation. Distance enables education. Even more: it is a prerequisite for education; it turns action into educational action. In general curriculum theory, I refer to this action as situational distance (Frey, 2007, p.24) 33 Anyone who wants to pursue all-round human education must also allow feelings and physical expression. as education and teaching) to be further developed into curriculum theory. Only when one allows the diverse forms of human expression to also play a role in the development of learning situations can one do justice to the variability of the human being. And that is why there are excellent forces in the project method. It is a way in which the participants help create reality themselves. The learners help to develop their own learning situation. They take responsibility for their education (Frey, 2007, p.24). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 32

33 3. Goal orientation: It occupies the participants during the project initiative, the development of the project area, the meta-interaction and the final phase. An ideal curriculum process takes place in the project method. In the goal orientation, aspects such as solidarity, autonomy, responsibility and awareness of tradition of the participants are evident, consequently important educational properties.34 The three elements interaction in a previously agreed framework, situational distance, goal orientation combined in the curricular process, cause that from everyday action educational action arises. 4. Specific reflection: It often takes place together with the interaction in a previously agreed framework or the situational distance and, in the project method, takes place primarily under interactive conditions. The project process The following figure shows the ideal project process. The number in brackets corresponds to the seven components. The seven components 1. Project initiative component: A person talks about an idea, a desire to do something, an experience. This should be understood as an offer to the participants, as an open starting point. The participants clarify whether and in what form they will take up the offer. The project initiative is still without educational value. By dealing with it in a certain way and developing it into an area of ​​activity by the participants, it gradually turns into education. There is no obligation to propose pedagogically valuable content. 2. Component Dealing with the project initiative in a previously agreed framework: the participants define the framework, come to an agreement, create a basis for understanding. The second element of this phase consists in dealing with the project initiative itself, it is a negotiation process. In the positive case, the discussion can end in a project outline or end with a negative result. 3rd component joint development of the area of ​​activity: The participants express what they would like to do in detail and draw up a time budget. Central in this phase is to find out who and how, possibly why someone is doing something. It goes without saying that the agreement reached at the beginning about the dispute is particularly important here. In the project method, it is above all the procedures and the forms of action that contribute to the realization of these target orientations. Simplified: the values ​​are also in the procedure, in the how, in the method. There is not first the what, then the how, not first the didactics, then the method and not the end that justifies the means (Frey, 2007, p.25). 35 What is specific about reflection is that it detaches itself from the other three elements. She must not contradict them. This fourth element guarantees minimal awareness in the curricular process. It says that the development of learning situations consists of more than spontaneity and sheer goodwill (Frey, 2007, p.26). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 33

34 must apply. It helps to raise the debate from a level of pure balancing of interests to a level of education (2007, p.58). 4. Component activities in the area of ​​activity / project implementation: The project and the way to implement it are developed using the components mentioned above. The participants were able to work out which division of work and tasks makes sense in this project. Implementation follows in this phase. 5. Completion of the project component: There are three possible forms for the project completion: The conscious completion: This means that at the end a product is presented. The feedback to the project initiative: This includes returning to the project initiative. Reconnecting there, the participants compare the end result with the beginning in order to end with a review. letting it run out: The participants have learned an activity in the project and practice it in everyday life. The project flows enrichingly into everyday life. 6. Component fixed points: The fixed point is the remedy against blind activity, disorientation and a lack of coordination between individuals and subgroups. Since the project method stimulates informal, gradually developing activities on the one hand, it must provide help for stabilization on the other ( 2007, p. 60). The fixed point takes on this task. 7. Component meta-interaction / interim discussion: Discussion, in addition to factual and content-related questions, also about cooperation in the group, occurring or foreseeable problems. Objective: To deal with one's own actions from a distance, to check the effectiveness of the communication framework and to recognize where something could have been changed. The meta-interaction helps to turn simple action into educational action (2007, p.61). Fixed points and meta interaction occur as required in the course of the project. According to Frey, the process and components do not necessarily have to be adhered to. The decisive factor in the project method is not that at the end there is a manufactured product (theater performance, documentation, device, etc.), but that this production takes place in an educational way (2007, p.62). Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 34

35 Figure 1: From Freys die Projektverfahren, 2007, page Current developments in project teaching In many schools, the most varied forms of project teaching are implemented (project weeks, project trips, project days, and so on). However, there is little systematic research into practice. Gudjons reports on a large-scale study from Austria that shows: One to two thirds of none are real projects because they lack the essential characteristics of project learning. Overall, based on this study, the average share of project learning in total teaching is estimated at around 0.5%. Another study from Germany showed that only about 10% of the teachers had carried out a project during this time and the reality of project teaching usually lags far behind the idea (Gudjons, 2008, p.107). It is particularly important to note in this study that the implementation of projects does not depend on the external conditions that are often used to justify conventional teaching: student requirements, curricula, class size, etc. m .. It seems to be more due to certain personal characteristics of the teachers whether project lessons are carried out (cooperative teachers, teachers who are more satisfied with their jobs) (2008, p.108). After the upswing of the project method in the 1970s, its political and socially critical content, which also aroused a lot of criticism and rejection from the teachers, the basic ideas of this method could still hold up. The master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch page 35 became more and more popular

36 holistic learning, social relevance and student responsibility placed at the center of project learning. Gudjons describes two situations: On the one hand, a lack of experience with project teaching at different schools, but with openness to new things, on the other hand, a rich experience, but still great uncertainty about what real project work is. The theoretical concept work created a high level of specialist knowledge. Project teaching as a form of learning and working has established itself in many different schools. Practice led to changes in the teaching structures. According to Gudjons, for example, the increased participation of students in lesson planning, the dismantling of time rhythms, approaches to free work, cooperative forms of learning and interdisciplinary work have changed (2008, p.110). However, historical undesirable developments and misunderstandings have not yet been overcome. Gudjons points out the danger of dilution and term inflation because every course is immediately named project. The original intention of democratizing schools and society is pushed aside in favor of a socio-technologically shortened understanding (ideal today are flexible, effective, management-experienced, responsible members of society) (2008, p.110). Another aspect shows up in that the project idea is shortened to manual work. It always has to be something practical. The one-sided assumption of the natural interests of children and adolescents without the influence of the teacher (with the risk that the students mostly experience mishaps and, after a few attempts, are fed up with projects) is added (2008, p.110). Despite the expansion and establishment, there remains an inner tension for project teaching (2008, p.111). It is a lively contrast to traditional forms of teaching, widespread in practice, but also often uncritically adapted to the relevant conditions. However, instead of changing the school, he contributes to its quality assurance (ibid.). According to Gudjons, project teaching is a cumbersome, questioning, irritating form of teaching compared to the usual teaching, because it is linked to reform pedagogical and political practice. It is limited to an exceptional situation, detached from the conventional, not fundamentally revisable framework conditions of school learning (ibid.). Therefore, the focus should be on the development potential of project teaching, because the tension cannot be removed. Precisely because (emphasis by the author) it stands at right angles to the limiting organizational forms of the classic school system, one can also make its explosive power positively fruitful by promoting the internal (as well as external, emphasis by the author) school reform (ibid. ) Project teaching and social, psychological and educational aspects Social and educational aspects Today, many children and young people grow up under fundamentally changed conditions. The large families have mostly shrunk to one child families, which significantly reduces the rich social experience opportunities. Many everyday experiences, master's thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch page 36

37 such as baking bread, canning fruit, handicrafts have disappeared, especially for the children in the big city. According to Gudjons, this leads to the loss of stimulating, direct sensory experience in the active handling of things (2008, p.12). On the other hand, there is the positive development of the increasingly intensified parent-child relationship, the growing empathy and the consideration of the child's needs. The street's favorite playground has been displaced by traffic. Children and young people lose many social and cognitively stimulating stimuli, because a large part of their experiences and options for action have shifted to the children's room, playgrounds, sports facilities, kindergartens and schools. The importance of the active appropriation of the space used every day for the personal development of the child is well known. Urbanization and industrialization have fundamentally changed children's roaming areas (Gudjons, 2008, p.14). The dominance of electronic media also poses a great difficulty. Children and young people hardly experience any more immediate reality. Television and computers represent images of a constructed or existing world (ibid.). How important it is for children to experience the world through the senses and through action is mainly illustrated by the following quote: The iconic form of appropriation, in which what is represented with the eye is perceived, but does not stimulate independent thought processes, [is, note d. Ed.] An important stage in the child's development, but just a preliminary stage in the verbal-analytical form of appropriation, which requires a high degree of intellectual abilities (Gudjons 2008, p.15). Electronic media force prefabricated images and action patterns on children and young people. However, self-employment enables the children and young people to experience and personal knowledge. Planning and executing a project, experiencing one's own actions and its consequences, reflecting and interpreting the effects against the background of one's own experiences, all of this means active discussion.This develops the idea and understanding of reality. According to Gudjons, the environment dominated by electronic media makes primary experiences impossible for children and young people (2008, p.16). Figure 2: From Gudjons, Action-oriented teaching and learning, 2008, p. 17 Primary and secondary experiences of children and adolescents today. The illustration shows the course of the experiences of children and adolescents. It shows one possible way, namely action-oriented learning. Children and young people with a lack of direct experience (experiences adopted from electronic media = secondary experiences) can come to their own experiences and ideas. Action-oriented learning occurs in the various project methods and project-oriented learning. This is why this form of learning is particularly suitable. Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj- Fisch page 37

38 Further social difficulties can be seen in school fatigue, disinterest, in short, the lack of motivation for many young people to go to school. Uncertain future prospects due to possible ecological disasters, military threats or impending unemployment trigger a crisis of meaning in the young people, which calls into question the legitimacy of the school with its self-definition to prepare people for the future. When we talk about the loss of sensual experience in school, we mean this deeper problem of the loss of meaning in school, beyond the criticism of the poor blackboard-chalk-sponge pedagogy (Gudjons, 2008, p.18). Action-oriented teaching and reference to the present should make the sensual experience in school possible in the classroom in order to reduce the discrepancy between future orientation and the immediacy of experiences in the present, to bring activity, spontaneity and liveliness into the school by dealing with experience and the present to make sense for adolescents (ibid.). Project teaching is a possible form of learning that can meet these needs.Learning psychological and didactic aspects.Our brain does not simply store information in a drawer, but stores many different aspects of an event in widely scattered areas of the cerebral cortex (Gudjons, 1997, p.113) . At the same time as the individual building blocks, for example an event, the associated context is also recorded. Information is received by the receiver as an electrical, chemical signal and is only assessed and meaningful when it is linked to personal experience. This factor, as well as the distribution of the information received over many different areas of the brain, enable our brain to perform higher, more complex functions. Such services, which the brain out of itself, but about itself Master thesis by Barbara Huber Boccali and Angela Tunaj-Fisch page 38

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