How many handfuls are 30 g of grain

As simple as that

These recommended quantities and further information for a healthy diet are also contained in the 10 rules of the DGE:


1. Eat versatile

Since not every food provides all the necessary nutrients, the diet should be as varied, varied and balanced as possible. The energy supply should be adapted to the needs (see Energy Requirements: This is how much people need, PZ 06/2009) so that overweight and underweight are avoided.


2. Abundant grain products and potatoes

Grain products (if possible made from whole grains), rice, potatoes and legumes contain fiber, vitamins and minerals, but hardly any fat and cholesterol, and they are good for filling. Dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicelluloses or lignin also stimulate digestion (see glossary). Because of the higher nutrient density, whole grain products are preferable to white flour products. So black bread instead of toast, whole wheat pasta instead of light pasta. When choosing the bread, the following applies: Not only dark bread is wholesome, this also applies to a lighter bread made from ground, whole grains.


But be careful: switching to a wholesome diet can be difficult at first. An "inflated" stomach, a feeling of fullness or flatulence can occur at first if one is not used to such a diet. Therefore, you should approach the change slowly and always make sure you are drinking enough fluids.


3. Vegetables and fruits: 5 a day

The DGE recommends eating five servings of fruit and vegetables a day, some of them raw. One portion size corresponds to an individual handful. The division should be two servings of fruit (a handful for large fruits such as pears or apples, two handfuls for smaller fruits such as strawberries or currants) and three servings of vegetables (one serving of raw vegetables). That sounds like a lot, but a glass of fruit or vegetable juice with 100 percent fruit content can, for example, replace a portion of vegetables or a piece of fruit and can be drunk quickly "in between" or with main meals. For dried fruit such as prunes or dried apricots, half a handful is enough. Nuts, which botanically belong to the fruit (seed fruit), can also contribute to the »5 a day«: 25 g replace a fruit portion.


Fruit and vegetables play such a crucial role in dietary recommendations because they contain many essential ingredients. In addition to vitamins, minerals and fiber, these are also the secondary plant substances. Plants produce these colored, intensely scented or tasting substances as a defense against predators. In humans, they sometimes have health-promoting properties. Studies indicate that, for example, flavonoids can protect against cardiovascular diseases and glucosinolates against cancer (see glossary).


In order to keep the loss or destruction of the important herbal ingredients to a minimum, a portion of the vegetable should be consumed as raw food. Finely grated, it is easier to digest. But the consumption of cooked vegetables is also important, as some nutrients such as carotene can be better absorbed from them than from raw vegetables.


When choosing fruit and vegetables, the seasonal offer should always be used. If this selection turns out to be poor, frozen goods can be used instead of fresh products. Only briefly blanched, they contain almost as many nutrients as fresh produce.


4. Little animal food

Milk and milk products contain valuable ingredients such as protein and calcium. If possible, they should be consumed daily in the low-fat version. The calcium content is just as high as that of the full fat level. Sea fish should be served once or twice a week. It provides omega-3 fatty acids, iodine and selenium. Meat, sausage products and eggs are only recommended in moderation because, in addition to protein, they also contain large amounts of fat, cholesterol and purines.


5. Low fat and high fat foods

The amount of fat and its composition are important here. Fat provides almost twice as much energy as carbohydrates and therefore this nutrient should be given special attention. The daily intake should be 60 to 80 grams (maximum 1 g fat per kilogram of body weight per day). It becomes difficult to adhere to this recommendation because of the so-called "hidden fats" that are "invisible" in meat products, dairy products and baked goods, especially in finished products. The DGE therefore recommends not consuming more than 300 to 600 g of meat and sausage per week. That is, for example, three portions of meat weighing 150 g and three portions of low-fat sausage weighing 30 g per week. Low-fat cuts of meat should be preferred, such as from the upper and lower shell, fillet, or hip.


When it comes to the composition of the fats, preference should be given to vegetable fats and oils. In contrast to animal fats, they contain monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are essential for the human organism. The risk of fat metabolism disorders and cardiovascular diseases is significantly increased if there is too much saturated fatty acids contained in animal fats.


6. Sugar and salt in moderation

Sugar, sugary foods and beverages do not contain any important nutrients, they only provide "empty calories" and often whet the appetite for more. They also promote the development of caries. Therefore: consume little and seldom.


Salt should only be used sparingly and if possible in the form of iodized table salt with added fluoride. An alternative to salt is the use of fresh herbs in the kitchen.


7. Plenty of fluids

A wholesome diet is rich in fiber and this needs sufficient fluids to be effective. You should therefore drink 1.5 to 2 liters a day, preferably mineral or tap water, diluted fruit juices or unsweetened herbal teas (see glossary).


The following applies to alcohol consumption: it is allowed in moderation, but at least two alcohol-free days per week should be observed. Alcohol provides almost as much energy as fat. 300 ml of beer has 117 calories and 125 ml of wine has 89 calories. Abundant consumption leads to obesity and liver damage. In terms of quantity, up to 20 g of alcohol per day are acceptable for men, which corresponds to around 0.5 liters of beer or 0.25 liters of wine. Women have to be much more restrained: they shouldn't have more than 10 g of alcohol a day.


8. Prepare tasty and gentle

Many ingredients in food such as vitamins and minerals are sensitive in terms of preparation and storage (light, temperature, oxygen). They can be destroyed or reduced by improper processing or storage. Even after careful preparation, nutrients can be lost by keeping them warm for a long time. Therefore, the following applies: cook food briefly at low temperatures with little water or fat and, if necessary, reheat it briefly instead of keeping the food warm for a long time.


9. Time and leisure while eating

Meals should be taken calmly and not in a hectic pace, consciously and not in a hurry while standing next to the refrigerator. Time is an essential factor for satiety, as the stomach walls only register after about 20 minutes that something is in the stomach and only then does the feeling of hunger subside.


10. Keep an eye on your weight and keep moving

A healthy diet and plenty of physical exercise (around 30 to 60 minutes a day) go hand in hand. In combination, they help to achieve the right body weight. The daily energy supply should be adapted to the daily needs. In special situations such as pregnancy, breastfeeding and growth, the energy requirement is increased. But it is also important to exercise regularly and to keep moving in order to maintain your body weight.


The 10 rules of the DGE do not represent strict do's and don'ts, but allow individual leeway. They should help to eat and drink with pleasure and healthily.


Whole food nutrition according to Leitzmann goes much further than the DGE recommendations. In addition to the nutritional physiology, its definition also includes social and ecological aspects of nutrition (see additional information: Whole food nutrition according to Leitzmann).